Censorship of YouTube
Censorship of YouTube, the second-most popular website, according to Alexa Internet as of 2016, has and continues to occur in many countries throughout the world. The website can typically still be accessed through VPN or proxy servers.
- 1 General
- 2 Censorship history by country
- 2.1 Afghanistan
- 2.2 Armenia
- 2.3 Bangladesh
- 2.4 Brazil
- 2.5 China
- 2.6 Eritrea
- 2.7 Gabon
- 2.8 Germany
- 2.9 Indonesia
- 2.10 Iran
- 2.11 Libya
- 2.12 Malaysia
- 2.13 Morocco
- 2.14 North Korea
- 2.15 Pakistan
- 2.16 Russia
- 2.17 Syria
- 2.18 Sudan
- 2.19 South Sudan
- 2.20 Tajikistan
- 2.21 Thailand
- 2.22 Turkey
- 2.23 Turkmenistan
- 2.24 United Arab Emirates
- 3 References
- 4 External links
- Limiting public exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest;
- Preventing criticism of a ruler, government, government officials, religion, or religious leaders;
- Violations of national laws, including:
- Preventing access to videos judged to be inappropriate for youth;
- Reducing distractions at work or school; and
- Reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.
In some countries YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.
As of September 2012, countries with standing national bans on YouTube include China, Iran, Pakistan, Syria, and Turkmenistan. YouTube is also mostly blocked in Germany from YouTube's side due to disputes between GEMA and YouTube over royalties.
YouTube's Terms of Service prohibit the posting of videos which violate copyrights or depict pornography, illegal acts, gratuitous violence, or hate speech. User-posted videos that violate such terms may be removed and replaced with a message stating: "This video is no longer available because its content violated YouTube's Terms of Service".
Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site’s inevitable potential for distraction.
Censorship history by country
On September 12, 2012 YouTube was blocked in Afghanistan in response to the controversial film about Muhammad, Innocence of Muslims, which the country considered blasphemous. YouTube was unblocked in Afghanistan on December 1, 2012.
Following the disputed February 2008 presidential elections, the Armenian government blocked Internet users access to YouTube for a month. The Armenian opposition had used the website to publicize video of police and military brutality carried out against anti-government protestors.
In March 2009, YouTube was blocked in Bangladesh after a recording of a meeting between the prime minister and army officers was posted revealing anger by the military on how the government was handling a mutiny by border guards in Dhaka. The block was lifted on March 21.
On September 17, 2012, YouTube was banned for the second time following the controversies regarding the promotional videos for Innocence of Muslims.
On June 5, 2013, the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission lifted the ban.
YouTube was sued by Brazilian model and MTV VJ Daniella Cicarelli, (the ex-fiancée of footballer Ronaldo) and her boyfriend on the grounds that the site makes available video footage made by a paparazzo in which she and her boyfriend are having sex on a Spanish beach. The video was not explicit. The lawsuit asked that YouTube be blocked in Brazil until all copies of the video are removed. On Saturday, January 6, 2007, a legal injunction ordered that filters be put in place to prevent users in Brazil from accessing the website.
The effectiveness of the measure was questioned, since the video is available not only on YouTube, but also on other sites as part of an Internet phenomenon. On Tuesday, January 9, 2007, the same court overturned its previous decision, allowing the filters to be removed. The video footage itself remained banned and was to be removed from the website.
In June 2007, a judge ordered Cicarelli and her boyfriend to pay all court and lawyer costs, as well as R$10,000 (roughly US $3,203) to the three defendants, YouTube, Globo, and iG, citing a lack of good faith in pushing the privacy case when their actions took place in public.
It was blocked again from March 24, 2009, although a Foreign Ministry spokesperson would neither confirm nor deny whether YouTube had been blocked. Since then, YouTube is not accessible from China. However, YouTube can still be accessed in Hong Kong and Taiwan.
A few days after the restriction of internet access when most people in Gabon can't surf on social medias and App Store/Play Store (especially to download VPN apps), YouTube was blocked since September 8, 2016 by the government; the reason may be due to government preservation and media control in response to violence after the post electoral results, although it is accessible by a lot of means.
The blocking of YouTube videos in Germany is part of an ongoing dispute between the video sharing platform YouTube and the Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte (Society for Musical Performing and Mechanical Reproduction Rights - GEMA), a performance rights organisation in Germany.
According to a German court in Hamburg, Google's subsidiary YouTube can be held liable for damages when it hosts copyrighted videos without the copyright holder's permission. As a result, music videos for major label artists on YouTube, as well as many videos containing background music, have been unavailable in Germany since the end of March 2009 after the previous agreement had expired and negotiations for a new license agreement were stopped. On October 31, 2016, YouTube and GEMA reached an agreement over royalties, ending a seven-year-long battle of blocking Music videos in Germany.
On April 1, 2008, Indonesian information minister Muhammad Nuh, asked YouTube to remove Fitna, a controversial film made by Dutch right-wing politician Geert Wilders. The government allowed two days for the removal of the video or YouTube would be blocked in the country. On April 4, Nuh asked all Internet service providers to block access to YouTube. On April 5, YouTube was blocked for testing by one ISP. Finally, on April 8 YouTube, along with MySpace, Metacafe, RapidShare, Multiply, Liveleak, and Fitna's official site, were blocked in Indonesia. YouTube's ban was lifted on April 10. There may still have been some blocking in May 2008 according to local inhabitants.
On December 3, 2006, Iran blocked YouTube, along with several other sites, after declaring them "immoral". The block came after a video was posted online that appears to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex. The block was later lifted and then reinstated after the 2009 Iranian presidential election. In 2012, Iran reinstated the block, along with Google, after the trailer for the Innocence of Muslims was released on YouTube. YouTube remains blocked in Iran.
On January 24, 2010, Libya permanently blocked YouTube after it featured videos of demonstrations in the Libyan city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, as well as videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi at parties. The ban was condemned by Human Rights Watch. In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube was once again allowed in Libya.
In May 2013, videos critical of the Malaysian government were blocked despite the government's promises not to censor the internet. Analysis of the network traffic shows that the ISP were scanning the headers of the users and actively blocking requests to the YouTube video according to the video key.
On May 25, 2007, the state-owned Maroc Telecom blocked all access to YouTube. There were no reasons given as to why YouTube was blocked, but speculations are that it may have been due to videos posted by the pro-separatist Polisario, Western Sahara's independence movement, or due to videos criticizing King Mohammed VI. The government ban did not concern the other two private Internet providers, Wana and Méditel. YouTube became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch".
YouTube is blocked in North Korea because of the country's laws regarding the Internet, and its accessibility. It is fully blocked since April 2016; anyone who tries to access it, even with authorization, will be subject to punishment.
In February 22, 2008, YouTube was blocked in Pakistan following a decision taken by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority because of the number of "non-Islamic objectionable videos". One report specifically named Fitna, a controversial Dutch film, as the basis for the block. Pakistan, an Islamic republic, ordered its ISPs to block access to "for containing blasphemous web content/movies". Blasphemy law in Pakistan calls for life imprisonment or death. This followed increasing unrest in Pakistan by over the reprinting of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons which depict satirical criticism of Islam. Router misconfiguration by one Pakistani ISP on February 24, 2008 effectively blocked YouTube access worldwide for several hours. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government.
It has been suggested by some Pakistani web sites, blogs, and by electoral process watchdog groups that the block was imposed largely to distract viewers from videos alleging vote-rigging by the ruling MQM party in the February 2008 general elections. Allegations of suppressing vote-rigging videos by the Musharraf administration were also leveled by Pakistani bloggers, newspapers, media, and Pakistani anti-Musharraf opposition parties.
On May 20, 2010, on Everybody Draw Mohammed Day Pakistan again blocked the website in a bid to contain "blasphemous" material. The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims that are posted on YouTube will continue to be blocked.
On September 17, 2012, the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) ordered access to YouTube blocked, after the website did not remove the trailer of Innocence of Muslims, a film insulting Islam and eventually resulting in a ban due to YouTube's non compliance.
Bytes for All, a Pakistani non-profit organization, filed a constitutional challenge to the ban through their counsel Yasser Latif Hamdani in the Lahore High Court. This is an ongoing case and is commonly known as the YouTube case.
On December 11, 2013, it was announced by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority that they have convinced Google's management to offer a local "youtube.com.pk" version to Pakistan, as it will be easy for the local authorities to remove "objectionable" material from a local version as compared to the global version of YouTube. However, it will be offered only after the Pakistani government fulfills some of the undisclosed requirements.
During the ban a video was released called "Kholo BC" by rappers Adil Omar and Ali Gul Pir opposing the ban. The video went viral and thousands of people supported that the ban is due to political interest.
On April 21, 2014, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Human Rights approved a resolution to lift the ban on YouTube.
On 6 May 2014, the National Assembly unanimously adopted a non-binding resolution to lift the ban, but as of 2 August 2014 it was still in effect. [needs update]. The ban was lifted due to technical glitch on December 6, 2015 according to ISPs in Pakistan.
As of January 18, 2016, the ban has been lifted officially, as YouTube launched a local version of the site for Pakistan.
The video claiming responsibility for the 2010 Moscow Metro bombings, which claimed 800,000 viewers in four days, was removed, along with all videos of Doku Umarov. Additionally, it turned out that over 300 videos from the Kavkaz Center were removed for having "inappropriate content." Russia was blamed for having pressured YouTube to take such measures.
On July 28, 2010, a court in the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur ordered a local ISP to block access to youtube.com, web.archive.org, and several other websites offering books for downloads, citing extremist materials as the reason. The order was not enforced and was later reversed.
The Sudanese authorities blocked YouTube on April 21, 2010, following the recent presidential elections, and also blocked YouTube's owner Google. The block was in response to a YouTube video showing National Electoral Commission workers in official uniforms and a child in the Hamashkoreib region filling out voting strips and putting them into ballot boxes, with one of them expressing relief that the voting period had been extended for them to finish their work. Sudan had previously blocked YouTube temporarily in 2008 for unknown reasons.
On September 17, 2012, YouTube was banned again by National Telecommunication Corporation for not removing Innocence of Muslims, a controversial anti-Islamic film. Until the film is removed from YouTube, the site will continue to be blocked in Sudan.
In July 2012, the Tajik authorities blocked YouTube in response to uploaded videos showing protests against militant clashes. Eight days later, the ban was lifted.
In the end of 2016 YouTube was not accessible from Tajikistan.
In 2006, Thailand blocked access to YouTube for users with Thai IP addresses. Thai authorities identified 20 offensive videos and demanded that Google remove them before it would allow unblocking of all YouTube content.
During the week of March 8, 2007, YouTube was blocked in Thailand. Many bloggers believed the reason for the blocking was a posted video of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra's speech on CNN. The government did not confirm or provide reasons for the ban. YouTube became accessible again on March 10, 2007.
On the night of April 3, 2007, YouTube was again blocked in Thailand. The government cited a video on the site that it called "insulting" to King Bhumibol Adulyadej. However, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology claimed that it would unblock YouTube in a few days, after websites containing references to this video are blocked instead of the entire website. Communications Minister Sitthichai Pokai-udom said, "When they decide to withdraw the clip, we will withdraw the ban." Shortly after this incident the Internet technology blog Mashable was blocked from Thailand over the reporting of the YouTube clips in question. YouTube was unblocked on August 30, 2007, after YouTube reportedly agreed to block videos deemed offensive by Thai authorities.
On September 21, 2007, Thai authorities announced they were seeking a court order to block videos that had recently appeared on YouTube accusing Privy Council president Prem Tinsulanonda of attempting to manipulate the royal succession to make himself Thailand's king.
Turkish courts have ordered blocks on access to the YouTube website. This first occurred when Türk Telekom blocked the site in compliance with decision 2007/384 issued by the Istanbul 1st Criminal Court of Peace (Sulh Ceza Mahkeme) on March 6, 2007. The court decision was based on videos insulting Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in an escalation of what the Turkish media referred to as a "virtual war" of insults between Greek, Armenian and Turkish YouTube members. YouTube was sued for "insulting Turkishness" and access to the site was suspended pending the removal of the video. YouTube lawyers sent proof of the video's removal to the Istanbul public prosecutor and access was restored on March 9, 2007. However, other videos similarly deemed insulting were repeatedly posted, and several staggered bans followed, issued by different courts:
- the Sivas 2nd Criminal Court of Peace on September 18, 2007 and again (by decision 2008/11) on January 16, 2008;
- the Ankara 12th Criminal Court of Peace on January 17, 2008 (decision 2008/55);
- the Ankara 1st Criminal Court of Peace on March 12, 2008 (decision 2008/251);
- the Ankara 11th Criminal Court of Peace on April 24, 2008 (decision 2008/468).
- the Ankara 5th Criminal Court of Peace on April 30, 2008 (decision 2008/599);
- again, the Ankara 1st Criminal Court of Peace on May 5, 2008 (decision 2008/402);
- again, the Ankara 11th Criminal Court of Peace on June 6, 2008 (decision 2008/624).
- again, based on "administrative measures" without court order following corruption scandal, relating several governmental officials including Prime Minister Erdogan on March 27, 2014
The block in accordance with court decision 2008/468 of the Ankara 11th Criminal Court of Peace issued on April 24, 2008, which cited that YouTube had not acquired a certificate of authorisation in Turkey, was not implemented by Türk Telekom until May 5, 2008.
Although YouTube was officially banned in Turkey, the website was still accessible by modifying connection parameters to use alternative DNS servers, and it was the eighth most popular website in Turkey according to Alexa records. Responding to criticisms of the courts' bans, in November 2008 the Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated "I do access the site. Go ahead and do the same."
In June 2010, Turkey's president Abdullah Gül used his Twitter account to express disapproval of the country's blocking of YouTube, which also affected access from Turkey to many Google services. Gül said he had instructed officials to find legal ways of allowing access.
Turkey lifted the ban on October 30, 2010. In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video.
On March 27, 2014, Turkey banned YouTube again. This time, they did so mere hours after a video was posted there claiming to depict Turkey's foreign minister, spy chief and a top general discussing scenarios that could lead to their country's military attacking jihadist militants in Syria. The ban was ordered lifted by a series of court rulings, starting April 9, 2014, but Turkey defied the court orders and kept access to YouTube blocked. On 29 May the Constitutional Court of Turkey ruled that the block violated the constitutional right to freedom of expression and ordered that YouTube access be restored.
As of the morning of June 1, 2014, access to YouTube remained blocked in Turkey. But during the day, access appeared to have been restored.
On 6 April 2015, YouTube was again briefly blocked, alongside Facebook and Twitter, due to the widespread posting of the a slained prosecutor during a hostage crisis.
On 23 December 2016 YouTube again became briefly inaccessible in Turkey according to reports validated by internet monitoring group Turkey Blocks after footage that allegedly showed the immolation of Turkish soldiers by jihadists was shared on the site. The site was again accessible on the 25th of December.
The UAE's telecom regulatory authority blocked YouTube in August 2006. This ban was later lifted[when?], and YouTube is now available all across the United Arab Emirates, but with the Etisalat ISP in the UAE citing "presence of adult content on the website which is clearly against the religious, cultural, political and moral values of the UAE".
- "youtube.com Traffic Stats", Alexa. Retrieved September 24, 2012
- "YouTube Censored: A Recent History", Open Net Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2012
- "YouTube Community Guidelines". YouTube. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- "Afghanistan bans YouTube to block anti-Muslim film", Miriam Arghandiwal, Reuters (Kabul), September 12, 2012
- "Afghanistan to unblock Youtube - AFGHANISTAN TIMES" Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., 1s December 2012
- "Armenia: Samizdat & the Internet", Global Voices Advocacy, March 8, 2008
- "YouTube Blocked in Armenia?", Google Blogoscoped, March 10, 2008
- "Bangladesh imposes YouTube block". BBC News. March 9, 2009.
- "Bangladesh Blocks Access to YouTube". OpenNet Initiative. March 22, 2009. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- "YouTube blocked in Bangladesh over Prophet Mohamed video", The Independent (AP), September 18, 2012
- "Bangladesh lifts ban on YouTube, blocked after anti-Islam film". Yahoo! News. June 5, 2013. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Haines, Lester (January 4, 2007). "Brazilian court orders YouTube shutdown: Model obtains injunction over beach sex romp vid" (in Portuguese). The Independent. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- "Brazil court revises ban on YouTube over sex video", Reuters (São Paulo), January 9, 2007
- "YouTube Wins Brazilian Court Case", Doug Caverly, Web Pro News, June 29, 2007
- Schwankert, Steven. "YouTube blocked in China; Flickr, Blogspot restored", IDG News, October 18, 2007. Retrieved March 3, 2008
- Graham Webster (March 22, 2008). "YouTube unblocked in China, but could Google have cooperated?". cnet news.
- "YouTube blocked in China", CNN, March 25, 2009
- "China blocks access to Bloomberg and Businessweek sites", BBC News, June 29, 2012
- Liebelson, Dana (28 March 2016). "Here are the countries that block Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube". Mother Jones. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Frederic Lardinois (September 3, 2010). "YouTube Loses in German Court: Held Liable for Copyrighted Videos". Readwriteweb.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- "Indonesia Seeks to Block YouTube Over Anti-Koran Film". Jakarta. Reuters. April 2, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2008.
- Wicaksono Hidayat (April 4, 2008). "Menkominfo 'Ultimatum' ISP Blokir YouTube ( MCIT 'Ultimatum' ISPs Block YouTube)". detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved April 4, 2008. (English translation)
- Dewi Widya Ningrum (April 5, 2008). "YouTube Terblokir karena 'Ulah' Satu ISP (YouTube Blocked by 'tantrum' One ISP)". detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved April 4, 2008. (English translation)
- Dewi Widya Ningrum (April 8, 2008). "Speedy Blokir 7 Situs, Pengusaha Kecil Mulai Menjerit! (Speedy Block 7 Websites, Small Business Start Screaming!)". detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved April 8, 2008. (English translation)
- Indonesia restores access to YouTube Web site, Mita Valina Liem, Sugita Katayal, and Bill Tarrant, Reuters, April 11, 2008
- Tait, Robert (November 4, 2006). "Censorship fears rise as Iran blocks access to top websites". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 17, 2006.
- "Mobile phones, Facebook, YouTube cut in Iran". Tehran. AFP. June 13, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- "Iran blocks YouTube, Google over Mohammed video". CNN.com. September 24, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- "Recent and ongoing disruptions of traffic to Google products". Google Transparency Report. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- "Watchdog urges Libya to stop blocking websites", AFP, February 4, 2010
- "Libya", Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012
- GE13 Censorship of Online Media in Malaysia
- "China Style censorship blocking KiniTV videos". Malaysia Kini. May 2, 2013.
- Sami Ben Gharbia (May 26, 2007). "Morocco blocks access to YouTube". Global Voices Online. Retrieved May 27, 2007.
- "YouTube again accessible via Maroc Telecom". Reporters Without Borders. May 30, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.[permanent dead link]
- "North Korea blocks Facebook, Twitter and YouTuber". Associated Press. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Access to YouTube blocked until further notice because of "non-Islamic" videos", Reporters Without Borders, February 27, 2008.
- "Pakistan blocks YouTube website", BBC News, February 24, 2008
- "Pakistan blocks YouTube for 'blasphemous' content: officials". Islamabad: Google. AFP. February 24, 2008. Retrieved September 18, 2012. Retrieved October 2014
- "Why Youtube Is Blocked And How To Unblock YouTube", Mughees Ahmed, F4U Online Courses, 4 August 2013.
- "Pakistan move knocked out YouTube". CNN.com (Asia). Natalie Bookchin (bookchin.net). February 25, 2008. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "Pakistan lifts YouTube ban". ABC News (Australia). AFP. February 26, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
- "Vote Rigging Videos in Karachi – could this be why YouTube is blocked?", Awab Alvi, Teeth Maestro blog, February 22, 2008
- "Musharraf’s Inquisition: Reason Why YouTube Was Blocked In Pakistan", Farrukh Khan Pitafi, Blogger News Network, February 24, 2008
- "Old and New Media: Converging During the Pakistan Emergency (March 2007-February 2008)", Huma Yusuf, MIT Center for Future Civic Media, February 9, 2009
- Walsh, Declan (May 20, 2010). "Pakistan blocks YouTube access over Muhammad depictions". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- "YouTube ban lifted by Pakistan authorities", Joanne McCabe, Metro (Associated Newspapers Limited, UK), May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2012
- "Pakistan lifts ban on YouTube", The Times of India, May 27, 2010
- "YouTube blocked in Pakistan", Hayley Tsukayama, Washington Post, September 17, 2012
- David, Robin (July 13, 2013). "Surf war". Times of India. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
- "Viral music video fights Pakistan's YouTube ban - BBC News" (video), Adil Omar, BBC News via YouTube, 12 March 2014.
- "#KholoBC - Ali Gul Pir x Adil Omar" (video), Ali Gul Pir and Adil Omar, InCahoots Films via YouTube, 24 February 2014.
- "Pakistan senate panel on Human Rights revokes ban on YouTube". IANS. Bihar Prabha. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "resolution calls for end to YouTube ban", Daily Times, 7 May 2014.
- "Pakistani authorities say ban on YouTube can't be lifted", PTI, The Economic Times, 2 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "YouTube accessible in Pakistan by mistake". 6 December 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Kavkaz Center (May 4, 2010). "YouTube could not bear Dokku Umarov". YouTube – The Internet's Primary and Rapidly Expanding Jihadi Base: Part II, item 3. Middle East Media Research Institute. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- "", Tom Parfitt, The Guardian, July 29, 2010
- "Russia: The First Case of YouTube Ban ", Alexey Sidorenko, Global Voices Online, August 6, 2010
- "Another Internet censuring attempt fails: Russians win YouTube back", RT TV (TV-Novosti), September 3, 2010
- "Syria goes mostly offline as protests intensify", Rebekah Heacock, OpenNet Initiative, June 3, 2011
- "Sudan reportedly blocks YouTube over electoral fraud video". Sudan Tribune. Khartoum. April 21, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- "Tajikistan blocks YouTube - News - European Forum - for Democracy and Solidarity". Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Tajikistan Blocks YouTube After Video Of Dancing President Goes Viral". Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Rosen, Jeffrey (November 28, 2008). "Google's Gatekeepers". The New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
- "YouTube blocked in Thailand". 2Bangkok. March 10, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2007.
- "YouTube ถูกไอซีทีบล็อก (อีกแล้ว) (YouTube Blocked Again)". Freedom Against Censorship Thailand. April 4, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2007. (English translation)
- "Two more clips mocking Thai king appear on YouTube", Nopporn Wong-Anan, Reuters, April 6, 2007
- "Thailand bans YouTube over videos insulting king", Wikinews, April 6, 2007
- "YouTube to help block web access to pages insulting King". Bankok Post. April 7, 2007.[dead link]
- Thomas Fuller (April 5, 2007). "Thailand Bans YouTube". New York Times.
- "Whose Tube?". The Economist. April 12, 2004. p. 71. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
- Cashmore, Pete (April 18, 2004). "Mashable.com Banned in Thailand". Mashable.
- "Ban on YouTube lifted after deal". The Nation. August 31, 2007.
- "Thailand wants to block more YouTube video clips", AFP, September 22, 2007
- Zeller Jr., Tom (March 7, 2007). "YouTube Banned in Turkey After Insults to Ataturk". The New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "YouTube broadcasts Greek marches full of hatred toward Turks", Hasan Haci, Today's Zaman, March 6, 2007
- "Update on Turkey bans YouTube: all a 'you're a fag' flame war?", Xeni Jardin, Boing Boing, March 7, 2007
- "Turkey pulls plug on YouTube over Ataturk 'insults'". The Guardian. AP. March 7, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- Jaafar, Ali (March 8, 2007). "Turkey bans YouTube". Variety. Retrieved March 10, 2007.
- "Turkey revokes YouTube ban". The Age. AFP. March 10, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2007.
- "YouTube banned in Turkey once again". Wikinews. January 19, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
- "Turkey report", Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012
- "Erdoğan: Ben YouTube’a giriyorum, siz de girin" (Erdogan: I'm going to YouTube, you do the same), NTV MSNBC, November 21, 2008. (English translation)
- "Turkish president uses Twitter to condemn YouTube ban". The Guardian. Associated Press (Ankara). June 11, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Hudson, Alexandra (October 30, 2010). "Turkey lifts its ban on YouTube-agency". Reuters.
- Champion, Marc (November 2, 2010). "Turkey Reinstates YouTube Ban". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- Lutz, Meris (November 4, 2010). "Turkey: YouTube banned, again, over sex-scandal video". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- Parkinson, Joe (March 27, 2014). "Turkey Blocks YouTube". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Apr 10 (April 10, 2014). "Turkey keeps YouTube block despite court rulings". Reuters. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- Gianluca Mezzofiore (May 6, 2014). "Ankara Court Orders Lifting of YouTube Ban". International Business Times. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- "Turkish court orders YouTube access to be restored". BBC News. May 29, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- "Youtube still blocked in Turkey despite top court verdict". The Daily Star (Lebanon). AFP. June 1, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- "RIGHTS - Turkey's fresh ban pushes social media giants to remove content". Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Social media shutdowns in Turkey after ISIS releases soldier video". Turkey Blocks. 2016-12-23. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- "Turkey briefly restricts internet after release of IS video". AP News. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- "Turkmenistan: YouTube and LiveJournal are blocked". Moscow: Ferghana News. December 25, 2009. Retrieved December 25, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- YouTube block remains, Matthew Wade, ITP.net, August 17, 2006.
- Salih Sarıkaya (17 October 2014). "Censorship of YouTube in Turkey: What does it mean?".
- YouTube Censored: A recent History by the OpenNet Initiative: an interactive map that shows a rough history of YouTube censorship since 2006.
- "Free Speech in the Age of YouTube" in the New York Times, September 22, 2012
- Google Transparency Report