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History of YouTube

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YouTube logo

YouTube is an American online video-sharing platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries.

YouTube allows users to upload videos, view them, rate them with likes and dislikes, share them, add videos to playlists, report, make comments on videos, and subscribe to other users. It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos.

As of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, and one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of October 2020, YouTube is the second-most popular website in the world, behind Google, according to Alexa Internet.[1] As of May 2019, more than 500 hours of video content are uploaded to YouTube every minute.[2] Based on reported quarterly advertising revenue, YouTube is estimated to have US$15 billion in annual revenues.

YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos,[3] its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods,[4] hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters,[5] videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections,[6] and fluctuating policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with advertising.[3]

Timeline of events
2005July – Video HTML embedding
July – Top videos page
August – 5-star rating system
October – Playlists
October – Full-screen view
October – Subscriptions
2006January – Groups function
February – Personalized profiles
March – 10-minute video limit
April – Directors function
May – Video responses
May – Cell phone uploading
June – Further personalized profiles
June – Viewing history
2007June – Local language versions
June – Mobile web front end with RTSP streaming
2008March – 480p videos
March – Video analytics tool
December – Audioswap
2009January – Google Videos uploading halted
June – Launch of "YouTube XL" front end for television sets
July – 720p videos
November – 1080p videos
December – Automatic speech recognition
December – Vevo launch
2010March – "Thumbs" rating system
July – 4K video
2011November – YouTube Analytics
November – Feature film rental
2012March – Seek bar preview tooltips
June – Merger with Google Video
2013March – Transition to the "One" channel layout
September – Removal of video reponses feature
2014October – 60 fps videos
2015March – 360° videos
November – YouTube Red launches
2016February – YouTube subscription service
2017February – YouTube TV launches
March – Ability to modify video annotations removed
August – Logo changed and new "polymer" website version defaulted (preselected)
2018June – Introduction of "Premieres"
2019January – Removal of annotations and AutoShare features
September – Visisble subscriber counts abbreviated to three leading digits
2020Removal of option for legacy website version ("disable_polymer")
Removal of legacy "Creator Studio"
August – Removal of optional email notifications for uploads
2021Purge of pre-2017 unlisted videos through mass-privatization.

Founding (2005)

From left to right: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim.

YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, when they worked for PayPal.[7] Prior to working for PayPal, Hurley studied design at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.[8] YouTube's initial headquarters was above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.[9]

Approximate representation of the site as it appeared a few months after its launch (archived by the Wayback Machine).[10]

The domain name "YouTube.com" was activated on February 14, 2005, with video upload options being integrated on April 23, 2005, after being named "Tune In, Hook Up" ─ the original idea of Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim. The concept was an online dating service that ultimately failed but had an exceptional video and uploading platform.[11] After the infamous Justin Timberlake and Janet Jackson Halftime show incident, the three creators realized they couldn't find any videos of it on the internet, after noticing that this type of platform did not exist they made the changes to become the first major video sharing platform.[12] The idea of the new company was for non-computer experts to be able to use a simple interface that allowed the user to publish, upload and view streaming videos through standard web browsers and modern internet speeds. Ultimately, creating an easy to use video streaming platform that wouldn't stress out the new internet users of the early 2000s.[13] The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo and currently has over 120 million views and almost 5 million likes.[14][15] Hurley was behind more of the looks of the website, he used his art skills to create the logo and designed the look of the website.[16] Chen made sure the page actually worked and that there would be no issues with the uploading and playback process. Karim was a programmer and helped in making sure the initial website got put together properly and helped in both design and programming.[16]

YouTube began as an angel-funded enterprise working from a makeshift office in a garage. In November 2005, venture firm Sequoia Capital invested an initial $3.5 million,[17] and Roelof Botha (a partner of the firm and former CFO of PayPal) joined the YouTube board of directors. In April 2006, Sequoia and Artis Capital Management invested an additional $8 million in the company, which had experienced significant growth in its first few months.[18]

Growth (2006)

After opening on a beta service in May 2005 YouTube.com was trafficking around 30,000 viewers a day in just months of time. After launching six months later they would be hosting well over two million viewers a day on the website. By March 2006 the site had more than 25 million videos uploaded and was generating around 20,000 uploads a day.[19] During the summer of 2006, YouTube was one of the fastest growing sites on the World Wide Web,[20] hosting more than 65,000 new video uploads. The site delivered an average of 100 million video views per day in July.[21] However, this did not come without any problems, the rapid growth in users meant YouTube had to keep up with it technologically speaking. They needed new equipment and wider broadband internet connection to serve an ever growing audience. The increasing copyright infringement problems and lack in commercializing YouTube eventually led to outsourcing to Google who later failed in their own video platform "Google Video".[19] It was ranked the fifth-most-popular website on Alexa, far out-pacing even MySpace's rate of growth.[22] The website averaged nearly 20 million visitors per month according to Nielsen/NetRatings,[21] with around 44% female and 56% male visitors. The 12- to 17-year-old age group was dominant.[23] YouTube's pre-eminence in the online market was substantial. According to the website Hitwise.com, YouTube commanded up to 64% of the UK online video market.[24]

YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006.[25]

Purchase by Google (2006)

The first targeted advertising on the site came in February 2006 in the form of participatory video ads, which were videos in their own right that offered users the opportunity to view exclusive content by clicking on the ad.[26] The first such ad was for the Fox show Prison Break and solely appeared above videos on Paris Hilton's channel.[26][27] At the time, the channel was operated by Warner Bros. Records and was cited as the first brand channel on the platform.[27] Participatory video ads were designed to link specific promotions to specific channels rather than advertising on the entire platform at once. When the ads were introduced, in August 2006, YouTube CEO Chad Hurley rejected the idea of expanding into areas of advertising seen as less user-friendly at the time, saying, "we think there are better ways for people to engage with brands than forcing them to watch a commercial before seeing content. You could ask anyone on the net if they enjoy that experience and they’d probably say no."[27] However, YouTube began running in-video ads in August 2007, with preroll ads introduced in 2008.[28]

On October 9, 2006, it was announced that the company would be purchased by Google for US$1.65 billion in stock, which was completed on November 13. At that time it was Google's second-largest acquisition.[29] This kickstarted YouTube's rise to becoming a global media dominator, creating a multi-billion-dollar business that has surpassed most television stations and other media markets, sparking success for many YouTubers.[13] Indeed, YouTube as an entity generated more than twice the amount of revenues in 2018 than any major TV network (with $15 billion compared to NBC's $7 billion).[30] The agreement between Google and YouTube came after YouTube presented three agreements with media companies in an attempt to avoid copyright-infringement lawsuits. YouTube planned to continue operating independently, with its co-founders and 68 employees working within Google.[31] Viral videos were the main factor for YouTube's growth in the beginning of its early days with Google, for example Evolution of Dance, Charlie Bit My Finger, David After the Dentist, and more viral videos.[32]

Google's February 7, 2007 SEC filing revealed the breakdown of profits for YouTube's investors after the sale to Google. In 2010, Chad Hurley's profit was more than $395 million while Steve Chen's profit was more than $326 million.[33]

Person of the year (2006)

In 2006, Time Magazine featured a YouTube screen with a large mirror as its annual 'Time Person Of The Year'. It cited user-created media such as that posted on YouTube and featured the site's originators along with several content creators. The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times also reviewed posted content on YouTube in 2006, with particular regard to its effects on corporate communications and recruitment. PC World Magazine named YouTube the ninth of its Top 10 Best Products of 2006.[34] In 2007, both Sports Illustrated and Dime Magazine featured positive reviews of a basketball highlight video titled, The Ultimate Pistol Pete Maravich MIX.[35]

Continued growth and functionality (2007–2013)

YouTube's current headquarters in San Bruno, California
YouTube's current headquarters in San Bruno, California (2010 to present)

It is estimated that in 2007, YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.[36]

YouTube's early website layout featured a pane of currently watched videos, as well as video listings with detailed information such as full (2006) and later expandable (2007) descriptions, as well as profile pictures (2006), ratings, comment counts, and tags.[37][38] Channels' pages were equipped with standalone view counters, bulletin boards, and were awarded badges for various rank-based achievements, such as "#15 - Most Subscribed (This Month)", "#89 - Most Subscribed (All Time)", and "#15 - Most Viewed (This Week)".[39]

In March 2007, YouTube launched the YouTube Awards, an annual competition in which users voted on the best user-generated videos of the year.[40] The awards were presented twice, in 2007 and 2008. Video contests with prizes existed as early as December 2005, possibly earlier.[41][42]

At "youtube.com/browse", there were various web feeds, including a list of the videos most recently videos to the site, suggesting an upload rate of approximately two videos per minute as of April 2007.[43] Other feeds included the most viewed, highest rated, most discussed, most "favourited", most backlinked, staff picks, videos with most video responses, and "Watch on mobile". Some feeds could be filtered by categories including but not limited to "Autos & Vehicles", "Music", "News & Politics", "People & Blogs", "Travel & Places", and feeds except "Most recent" (where inapplicable) could be filtered by time range ("Today", "This week", "This month", "All time"). An uncaptioned Verizon Wireless logo resided on the "Watch on mobile" feed, suggesting a partnership.[44]

In June 2007, YouTube launched a mobile web front end, where videos are served through RTSP.[45]

In July 2007, YouTube partnered with Verizon Wireless to enable mobile phone users to submit videos through Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).[46]

On July 23, 2007, and November 28, 2007, CNN and YouTube produced televised presidential debates in which Democratic and Republican US presidential hopefuls fielded questions submitted through YouTube.[47][48]

In December 2007, YouTube launched the Partner Program, which allows channels that meet certain metrics (currently 1000 subscribers and 4000 public watch hours in the past year)[49] to run ads on their videos and earn money doing so.[28]

Around 2008, "Warp Player" was tested out. It was an experimental interactive interface for browsing videos, where links to videos appeared as thumbnails, visualized in a floating and navigable net.[50]

In June 2008, video annotations were introduced. Users were able to add text boxes and speech bubbles at any desired location and custom sizes in various colours, and optionally with a link and short pausing, allowing for interactive videos. In February 2009, the feature was extended to allow for collaboration, meaning uploaders could invite others to edit their video's annotations.[51][52][53]

Since October 2008, deep linking to a playback position through a timestamped URL is possible.[54]

In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney.[55][56]

YouTube was awarded a 2008 Peabody Award and cited as being "a 'Speakers' Corner' that both embodies and promotes democracy".[57][58]

In early 2009, YouTube registered the domain www.youtube-nocookie.com for videos embedded on United States federal government websites.[59][60] In November of the same year, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners.[61]

Throughout 2009, the alphabetical sorting of YouTube's "AudioSwap" feature helped popularizing Alexander Perls' "009 Sound System" music project through frequent use in videos.[62][63]

YouTube XL Logo (2009-2013).png

In June 2009, YouTube XL was launched. It was a front-end for viewing and browsing on television sets, and as such, for use on stationary game consoles with web browser, such as the Nintendo Wii. Its appearance varied depending on device.[64][65]

In July 2009, developers of YouTube placed a site notice that warned about the impending deprecation of support for Internet Explorer 6, prompting its users to upgrade their browser. It is claimed that they represented 18% of site traffic at that time. Within months of the announcement, traffic from Internet Explorer 6 reduced to less than half, and traffic from other browsers surged accordingly.[66]

Entertainment Weekly placed YouTube on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list In December 2009, describing it as: "Providing a safe home for piano-playing cats, celeb goof-ups, and overzealous lip-synchers since 2005."[67]

In January 2010, the watch page layout was overhauled. Changes include a shortcut labelled with the number of channels' public videos added above the player to allow quickly accessing other videos of a channel without having to navigate to the channel page.[68]

In January 2010,[69] YouTube introduced an online film rentals service which is currently available only to users in the US, Canada and the UK.[70][71] The service offers over 6,000 films.[72] In March 2010 YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.[73]

On March 31, 2010, YouTube launched a new design with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter."[74] In May 2010, it was reported that YouTube was serving more than two billion videos a day, which was "nearly double the prime-time audience of all three major US television networks combined".[75] In May 2011, YouTube reported on the company blog that the site was receiving more than three billion views per day.[76] In January 2012, YouTube stated that the figure had increased to four billion videos streamed per day.[77]

According to May 2010 data published by market research company comScore, YouTube was the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of roughly 43 percent and more than 14 billion videos viewed during May.[78]

Around 2010, an easter egg of the Flash-based video player was discovered, where pressing the arrow key while the dotted loading animation is visible initiates a Snake game formed by the dots. The HTML5-based player, which initially had the same dotted loading animation, did not support it.[79][80]

In September 2010, a unique full-page interactive TippEx advertising campaign was launched on YouTube, where the entire watch page was simulated in a Flash viewport. A hunter who does not wish to shoot a bear grabs outside of the video's viewport to reach for a Tipp-Ex tape roller, and uses it to cover the word "shoots" in the video titled "A hunter shoots a bear". Users were able to enter words in the gap, which lead to different unlisted videos with a multitude of pre-recorded reactions.[81]

In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as the chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role, with Salar Kamangar taking over as the head of the company.[82]

James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed in April 2011 that 30 percent of videos accounted for 99 percent of views on the site.[83]

In June 2011, YouTube started experimenting with reaction buttons, allowing users to react to videos with a multitude of expressions, similar to Facebook's 2016 reaction buttons, though YouTube removed reaction buttons soon after.[84][85]

During November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface.[86] In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites.[87] It is based on a similar user interface was put to test as early as July 2011 under the code name "Cosmic Panda".[88] At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, which was the first change in design since October 2006.[89]

In 2012, YouTube said that roughly 60 hours of new videos are uploaded to the site every minute, and that around three-quarters of the material comes from outside the U.S.[76][77][90] The site has eight hundred million unique users a month.[91]

As of 2012, users were able to rate playlists, and videos' view counts and playlists' total duration were indicated on playlist pages.[92]

In March 2012, preview tooltips for the video player's seek bar were introduced on the desktop web front end, initially available on select videos and gradually rolled out. This feature allows the viewer to additionally preview portions of a video by hovering above the seek bar with the mouse cursor, whereas only the time stamp was indicated before. Dragging the position handle of the video player additionally showed surrounding preview images in a film strip layout. For videos longer than 90 minutes, a magnified portion of the seek bar was additionally displayed since to facilitate fine seeking.[93]

From 2010 to 2012, Alexa ranked YouTube as the third most visited website on the Internet after Google and Facebook.[94]

In late 2011 and early 2012, YouTube launched over 100 "premium" or "original" channels. It was reported the initiative cost $100 million.[95] Two years later, in November 2013, it was documented that the landing page of the original channels became a 404 error page.[96][97] Despite this, original channels such as SourceFed and Crash Course were able to become successful.[98][99]

An algorithm change was made in 2012 that replaced the view-based system for a watch time-based one that is credited for causing a surge in the popularity of gaming channels.[100]

In October 2012, for the first-time ever, YouTube offered a live stream of the U.S. presidential debate and partnered with ABC News to do so.[101] The peak in concurrent views on any live stream was reached on October 14, where over eight million watched a sky dive.[102]

On October 25, 2012 (2012-10-25), The YouTube slogan (Broadcast Yourself) was taken down due to the live stream of the U.S. presidential debate.

YouTube relaunched its design and layout on December 4, 2012, to be very similar to the mobile and tablet app version of the site.[citation needed] On December 21, 2012, Gangnam Style became the first YouTube video to surpass one billion views.[103]

As of early 2013, YouTube video recommendations contain both videos and channels.[104]

Modern era, feature trimdown (2013-present)

In early 2013, YouTube transitioned channels to the initially optional "One" channel layout, which added the ability to put playlists into shelves on the channel front page, but removed custom backgrounds. Formerly unified channel pages were separated into multiple sub pages such as "Videos", "Playlists", "Discussion" (channel comments), "Channels" (featured by user), and "About" (channel description, total video view count, join date, outlinks). On the watch page, the title notably is no longer above but below the video's viewport. Coarsely, this layout is still in operation as of 2021.[105]

In March 2013, the number of unique users visiting YouTube every month reached 1 billion.[106] In the same year, YouTube continued to reach out to mainstream media, launching YouTube Comedy Week and the YouTube Music Awards.[107][108] Both events were met with negative to mixed reception.[109][110][111][112]

In September 2013, the "video responses" feature introduced in 2006 was removed, citing a low click-through rate. It allowed users to respond to videos through a new or existing video which appeared above the comment section.[113]

In November 2013, YouTube's own YouTube channel surpassed Felix Kjellberg's PewDiePie channel to become the most subscribed channel on the website. This was due to auto-suggesting new users to subscribe to the channel upon registration.[114]

In March 2015, YouTube introduced the ability to automatically publish videos at a scheduled time,[115] as well as "info cards" and "end cards", which allow referring to videos and channels through a notification at the top right of the video at any playback time, and thumbnails shown in the last 20 seconds. In contrary to annotations, these work in the mobile app too, though are far less customizable.[116][117]

In December 2015 and January 2016, direct uploading through email and webcam recording respectively were removed. The former existed to support cell phones with limited web browsing capabilities.[118][119]

Live streaming from the mobile app was rolled out in early 2017, initially only available to channeles with at least 10,000 subscribers.[120]

Annotations became uneditable in May 2017. Since then, users were only able to remove all annotations from individual videos. Parts of the feature such as collaborative annotations and pause markings were already removed earlier.[121][122]

On April 3, 2018, a shooting took place at YouTube headquarters.[123]

In June 2018, a "Premiere" feature was added, where a video can be broadcast like a live stream after uploaded, and users can discuss in a live chat like they can in live streams. Before the video starts, an animated two-minute preroll with the soundtrack "Space Walk" by "Silent Partner" is played. A premiere can be set to start immediately after upload or at a scheduled time, though scheduled publications existed since March 2015.[124][125]

On July 9, 2018, the private messaging feature has been removed from "Creator Studio", purging existing messages.[126] In the earlier years of YouTube, the feature existed separately as "Inbox".[127]

The removal of existing annotations on all videos was announced on November 27, 2018, and occurred as scheduled on January 15, 2019.[128][129][130]

On January 31, 2019, AutoShare was removed. The feature allowed users to opt to automatically broadcast actions such as liking videos, playlist additions, new uploads, and earlier added subscriptions to Google Plus and Twitter, and the channel feed.[131][132]

On the same day, the dedicated section for video credits like "Starring", "Written by", and "Edited by" was removed from videos' description box, citing low usage. Addition of such was already disabled since November 27, 2018, the same day on which the definite annotation removal was announced.[133][134]

Since September 2019, channels' publicly displayed subscriber counts are abbreviated to the leading three digits, including those served through the site API. This means, for example, that a subscriber count of 102,868 is indicated as "102K" or "102.000". This change disabled third-party real-time subscriber count indicators such as that of Social Blade, and diminished the accuracy of historical log data. Exact counts remained accessible to channel operators through the "YouTube Studio" web application.[135][136]

Also in September 2019, the new "direct messaging" system was removed two years after introduction. This is a distinct system not to be confused with the legacy one removed in July 2018 after existing since YouTube's early years.[137][138]

In November 2019, YouTube has announced that the service would phase out the classic version of YouTube Studio to all YouTube creators by the spring of 2020.[139] It was available and accessible to some YouTube creators by the end of March 2020.[140]

In that month, a watch queue feature was added, which resembles the intermittently removed "QuickList" feature that was originally introduced in 2006.[141][142]

Since December 2019, users are no longer able to share the automatically generated playlist of positively rated videos.[143]

The ability to add polls with up to five options as video info cards was removed in May 2020.[144]

In June 2020, YouTube phased out the ability to use categories.

In August 2020, automated Email notifications of newly published videos by user-opted channels have been shut down, citing low numbers of users who open them. Only push notifications (mobile) and internal web notifications (desktop) of new uploads remained.[145]

In December 2020, comments on so-called "art tracks" which are automatically posted music tracks with album cover, frequently on "topic channels",[146][147] have been permanently deactivated.[148]

After introducing the ability to visibly divide the video player's seek bar into chapters in May 2020 using time stamp lists in the video description, the platform started experimenting with automatic estimation of videos' chapters in November 2020 using artificial intelligence that detects in-video chapter titles.[149]

In July 2021, all unlisted videos prior to 2017[a] were set to private, making them unplayable except on channels whose owners intervened by manually opting out.[150][151]

On August 24, 2021, YouTube sent a cease and desist to the developers of Groovy, a Discord bot which enabled audio from YouTube videos to be played in Discord voice chats, as the bot violated YouTube's Terms of Service.[152][153][154] A YouTube spokesperson stated, "We notified Groovy about violations of our Terms of Service, including modifying the service and using it for commercial purposes."[152] In a message announcing the bot's closure, the owner of Groovy, Nik Ammerlaan, said, "Groovy has been a huge part of my life over the past five years. It started because my friend’s bot sucked and I thought I could make a better one."[152]

Internationalization

On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system.[155] The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 103 countries and regions, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.[156]

Countries with YouTube Localization
YouTube Localisation.svg
Country Language(s) Launch date Notes
 USA (and worldwide launch) English February 15, 2005[155] First location
 Brazil Portuguese June 19, 2007[155] First international location
 France French and Basque June 19, 2007[155]
 Ireland English June 19, 2007[155]
 Italy Italian June 19, 2007[155]
 Japan Japanese June 19, 2007[155] First Asian location
 Netherlands Dutch June 19, 2007[155]
 Poland Polish June 19, 2007[155]
 Spain Spanish, Galician, Catalan, and Basque June 19, 2007[155]
 United Kingdom English June 19, 2007[155]
 Mexico Spanish October 11, 2007[157]
 Hong Kong Chinese and English October 17, 2007[158] Blocked in China
 Taiwan Chinese October 18, 2007[159]
 Australia English October 22, 2007[160]
 New Zealand English October 22, 2007[160]
 Canada French and English November 6, 2007[161]
 Germany German November 8, 2007[162]
 Russia Russian November 13, 2007[163]
 South Korea Korean January 23, 2008[164]
 India Hindi, Bengali, English, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu May 7, 2008[165]
 Israel Hebrew September 16, 2008 First Middle East location
 Czech Republic Czech October 9, 2008[166]
 Sweden Swedish October 22, 2008[167]
 South Africa Afrikaans, Zulu, and English May 17, 2010[155] First African location
 Argentina Spanish September 8, 2010[168]
 Algeria French and Arabic March 9, 2011[169] One of the first Arab World locations
 Egypt Arabic March 9, 2011[169]
 Jordan Arabic March 9, 2011[169]
 Morocco French and Arabic March 9, 2011[169]
 Saudi Arabia Arabic March 9, 2011[169]
 Tunisia French and Arabic March 9, 2011[169]
 Yemen Arabic March 9, 2011[169]
 Kenya Swahili and English September 1, 2011[170]
 Philippines Filipino and English October 13, 2011[171] First Southeast Asian location
 Singapore English, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil October 20, 2011[172]
 Belgium French, Dutch, and German November 16, 2011[155]
 Colombia Spanish November 30, 2011[173]
 Uganda English December 2, 2011[174]
 Nigeria English December 7, 2011[175]
 Chile Spanish January 20, 2012[176]
 Hungary Hungarian February 29, 2012[177]
 Malaysia Malay and English March 22, 2012[178]
 Peru Spanish March 25, 2012[179]
 United Arab Emirates Arabic and English April 1, 2012[180]
 Greece Greek May 1, 2012
 Indonesia Indonesian and English May 17, 2012[181]
 Ghana English June 5, 2012[182]
 Senegal French and English July 4, 2012[183]
 Turkey Turkish October 1, 2012[184]
 Ukraine Ukrainian December 13, 2012[185]
 Denmark Danish February 1, 2013[186]
 Finland Finnish and Swedish February 1, 2013[187]
 Norway Norwegian February 1, 2013[188]
  Switzerland German, French, and Italian March 29, 2013[189]
 Austria German March 29, 2013[190]
 Romania Romanian April 18, 2013[191]
 Portugal Portuguese April 25, 2013[192]
 Slovakia Slovak April 25, 2013[193]
 Bahrain Arabic August 16, 2013[194] Multiple Middle East locations launched
 Kuwait Arabic August 16, 2013[194]
 Oman Arabic August 16, 2013[194]
 Qatar Arabic August 16, 2013[194]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian March 17, 2014
 Bulgaria Bulgarian March 17, 2014[195]
 Croatia Croatian March 17, 2014[196]
 Estonia Estonian March 17, 2014[197]
 Latvia Latvian March 17, 2014[198]
 Lithuania Lithuanian March 17, 2014 Baltic area fully locally accessible
 Macedonia Macedonian, Serbian, and Turkish March 17, 2014
 Montenegro Serbian and Croatian March 17, 2014
 Serbia Serbian March 17, 2014
 Slovenia Slovenian March 17, 2014[199]
 Thailand Thai April 1, 2014[200]
 Lebanon Arabic May 1, 2014[194]
 Puerto Rico Spanish and English August 23, 2014 Used Spain version or USA version before launch.
 Iceland Icelandic ?, 2014
 Luxembourg French and German ?, 2014
 Vietnam Vietnamese October 1, 2014 First contemporary communist location
 Libya Arabic February 1, 2015 Blocked in 2010; unblocked in 2011.
 Tanzania Swahili and English June 2, 2015
 Zimbabwe English June 2, 2015
 Azerbaijan Azerbaijani October 12, 2015[201]
 Belarus Russian October 12, 2015[201]
 Georgia Georgian October 12, 2015[201]
 Kazakhstan Kazakh October 12, 2015[201]
 Iraq Arabic November 9, 2015[citation needed]
   Nepal Nepali January 12, 2016[202]
 Pakistan Urdu and English January 12, 2016[203] Blocked in 2012; unblocked in 2015.
 Sri Lanka Sinhala and Tamil January 12, 2016[202]
 Jamaica English August 4, 2016[citation needed]
 Malta English June 24, 2018
 Bolivia Spanish January 30, 2019
 Costa Rica Spanish January 30, 2019
 Ecuador Spanish January 30, 2019
 El Salvador Spanish January 30, 2019
 Guatemala Spanish January 30, 2019
 Honduras Spanish January 30, 2019
 Nicaragua Spanish January 30, 2019
 Panama Spanish January 30, 2019
 Uruguay Spanish January 30, 2019
 Paraguay Spanish and Guarani February 21, 2019
 Dominican Republic Spanish February 21, 2019
 Cyprus Greek and Turkish March 13, 2019 Last European Union location
 Liechtenstein German March 13, 2019

On October 17, 2007, it was announced that a Hong Kong version had been launched. At the time, YouTube's Steve Chen said that its next target would be Taiwan.[204][205]

YouTube was blocked from Mainland China from October 18 due to the censorship of the Taiwanese flag.[206] URLs to YouTube were redirected to China's own search engine, Baidu. It was subsequently unblocked on October 31.[207]

The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.[208] The interface of the YouTube website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions.[209] Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.[210][211] In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain youtube.com.tr. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law.[212] In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009.[213] In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.[214]

Business model, advertising, and profits

YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno from 2006 to 2010
YouTube's early headquarters in San Mateo

Before being purchased by Google, YouTube declared that its business model was advertisement-based, making 15 million dollars per month.

Google did not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing.[215] In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.[216]

Some industry commentators have speculated that YouTube's running costs (specifically the network bandwidth required) might be as high as 5 to 6 million dollars per month,[217] thereby fuelling criticisms that the company, like many Internet startups, did not have a viably implemented business model. Advertisements were launched on the site beginning in March 2006. In April, YouTube started using Google AdSense.[218] YouTube subsequently stopped using AdSense but has resumed in local regions.

Advertising is YouTube's central mechanism for gaining revenue. This issue has also been taken up in scientific analysis. Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams argue in their book Wikinomics that YouTube is an example for an economy that is based on mass collaboration and makes use of the Internet.

"Whether your business is closer to Boeing or P&G, or more like YouTube or flickr, there are vast pools of external talent that you can tap with the right approach. Companies that adopt these models can drive important changes in their industries and rewrite the rules of competition"[219]: 270 "new business models for open content will not come from traditional media establishments, but from companies such as Google, Yahoo, and YouTube. This new generation of companies is not burned by the legacies that inhibit the publishing incumbents, so they can be much more agile in responding to customer demands. More important, they understand that you don't need to control the quantity and destiny of bits if they can provide compelling venues in which people build communities around sharing and remixing content. Free content is just the lure on which they layer revenue from advertising and premium services".[219]: 271sq

Tapscott and Williams argue that it is important for new media companies to find ways to make a profit with the help of peer-produced content. The new Internet economy, (that they term Wikinomics) would be based on the principles of "openness, peering, sharing, and acting globally". Companies could make use of these principles in order to gain profit with the help of Web 2.0 applications: "Companies can design and assemble products with their customers, and in some cases customers can do the majority of the value creation".[219]: 289sq Tapscott and Williams argue that the outcome will be an economic democracy.

There are other views[by whom?] in the debate that agree with Tapscott and Williams that it is increasingly based on harnessing open source content, networking, sharing, and peering, but they argue that the result is not an economic democracy, but a subtle form and deepening of exploitation, in which labour costs are reduced by Internet-based global outsourcing.[citation needed]

The second view is e.g. taken by Christian Fuchs in his book "Internet and Society". He argues that YouTube is an example of a business model that is based on combining the gift with the commodity. The first is free, the second yields profit. The novel aspect of this business strategy is that it combines what seems at first to be different, the gift and the commodity. YouTube would give free access to its users, the more users, the more profit it can potentially make because it can in principle increase advertisement rates and will gain further interest of advertisers.[220] YouTube would sell its audience that it gains by free access to its advertising customers.[220]: 181

"Commodified Internet spaces are always profit-oriented, but the goods they provide are not necessarily exchange-value and market-oriented; in some cases (such as Google, Yahoo, MySpace, YouTube, Netscape), free goods or platforms are provided as gifts in order to drive up the number of users so that high advertisement rates can be charged in order to achieve profit."[220]: 181

In June 2009, BusinessWeek reported that, according to San Francisco-based IT consulting company RampRate, YouTube was far closer to profitability than previous reports, including the April 2009, projection by investment bank Credit Suisse estimating YouTube would lose as much as $470 million in 2009.[221] RampRate's report pegged that number at no more than $174 million.[222]

In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.[223][224]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Whether YouTube means the original upload date or the first publishing date of videos which were later made unlisted is unclear. The latter likely applies, as that date is indicated on the watch page after initial publication.

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