Combativity award in the Tour de France

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Combativity award
Jersey red number.svg
Sport Road bicycle racing
Competition Tour de France
Given for Most aggressive rider
Local name Le Prix de la combativité  (French)
History
First award 1952
Editions 65 known (as of 2017)
First winner  Wout Wagtmans (NED)
Most wins

 Eddy Merckx (BEL)

4 times
Most recent  Dan Martin (IRE)

The combativity award is a prize given in the Tour de France for the most combative rider overall during the race. Historically, it favored constant attackers as it was based on the distance spent in a breakaway, included winning checkpoints and outright stage wins. Since 2003 the award is awarded following jury decision, with the classification for most distance in breakaway groups only part of the decision. Besides the overall winner, the jury also awards a combativity award to the most aggressive rider at the end of each stage, with this rider allowed to wear a red bib the following race day.

The 1981 Tour de France marked the last time the winner of the general classification also won the combativity award.

History[edit]

Since 1952,[1] after every stage the most combative cyclist was given an award, and an overall competition was recorded.[2] At the end of the 1956 Tour de France, André Darrigade was named the most attacking cyclist.[3] At this point, the award was given the same importance as the award for the cyclist with the most bad luck, Picot in 1956.

In 1961, the award was not given to an individual cyclist, but to an entire team, the regional team West-South-West.

The system of the award has changed during the years. Historically, riders accumulated points, and the cyclist with the most points at the end of the Tour was declared winner.[4] The cyclist did not have to finish the race, for example Cyrille Guimard in 1972 did not finish, but still was given the combativity award.

In 1979, the combativity award was initially given to Joop Zoetemelk;[5] he was later disqualified and Hennie Kuiper received the award.

Current system[edit]

In the current system that has been active since 2003, a jury of eight specialists in cycling selects the most combative cyclist of each stage (excluding time trials).[6] There is no jersey for the most combative rider of the previous stage, but he can be recognized by the race number worn on his back: it consists of a white number on a red background instead of the usual black on white (since 1998).[6][7]

At the end of the Tour de France, a "super-combativity award" is given to the most combative cyclist of the race. As of 2017, the total prize money for the super-combativity award winner is €20,000.[8]

Winners[edit]

As far as known, there has been 61 overall super-combativity award winners since 1953 (As of 2017).[9]

Rider Team
1953[10] Netherlands Wout Wagtmans (NED) Netherlands
1954[11] France Lucien Lazaridès (FRA) (victory shared with François Mahé) France South-East
1954[11] France François Mahé (FRA) (victory shared with Lucien Lazaridès) France West
1955[12] Luxembourg Charly Gaul (LUX) Luxembourg/Mixed
1956 France André Darrigade (FRA) France
1957 France Nicolas Barone (FRA) France Île-de-France
1958 Spain Federico Bahamontes (ESP) Spain
1959 France Gérard Saint (FRA) France West South-West
1960 France Jean Graczyk (FRA) France
1961 France Team award (FRA) France West South-West
1962 Belgium Eddy Pauwels (BEL) Wiel's–Groene Leeuw
1963 Belgium Rik Van Looy (BEL) G.B.C.–Libertas
1964 France Henry Anglade (FRA) Pelforth–Sauvage–Lejeune
1965 Italy Felice Gimondi (ITA) Salvarani
1966 West Germany Rudi Altig (FRG) Molteni
1967 France Désiré Letort (FRA) France
1968 France Roger Pingeon (FRA) France A
1969 Belgium Eddy Merckx (BEL) Faema
1970 Belgium Eddy Merckx (BEL) Faemino–Faema
1971 Spain Luis Ocaña (ESP) Bic
1972 France Cyrille Guimard (FRA) Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson
1973 Spain Luis Ocaña (ESP) Bic
1974 Belgium Eddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni
1975 Belgium Eddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni–RYC
1976 France Raymond Delisle (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin
1977 Netherlands Gerrie Knetemann (NED) TI–Raleigh
1978 Belgium Paul Wellens (BEL) TI–Raleigh–McGregor
1979 Netherlands Hennie Kuiper (NED) TI–Raleigh–McGregor
1980 France Christian Levavasseur (FRA) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel
1981 France Bernard Hinault (FRA) Renault–Elf–Gitane
1982 France Régis Clère (FRA) COOP–Mercier–Mavic
1983 Switzerland Serge Demierre (SUI) Cilo–Aufina
1984 France Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire
1985 Netherlands Maarten Ducrot (NED) Lotto
1986 France Bernard Hinault (FRA) La Vie Claire
1987 France Régis Clère (FRA) Teka
1988 France Jérôme Simon (FRA) Z–Peugeot
1989 France Laurent Fignon (FRA) Super U–Raleigh–Fiat
1990 Spain Eduardo Chozas (ESP) ONCE
1991 Italy Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Tassoni
1992 Italy Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond
1993 Italy Massimo Ghirotto (ITA) ZG Mobili
1994 Italy Eros Poli (ITA) Mercatone Uno–Medeghini
1995 Colombia Hernán Buenahora (COL) Kelme–Sureña
1996 France Richard Virenque (FRA) Festina–Lotus
1997 France Richard Virenque (FRA) Festina–Lotus
1998 France Jacky Durand (FRA) Casino–Ag2r
1999 France Jacky Durand (FRA) Lotto–Mobistar
2000 Netherlands Erik Dekker (NED) Rabobank
2001 France Laurent Jalabert (FRA) CSC–Tiscali
2002 France Laurent Jalabert (FRA) CSC–Tiscali
2003 Kazakhstan Alexander Vinokourov (KAZ) Team Telekom
2004 France Richard Virenque (FRA) Quick-Step–Davitamon
2005 Spain Óscar Pereiro (ESP) Phonak
2006 Spain David de la Fuente (ESP) Saunier Duval–Prodir
2007 Spain Amets Txurruka (ESP) Euskaltel–Euskadi
2008 France Sylvain Chavanel (FRA) Cofidis
2009 Italy Franco Pellizotti[n 1] (ITA) Liquigas
2010 France Sylvain Chavanel (FRA) Quick-Step
2011 France Jérémy Roy (FRA) FDJ
2012 Denmark Chris Anker Sørensen (DEN) Saxo Bank–Tinkoff Bank
2013 France Christophe Riblon (FRA) Ag2r–La Mondiale
2014 Italy Alessandro De Marchi (ITA) Cannondale
2015 France Romain Bardet (FRA) AG2R La Mondiale
2016 Slovakia Peter Sagan (SVK) Tinkoff
2017 France Warren Barguil (FRA) Team Sunweb
2018 Republic of Ireland Dan Martin (IRE) UAE Team Emirates

Notes and references[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ In March 2011, Franco Pellizotti's results were removed after the Court of Arbitration for Sport found his biological passport indicated irregular values. The classification standings were not altered.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tour de France: An alternative view of the ultimate road race". The Independent. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
  2. ^ "Premies voor Van der Pluym en Stolker". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 14 July 1956. p. 11. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  3. ^ "Klassementen". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 30 July 1956. p. 5. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  4. ^ Eddy van der Mark. "Tour Xtra:Combativity Classification". CvccBike. Retrieved 24 April 2009.
  5. ^ "Zoetemelk strijdlustigste". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 23 July 1979. p. 13. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  6. ^ a b "Règlement de l'Épreuve - Article 10: Maillots des leaders" (PDF) (in French). ASO. 17 July 2008. p. 61. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2009. Par ailleurs, le coureur combatif sera identifié par deux dossards spécifiques avec chiffres blancs sur fond rouge.
  7. ^ Nick Brownlee (23 July 2013). Vive le Tour!: Wiggo, and the Amazing Tales of the Tour de France. Pavilion Books. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-909396-34-0.
  8. ^ Liste des Prix [Prize money] (PDF). Tour de France. Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. 2017. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  9. ^ "Le Tour en chiffres" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. p. 126. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
  10. ^ "Nederlandse ploeg won in totaal f 70.000 aan prijzen en premies". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 27 July 1953. p. 5. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
  11. ^ "Bobet onbetwist winnaar van Tour de France". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 2 August 1954. p. 3. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  12. ^ "Klassementen". Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch). 1 August 1955. p. 3. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  13. ^ "Italian cyclist Franco Pellizotti found guilty of doping by Court of Arbitration for Sport". ESPN.com. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2012.