1960 Tour de France
|Dates||26 June–17 July 1960|
|Stages||21 (22 including split stages)|
|Distance||4,173 km (2,593 mi)|
|Winning time||112h 08' 42" (37.210 km/h or 23.121 mph)|
|Winner||Gastone Nencini (Italy)||(Italy)|
|Second||Graziano Battistini (Italy)||(Italy)|
|Third||Jan Adriaensens (Belgium)||(Belgium)|
|Points||Jean Graczyk (France)||(France)|
|Mountains||Imerio Massignan (Italy)||(Italy)|
The 1960 Tour de France was the 47th Tour de France, taking place between 26 June and 17 July 1960. The race featured 128 riders, of which 81 finished. The Tour included 21 stages over 4173 km, of which one stage was split, and the winner had an average speed of 37.210 km/h.
Because Jacques Anquetil was absent after winning the 1960 Giro d'Italia, Roger Rivière became the main favourite. Halfway the race, Rivière was in second place behind Nencini, and with his specialty the time trial remaining, he was still favourite for the victory. When Rivière had a career-ending crash in the fourteenth stage, this changed, and Nencini won the Tour easily.
Differences from the 1959 Tour de France
In previous years, the location of the stage finish and the next stage start had always been close together. In 1960, this changed, when cyclists had to take the train to get from Bordeaux to Mont de Marsan after the ninth stage.
The German team, that had been away from the Tour since 1938, was allowed to join again.
The 1960 Tour de France was run in the national team format. The four most important cycling nations of the time, Spain, Belgium, France and Italy, each sent a national team with fourteen cyclists. There were also five smaller national teams: a combined Luxembourg/Swiss team, a Dutch team, a German team, a British team, and a team of international cyclists, all with eight cyclists. Finally, there were five regional teams, also of eight cyclists each. Altogether, 128 cyclists started the race.
Jacques Anquetil, the winner of the 1957 Tour de France, had won the 1960 Giro d'Italia earlier that year. Anquetil was tired, and skipped the Tour. This made Roger Rivière the French team leader, and the big favourite for the Tour victory.
The first stage was split in two parts. In the first part, a group of fourteen cyclists cleared from the rest, and won with a margin of over two minutes. In the second part, an individual time trial, Roger Rivière won. The lead in the general classification transferred to Nencini, who had been part of the group of fourteen cyclists. Federico Bahamontes, winner of the 1959 Tour, became ill and left the race in the second stage.
Nencini lost the lead in the third stage to Joseph Groussard. In the fourth stage, a group including Henri Anglade escaped, and Anglade became the new leader. Anglade had already finished in second placed in 1959, and expected to be the team leader now.
In the sixth stage, Rivière attacked. Only Nencini, Hans Junkermann and Jan Adriaensens could follow. Anglade asked his team manager Marcel Bidot to instruct Rivière to stop his attack, because Nencini and Adriaensens were dangerous opponents. Rivière ignored this, and continued. They beat the rest by almost fifteen minutes, and Adriaensens took over the lead in the general classification. After the stage, Anglade said that the French team lost the Tour in that stage. Anglade knew that Rivière would try to stay close to Nencini in the mountains, and warned that Rivière would regret staying close to Nencini downhill.
The first mountains were climbed in the tenth stage. Nencini won time in the descent from the Col de Aubisque, where Adriaensens could not follow. After the Aubisque, Adriaensens worked together with his team mate Jef Planckaert to win back time, but Nencini was able to stay away from them, and became the new leader, with Rivière in second place, only 32 seconds behind. Nencini gained one minute on Rivière in the eleventh stage, but Rivière knew he had the stronger team. Moreover, Rivière was at that moment the holder of the hour record, and knew he would win back enough time in the time trial in stage 19.
In the fourteenth stage, going down the Col de Perjuret, Nencini made the pace, and Rivière followed him. Rivière then missed a corner, and fell 20 meters down a ravine. Rivière's life was never in danger, but he was never able to ride a bicycle again, so this meant the end of his career.
Because of that, Jan Adriaensens climbed to the second place in the general classification, and he now was the main competitor for Nencini. Adriaensens lost time in the Pyrénées, and the Italians were able to put Graziano Battistini in second place. In the last stages, there was no competition for the overall victory, because it was clear that Nencini's advantage was too large. Therefore all cyclists put their energy to win the remaining stages. For the points classification, Jean Graczyk had built a large lead, but the mountains classification was only clinched by Imerio Massignan in the final mountain stage.
In the twentieth stage, news came that Charles de Gaulle, the president, would be by the route at Colombey-les-deux-Églises, where he lived. The organisers, Jacques Goddet and Félix Lévitan asked the French national champion, Henry Anglade, if the riders would be willing to stop. Anglade agreed and the news was spread through the race. One rider, Pierre Beuffeuil had stopped to repair a tyre and knew nothing of the plan, being three minutes behind the race. When he reached Colombey, he found the race halted in front of him. He decided to pass all the waiting cyclists and continued alone, and won the stage alone on the boulevard Jules-Guesde by 49 seconds. "I voted for de Gaulle", he said.
|1a||26 June||Lille – Brussels||Plain stage||108 km (67 mi)||Julien Schepens (BEL)|
|1b||Brussels||Individual time trial||27.8 km (17.3 mi)||Roger Rivière (FRA)|
|2||27 June||Brussels – Malo-les-Bains||Plain stage||206 km (128 mi)||René Privat (FRA)|
|3||28 June||Malo-les-Bains – Dieppe||Plain stage||209 km (130 mi)||Nino Defilippis (ITA)|
|4||29 June||Dieppe – Caen||Plain stage||211 km (131 mi)||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
|5||30 June||Caen – St. Malo||Plain stage||189 km (117 mi)||André Darrigade (FRA)|
|6||1 July||St. Malo – Lorient||Plain stage||191 km (119 mi)||Roger Rivière (FRA)|
|7||2 July||Lorient – Angers||Plain stage||244 km (152 mi)||Graziano Battistini (ITA)|
|8||3 July||Angers – Limoges||Plain stage||240 km (150 mi)||Nino Defilippis (ITA)|
|9||4 July||Limoges – Bordeaux||Plain stage||225 km (140 mi)||Martin van Geneugden (BEL)|
|10||5 July||Mont de Parsan – Pau||Stage with mountain(s)||228 km (142 mi)||Roger Rivière (FRA)|
|11||6 July||Pau – Luchon||Stage with mountain(s)||161 km (100 mi)||Kurt Gimmi (SUI)|
|12||7 July||Luchon – Toulouse||Stage with mountain(s)||176 km (109 mi)||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
|13||8 July||Toulouse – Millau||Plain stage||224 km (139 mi)||Louis Proost (FRA)|
|14||10 July||Millau – Avignon||Stage with mountain(s)||217 km (135 mi)||Martin van Geneugden (BEL)|
|15||11 July||Avignon – Gap||Stage with mountain(s)||187 km (116 mi)||Michel Van Aerde (BEL)|
|16||12 July||Gap – Briançon||Stage with mountain(s)||172 km (107 mi)||Graziano Battistini (ITA)|
|17||13 July||Briançon – Aix-les-Bains||Stage with mountain(s)||229 km (142 mi)||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
|18||14 July||Aix-les-Bains – Thonon-les-Bains||Stage with mountain(s)||215 km (134 mi)||Fernando Manzaneque (ESP)|
|19||15 July||Pontarlier – Besançon||Individual time trial||83 km (52 mi)||Rolf Graf (SUI)|
|20||16 July||Besançon – Troyes||Plain stage||229 km (142 mi)||Pierre Beuffeuil (FRA)|
|21||17 July||Troyes – Paris||Plain stage||200 km (120 mi)||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
||Mountains classification||Team classification|
|1a||Julien Schepens (BEL)||Julien Schepens (BEL)||no award||Belgium|
|1b||Gastone Nencini (ITA)||3 cyclists[Tablenotes 1]|
|2||4 cyclists[Tablenotes 2]||France|
|3||Joseph Groussard (FRA)||5 cyclists[Tablenotes 3]|
|4||Henri Anglade (FRA)||Jean Graczyk (FRA)|
|6||Jan Adriaensens (BEL)|
|10||Gastone Nencini (ITA)||Graziano Battistini (ITA)|
|11||Gastone Nencini (ITA)|
|16||Marcel Rohrbach (FRA)|
|18||Imerio Massignan (ITA)|
|Final||Gastone Nencini (ITA)||Jean Graczyk (FRA)||Imerio Massignan (ITA)||France|
- Gastone Nencini, Roger Rivière and Julien Schepens had equal points.
- René Privat, Gastone Nencini, Roger Rivière and Julien Schepens had equal points.
- Nino Defilippis, René Privat, Gastone Nencini, Roger Rivière and Julien Schepens had equal points.
There were several classifications in the 1960 Tour de France, two of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification; it was calculated by adding for each cyclist he times that he required to finish each stage. If a cyclist had received a time bonus, it was subtracted from this total; all time penalties were added to this total. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey.
The points classification was calculated differently than in the years before. The top six cyclists of each stage received points; the winner 10 points, down to 1 point for the 6th cyclist.
Because only a few cyclists received points, in the first stages of the Tour de lead was shared by up to 5 cyclists. In stage 4, when Jean Graczyk won the stage, he took the leading, having finished second in the stage 2. Graczyk remained leader for the rest of the race. The leader of the points classification was identified by the green jersey.
The mountains classification was calculated by adding the points given to cyclists for reaching the highest point in a climb first. There was no jersey associated to this classification in 1960.
Finally, the team classification was calculated as the sum of the daily team classifications, and the daily team classification was calculated by adding the times in the stage result of the best three cyclists per team. It was won by the French team. For the smaller teams (made of 8 cyclists), a separate classification was made, here the Dutch team won.
|1||Gastone Nencini (ITA)||Italy||112h 08' 42"|
|2||Graziano Battistini (ITA)||Italy||+5' 02"|
|3||Jan Adriaensens (BEL)||Belgium||+10' 24"|
|4||Hans Junkermann (FRG)||West-Germany||+11' 21"|
|5||Jozef Planckaert (BEL)||Belgium||+13' 02"|
|6||Raymond Mastrotto (FRA)||France||+16' 12"|
|7||Arnaldo Pambianco (ITA)||Italy||+17' 58"|
|8||Henry Anglade (FRA)||France||+19' 17"|
|9||Marcel Rohrbach (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+20' 02"|
|10||Imerio Massignan (ITA)||Italy||+23' 28"|
|Final general classification (11–81)|
|11||Fernando Manzaneque (ESP)||Spain||+25' 59"|
|12||Albert Geldermans (NED)||Netherlands||+26' 33"|
|13||Jean Graczyk (FRA)||France||+26' 55"|
|14||François Mahe (FRA)||France||+32' 36"|
|15||Louis Rostollan (FRA)||France||+34' 18"|
|16||André Darrigade (FRA)||France||+34' 23"|
|17||Antonio Suarez (ESP)||Spain||+39' 15"|
|18||Edouard Delberghe (FRA)||France||+44' 25"|
|19||René Pavard (FRA)||France||+48' 13"|
|20||Carmelo Morales (ESP)||Spain||+50' 44"|
|21||Jesus Lorono (ESP)||Spain||+52' 10"|
|22||Kurt Gimmi (SUI)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+54' 40"|
|23||Stéphan Lach (FRA)||Paris/Nord||+55' 02"|
|24||Michel Van Aerde (BEL)||Belgium||+56' 51"|
|25||Eddy Pauwels (BEL)||Belgium||+59' 05"|
|26||Brian Robinson (GBR)||Great-Britain||+59' 52"|
|27||Piet Damen (NED)||Netherlands||+1h 00' 21"|
|28||Piet van Est (NED)||Netherlands||+1h 02' 48"|
|29||Tom Simpson (GBR)||Great-Britain||+1h 09' 01"|
|30||Michel Vermeulin (FRA)||Paris/Nord||+1h 11' 42"|
|31||Pierre Beuffeuil (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+1h 12' 02"|
|32||Pierre Everaert (FRA)||France||+1h 17' 13"|
|33||Ercole Baldini (ITA)||Italy||+1h 21' 06"|
|34||Martin van den Borgh (NED)||Netherlands||+1h 25' 18"|
|35||Jean Dotto (FRA)||France||+1h 25' 28"|
|36||Jean Gainche (FRA)||West France||+1h 30' 31"|
|37||René Strehler (SUI)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+1h 32' 09"|
|38||Joseph Wasko (FRA)||Paris/Nord||+1h 33' 34"|
|39||Wim van Est (NED)||Netherlands||+1h 40' 10"|
|40||Félix Lebuhotel (FRA)||West France||+1h 46' 58"|
|41||Alfredo Sabbadin (ITA)||Italy||+1h 48' 47"|
|42||Luis Otano (ESP)||Spain||+1h 49' 55"|
|43||André Messelis (BEL)||Belgium||+1h 53' 10"|
|44||Bernard Viot (FRA)||Paris/Nord||+1h 53' 37"|
|45||Jaap Kersten (NED)||Netherlands||+1h 54' 16"|
|46||Fernand Picot (FRA)||West France||+1h 55' 56"|
|47||André Le Dissez (FRA)||Paris/Nord||+1h 57' 13"|
|48||Raymond Hoorelbeke (FRA)||Paris/Nord||+1h 58' 22"|
|49||Roberto Falaschi (ITA)||Italy||+2h 00' 07"|
|50||Marcel Queheille (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+2h 00' 37"|
|51||Lothar Friedrich (FRG)||West-Germany||+2h 01' 45"|
|52||Joseph Groussard (FRA)||West France||+2h 01' 49"|
|53||Armand Desmet (BEL)||Belgium||+2h 02' 05"|
|54||Aldo Bolzan (ITA)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+2h 02' 09"|
|55||Jean Milesi (FRA)||East/South East||+2h 02' 40"|
|56||Emil Reinecke (FRG)||West-Germany||+2h 04' 36"|
|57||Vittorio Casatti (ITA)||Italy||+2h 05' 38"|
|58||Max Bleneau (FRA)||West France||+2h 18' 57"|
|59||Antonin Rolland (FRA)||East/South East||+2h 21' 09"|
|60||Tino Sabbadini (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+2h 24' 46"|
|61||Edouard Bihouee (FRA)||West France||+2h 31' 13"|
|62||René Marigil (ESP)||Spain||+2h 35' 51"|
|63||Pierre Ruby (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+2h 37' 09"|
|64||Ivo Molenaers (BEL)||Belgium||+2h 39' 31"|
|65||Alves Barbosa (POR)||Internationals||+2h 39' 55"|
|66||Camille Le Menn (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+2h 40' 52"|
|67||Nino Defilippis (ITA)||Italy||+2h 42' 10"|
|68||Pierino Baffi (ITA)||Italy||+2h 44' 39"|
|69||Miguel Pacheco (ESP)||Spain||+2h 46' 29"|
|70||Rolf Graf (SUI)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+2h 49' 58"|
|71||Gianni Ferlenghi (ITA)||Italy||+2h 51' 46"|
|72||Dino Bruni (ITA)||Italy||+2h 52' 51"|
|73||Francis Pipelin (FRA)||West France||+2h 54' 08"|
|74||Louis Bisilliat (FRA)||East/South East||+3h 02' 47"|
|75||Manuel Busto (FRA)||Centre-Midi||+3h 04' 34"|
|76||Nello Fabbri (ITA)||Italy||+3h 06' 57"|
|77||Pierre Morel (FRA)||East/South East||+3h 10' 25"|
|78||Fernando Brandolini (ITA)||Italy||+3h 12' 59"|
|79||Bernard Gauthier (FRA)||East/South East||+3h 36' 05"|
|80||Hans Schleuniger (SUI)||Switzerland/Luxembourg||+4h 48' 02"|
|81||José Berrendero (ESP)||Spain||+4h 58' 59"|
|1||Jean Graczyk (FRA)||France||74|
|2||Graziano Battistini (ITA)||Italy||40|
|3||Gastone Nencini (ITA)||Italy||36|
|4||Nino Defilippis (ITA)||Italy||32|
|5||André Darrigade (FRA)||France||22|
|6||Dino Bruni (ITA)||Italy||19|
|7||Michel van Aerde (BEL)||Belgium||17|
|8||Fernando Manzaneque (ESP)||Spain||16|
|9||Pierre Beuffeuil (FRA)||Centre-Midi||15|
|10||Bernard Viot (BEL)||Paris/Nord||14|
|10||Martin van den Borgh (NED)||Netherlands||14|
|1||Imerio Massignan (ITA)||Italy||56|
|2||Marcel Rohrbach (FRA)||Centre-Midi||52|
|3||Graziano Battistini (ITA)||Italy||44|
|4||Kurt Gimmi (SUI)||Switzerland||36|
|4||Gastone Nencini (ITA)||Italy||36|
|6||Fernando Manzaneque (ESP)||Spain||28|
|7||Martin van den Borgh (NED)||Netherlands||22|
|8||René Marigil (ESP)||Spain||21|
|9||Jef Planckaert (BEL)||Belgium||20|
|10||Arnaldo Pambianco (ITA)||Italy||18|
|1||France||Big||335h 43' 43"|
|3||Belgium||Big||+1h 03' 01"|
|4||Spain||Big||+1h 51' 55"|
|5||Netherland||Small||+2h 01' 56"|
|6||Paris/North||Small||+2h 57' 41"|
|7||Centre-Midi||Small||+3h 01' 01"|
|8||Germany||Small||+3h 52' 52"|
|9||West France||Small||+4h 08' 36"|
|10||Switzerland/Luxembourg||Small||+4h 31' 03"|
|11||East/South East||Small||+6h 17' 02"|
The Great-Britain team and the Internationals did not finish with three cyclists, so were not included in the team classification.
Rivière survived the crash, but his career as a professional cyclist was over. The drug palfium was found in his pockets, and it was thought that it had so numbed Riviere's fingers so that he couldn't feel the brake levers. Nencini had his bouquet of flowers given to Rivière.
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- Dauncey, Hugh; Hare, Geoff (2003). The Tour de France, 1903-2003: a century of sporting structures, meanings, and values. Routledge. p. 270. ISBN 0-7146-5362-4.
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- McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2006). The Story of the Tour de France Volume 1: 1903-1964. Dog Ear Publishing. pp. 245–249. ISBN 1-59858-180-5.
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- Minovi, Ramin (2007). "Drugs and the Tour de France". Association of British Cycling Coaches. Retrieved 9 September 2010.