3D model (Jmol)
|Molar mass||70.09 g·mol−1|
|Odor||pungent, suffocating odor|
|Melting point||−76.5 °C (−105.7 °F; 196.7 K)|
|Boiling point||104.0 °C (219.2 °F; 377.1 K)|
|Solubility||very soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, acetone
soluble in chloroform
miscible in benzene
|Vapor pressure||19 mmHg (20°C)|
Refractive index (nD)
|R-phrases||R11 R24/25 R26 R37/38 R41 R48/22 R50 R68|
|S-phrases||S26 S28 S36/37/39 S45 S61|
|Flash point||13 °C (55 °F; 286 K)|
|207 °C (405 °F; 480 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LC50 (median concentration)
|600 ppm (rat, 30 min)
1375 ppm (rat, 30 min)
519 ppm (mouse, 2 hr)
1500 ppm (rat, 30 min)
LCLo (lowest published)
|400 ppm (rat, 1 hr)|
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 2 ppm (6 mg/m3)|
|TWA 2 ppm (6 mg/m3)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Crotonaldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula CH3CH=CHCHO. The compound is usually sold as a mixture of the E- and Z-isomers, which differ with respect to the relative position of the methyl and formyl groups. The E-isomer is more common (data given in Table is for the E-isomer). This lachrymatory liquid is moderately soluble in water and miscible in organic solvents. As an unsaturated aldehyde, crotonaldehyde is a versatile intermediate in organic synthesis. It occurs in a variety of foodstuffs, e.g. soybean oils.
Production and uses
- 2 CH3CHO → CH3CH=CHCHO + H2O
Its main application is as a precursor to fine chemicals. Sorbic acid, a food preservative, and trimethylhydroquinone, a precursor to the vitamin E, are prepared from crotonaldehyde. Other derivatives include crotonic acid and 3-methoxybutanol.
Crotonaldehyde is a multifunctional molecule that exhibits diverse reactivity. It is an excellent prochiral dienophile. It is a Michael acceptor. Addition of methylmagnesium chloride affords 3-penten-2-ol.
Crotonaldehyde is an irritant. It is listed as an "extremely hazardous substance" as defined by the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. It occurs widely in nature. It is used to make preservatives.
- Merck Index, 11th Edition, 2599
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0157". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- "Crotonaldehyde". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- R. P. Schulz, J. Blumenstein, C. Kohlpaintner "Crotonaldehyde and Crotonic Acid" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim: 2005. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_083
- Longley, Jr., R. I..; Emerson, W. S.; Blardinelli, A. J. (1963). "3,4-Dihydro-2-methoxy-4-methyl-2H-pyran". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 4, p. 311
- Coburn, E. R. (1955). "3-Penten-2-ol". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol., 3, p. 696