European Defence Fund
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The European Defence Fund is a fund managed by the European Union (EU) for coordinating and increasing national investment in defence research and improve interoperability between national forces. It was proposed in 2016 by President Jean-Claude Juncker and established in 2017. The fund has two stands; research (€90 million until the end of 2019 and €500 million per year after 2020) and development & acquisition (€500 million in total for 2019-20 then €1 billion per year after 2020). In July 2018, The European Commission announces that the budget for 2021-2027 will be €13 billion.
- "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - A European Defence Fund: €5.5 billion per year to boost Europe's defence capabilities". europa.eu. 7 June 2017.
- "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - EU budget: Stepping up the EU's role as a security and defence provider". europa.eu. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
- Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) - Factsheet, European External Action Service
- The European Defence Fund: Questions and Answers, European Commission