Russia–European Union relations
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Russian-European relations are the international relations between the European Union (EU) and its largest bordering state, the Russian Federation, to the east. The relations of individual member states of the European Union and Russia vary, though a 1990s common foreign policy outline towards Russia was the first such EU foreign policy agreed. Furthermore, four European Union-Russia Common Spaces are agreed as a framework for establishing better relations. The latest EU-Russia strategic partnership was signed in 2011, but it was later challenged by the European Parliament in 2015 following the annexation of Crimea and war in Donbass.
- 1 Comparison
- 2 Gas disputes
- 3 Tensions over Association Agreements
- 4 Development of Russian political influence and financial links
- 5 Allegations of Russian intimidation and destabilisation of EU states
- 6 Russian organised crime in the EU
- 7 Trade
- 8 Other issues
- 9 Partnership and Cooperation Agreement
- 10 The Four Common Spaces
- 11 European integration of Russia
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
|Area||4,324,782 km2 (1,669,808 sq mi)||17,075,400 km² (6,592,800 sq mi)|
|Population Density||115/km² (300 /sq mi)||8.3/km² (21.5/sq mi)|
|Capital||Brussels (de facto)||Moscow|
|Global Cities||London, Paris, Rome, Berlin, Vienna, Madrid, Amsterdam, etc.||Moscow and Saint Petersburg|
|Government||Supranational parliamentary democracy based on the European treaties||Federal presidential republic|
|First Leader||High Authority President Jean Monnet||President Boris Yeltsin|
|Current Leader||Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker||President Vladimir Putin|
|Official languages||Languages of the EU||Russian|
|GDP (nominal)||$18.881 trillion ($37,262 per capita)||$1.857 trillion ($7,742 per capita)|
The Russia–Ukraine gas dispute of 2009 damaged Russia's reputation as a gas supplier. After a deal was struck between Ukraine and the EU on 23 March 2009 to upgrade Ukraine's gas pipelines Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin threatened to review Russia's relations with the EU. "If Russia’s interests are ignored, we will also have to start reviewing the fundamentals of our relations", Putin stated. According to Russian Energy Minister Sergei Shmatko the plan appeared to draw Ukraine legally closer to the European Union and might harm Moscow's interests. The Russian Foreign Ministry called the deal "an unfriendly act" (on March 26, 2009). Professor Irina Busygina of the Moscow State Institution for Foreign Relations has said that Russia has better relations with certain leaders of some EU countries than with the EU as a whole because the EU has no prospect of a common foreign policy.
In September 2012, the European Commission (EC) opened an antitrust investigation relating to Gazprom's contracts in central and eastern Europe. Russia responded by enacting, also in September 2012, legislation hindering foreign investigations. In 2013, the poorest members of the EU usually paid the highest prices for gas from Gazprom.
The Commission's investigation was delayed due to Russia's military intervention in Ukraine. In April 2015, the EC accused Gazprom of unfair pricing and restricting competition. The European Commissioner for Competition, Margrethe Vestager, stated that "All companies that operate in the European market – no matter if they are European or not – have to play by our EU rules. I am concerned that Gazprom is breaking EU antitrust rules by abusing its dominant position on EU gas markets." Gazprom said it was "outside of the jurisdiction of the EU" and described itself as "a company which in accordance with the Russian legislation performs functions of public interest and has a status of strategic state-controlled entity." Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė said that the Kremlin was using Gazprom as "a tool of political and economic blackmail in Europe".
Tensions over Association Agreements
The run-up to the 2013 Vilnius Summit between the EU and its eastern neighbours saw what The Economist called a "raw geopolitical contest" not seen in Europe since the end of the Cold War, as Russia attempted to persuade countries in its "near abroad" to join its new Eurasian Union rather than sign Association Agreements with the EU. The Russian government under president Putin succeeded in convincing Armenia (in September) and Ukraine (in November) to halt talks with the EU and instead begin negotiations with Russia. Nevertheless, the EU summit went ahead with Moldova and Georgia proceeding towards agreements with the EU despite Russia's opposition. Widespread protests in Ukraine resulted in then-President Viktor Yanukovych leaving Ukraine for Russia in February 2014. Russia subsequently began a military intervention in Ukraine. This action was condemned as an invasion by the European Union, which imposed visa bans and asset freezes against some Russian officials.
Russia views some of the countries that applied to join the EU or NATO after the fall of the Iron Curtain as part of its sphere of influence. It has criticised their admission and frequently said that NATO is "moving its infrastructure closer to the Russian border". NATO Deputy Secretary General Alexander Vershbow responded that NATO's major military infrastructure in Eastern Europe is no closer to the Russian border than since the end of the Cold War, and that Russia itself maintains a large military presence in neighbouring countries.
Moscow increased its efforts to expand its political influence using a wide range of methods, including funding of political movements in Europe, increased spending on propaganda in European languages, operating a range of media broadcasting in EU languages and web brigades, with some observers suspecting the Kremlin of trying to weaken the EU and its response to the Ukrainian crisis. It formed close ties with Eurosceptic and populist parties, belonging to the far-right and far-left. By the end of 2014, a number of European far-right and far-left parties were receiving different forms of financial or organisational support from Russia in an attempt to build a common anti-European and pro-Russian front in the European Union.
Unlike in the Cold War, when Soviets largely supported leftist groups, a fluid approach to ideology now allows the Kremlin to simultaneously back far-left and far-right movements, greens, anti-globalists and financial elites. The aim is to exacerbate divides and create an echo chamber of Kremlin support.— Peter Pomerantsev, Michael Weiss, "The Menace of Unreality: How the Kremlin Weaponizes Information, Culture and Money", The Interpreter Magazine, 2014
Among the far-right parties involved were Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), Alternative for Germany (AfD), National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD), French National Front, Hungarian Jobbik, Bulgarian Attack (Ataka), Latvian Russian Union. Among far-left parties the representatives of Die Linke, Communist Party of Greece, Syriza and others were attending numerous events organized by Russia such as "conservative conferences" and the Crimean referendum. In the European Parliament, the European United Left-Nordic Green Left are described as "reliable partner" of Russian politics, voting against resolutions condemning events such as military intervention in Ukraine, and supporting Russia's policy e.g. in Syria.
Konstantin Rykov and Timur Prokopenko, both closely tied to United Russia and Russian Federation’s Presidential Administration, were the key figures in funneling money to these parties. Agence France-Presse stated that "From the far right to the radical left, populist parties across Europe are being courted by Russia's Vladimir Putin who aims to turn them into allies in his anti-EU campaign" and that "A majority of European populist parties have sided with Russia over Ukraine." During the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, British politicians Nigel Farage of the far-right and Jeremy Corbyn of the far-left both defended Russia, saying the West had "provoked" it.
Luke Harding wrote in The Guardian that the Front National's MEPs were a "pro-Russian bloc." In 2014, the Nouvel Observateur said that the Russian government considered the Front National "capable of seizing power in France and changing the course of European history in Moscow's favour." According to the French media, party leaders had frequent contact with Russian ambassador Alexander Orlov and Marine Le Pen made multiple trips to Moscow. In November 2014, Marine Le Pen confirmed a €9 million loan from a Russian bank to the Front National. The Independent said the loans "take Moscow's attempt to influence the internal politics of the EU to a new level." Reinhard Bütikofer stated, "It's remarkable that a political party from the motherland of freedom can be funded by Putin's sphere - the largest European enemy of freedom." Boris Kagarlitsky said, "If any foreign bank gave loans to a Russian political party, it would have been illegal, or at least it would have been an issue which could lead to a lot of scandal" and the party would be required to register as a "foreign agent." Le Pen denied a Mediapart report that a senior Front National member said it was the first installment of a €40 million loan. In April 2015, a Russian hacker group published texts and emails between Timur Prokopenko, a member of Putin's administration, and Konstantin Rykov, a former Duma deputy with ties to France, discussing Russian financial support to the Front National in exchange for its support of Russia's annexation of Crimea.
In June 2015, Marine Le Pen launched a new political group within the EU Parliament, Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENF), composed of members of the Front National, Party for Freedom, Lega Nord, the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), Flemish Interest (VB), the Congress of the New Right (KNP), and Vlaams Belang. Reviewing votes in the EU Parliament on resolutions critical of Russia or measures not in the Kremlin's interests (e.g., the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement), Hungary's Political Capital Institute found that the future ENF members voted "no" in 93% of cases, European United Left–Nordic Green Left in 78% of cases, and Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy in 67% of cases. The writers stated that "It would therefore be logical to conclude, as others have done before, that there is a pro-Putin coalition in the European Parliament consisting of anti-EU and radical parties."
The Financial Times and Radio Free Europe reported on Syriza's ties with Russia and extensive correspondence with Aleksandr Dugin, who called for a "genocide" of Ukrainians. The EUobserver reported that Tsipras had a "pro-Russia track record" and that Syriza's MEPs had voted against the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement, criticism of the Russian annexation of Crimea, and criticism of the pressure on civil rights group Memorial. The Moscow Times stated that "The terms used in Russia's anti-Europe rhetoric also seem to have infiltrated Tsipras' vocabulary." Russia also developed ties with Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán (Fidesz), who praised Vladimir Putin's "illiberal democracy" and was described by Germany's former foreign minister Joschka Fischer as a "Putinist". Hungary allowed a Russian billionaire to renovate a memorial in Budapest, which some Hungarians called illegal, to Soviet soldiers who died fighting against the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, and Putin visited it in February 2015. Orban's government dropped plans to put the expansion of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant out to tender and awarded the contract to Rosatom after Russia offered a generous loan. Zoltán Illés said that Russia was "buying influence".
Two new organisations — European Centre for Geopolitical Analysis and "Agency for Security and Cooperation in Europe" (ASCE) — recruiting mostly European far-right politicians, were also heavily involved in positive public relations during the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, observing Donbass general elections and presenting a pro-Russian point of view on various events there. In 2014, a number of officials in Europe and NATO provided circumstantial evidence that protests against hydraulic fracturing may be sponsored by Gazprom. Russian officials have on numerous occasions warned Europe that fracking "poses a huge environmental problem" in spite of Gazprom itself being involved in shale gas surveys in Romania (and not facing any protests) and reacted aggressively to any criticism by environmental organisations.
In February 2015, a group of Spanish nationals was arrested in Madrid for joining a Russian-backed armed group in the war in Donbass. Travelling through Moscow, they were met by a "government official" and sent to Donetsk, where they saw French and other foreign fighters, "half of them communists, half Nazis".
In March 2015, the Russian nationalist party Rodina organized the International Russian Conservative Forum in Saint Petersburg, inviting a majority of its far-right and far-left (including openly neo-Nazi) supporters from abroad, many of whom had visited a similar event in Crimea in 2014: Udo Voigt, Jim Dowson, Nick Griffin, Jared Taylor, Roberto Fiore, Georgios Epitidios (Golden Dawn) and others.
Since 2012, a fund created by the Foreign Affairs Ministry of Russia (Fund for the Legal Protection and Support of Russian Federation Compatriots Living Abroad) has transferred €224,000 to the "Latvian Human Rights Committee", which was founded by pro-Russian politician Tatjana Ždanoka. Latvijas Televīzija reported that only projects which supported Russia's foreign policy objectives were eligible for funding.
In June 2015, the European Parliament stated that Russia was "supporting and financing radical and extremist parties in the EU" and called for monitoring of such activities. France's National Front, UKIP, and Jobbik voted against the resolution. These and other extreme right organisations are part of Russia-sponsored World National-Conservative Movement. In July 2016, Estonian foreign affairs minister Marina Kaljurand said, "The parade that we have seen of former and current European leaders to Moscow calling for rapprochement — and tacitly agreeing to the dismantling of Europe — has been disheartening for those of us who understand that a unified Europe with a strong American partnership is the only reason we have a choice at all about where our futures should be."
Allegations of Russian intimidation and destabilisation of EU states
In July 2009, central and eastern European leaders, including former presidents and other leaders, signed an open letter stating:
"Our hopes that relations with Russia would improve and that Moscow would finally fully accept our complete sovereignty and independence after joining NATO and the EU have not been fulfilled. Instead, Russia is back as a revisionist power pursuing a 19th-century agenda with 21st-century tactics and methods. [...] It challenges our claims to our own historical experiences. It asserts a privileged position in determining our security choices. It uses overt and covert means of economic warfare, ranging from energy blockades and politically motivated investments to bribery and media manipulation in order to advance its interests and to challenge the transatlantic orientation of Central and Eastern Europe."— Valdas Adamkus, Martin Bútora, Emil Constantinescu, Pavol Demeš, Luboš Dobrovský, Mátyás Eörsi, István Gyarmati, Václav Havel, Rastislav Káčer, Sandra Kalniete, Karel Schwarzenberg, Michal Kováč, Ivan Krastev, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, Mart Laar, Kadri Liik, János Martonyi, Janusz Onyszkiewicz, Adam Daniel Rotfeld, Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Alexandr Vondra, Lech Wałęsa
Latvian journalist Olga Dragilyeva stated that "Russian-language media controlled by the Russian government and NGOs connected with Russia have been cultivating dissatisfaction among the Russian-speaking part of the population" in Latvia. In June 2015, a Chatham House report stated that Russia used "a wide range of hostile measures against its neighbours", including energy cut-offs, trade embargoes, subversive use of Russian minorities, malicious cyber activity, and co-option of business and political elites.
In 2015, the U.K. media said that the Russian leadership under Putin saw the fracturing of the political unity within the EU and especially the political unity between the EU and the U.S. as among its main strategic goals, one of the means in achieving this goal being rendering support to Europe's far-right and hard Eurosceptic political parties. In October 2015, Putin said that Washington treated European countries "like vassals who are being punished, rather than allies."
In November 2015, the president of Bulgaria, Rosen Plevneliev, said that Russia had launched a massive hybrid warfare campaign "aimed at destabilising the whole of Europe", giving repeated violations of Bulgarian airspace and cyber-attacks as examples.
In January 2016, senior UK government officials were reported to have registered their growing fears that "a new cold war" was now unfolding in Europe, with "Russian meddling" allegedly taking on a breadth, range and depth greater than previously thought: "It really is a new Cold War out there. Right across the EU we are seeing alarming evidence of Russian efforts to unpick the fabric of European unity on a whole range of vital strategic issues.” The situation prompted the US Congress to instruct James R. Clapper, the U.S. Director of National Intelligence, to conduct a major review of Russian clandestine funding of European parties over the previous decade.
On numerous occasions Russia was also accused of actively supporting United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union through channels such as Russia Today and Russian Federation embassy in London. An analysis of the Russian government's English-language news service, Sputnik, found "a systematic bias in favour of the "Out" campaign which was too consistent to be the result of accident or error."
In February 2016, a film circulating in Hungary, in which recruited students expressed anger at the policy of the USA, was identified as a version of a Russian movie with the same script funded by a pro-Putin organisation, Officers’ Daughters. Published in March 2016, Swedish security service Säpo's annual report stated that Russia was engaged in "psychological warfare" using "extreme movements, information operations and misinformation campaigns" aimed at policy makers and the general public.
A Russian spy, Sergey Cherepanov, operated in Spain from the 1990s to June 2010 under a false identity, "Henry Frith".
In its 2013 report, the Security Information Service noted the presence of an "extremely high" number of Russian intelligence officers in the Czech Republic. The Swedish Security Service's 2014 annual report named Russia as the biggest intelligence threat, describing its espionage against Sweden as "extensive".
According to a May 2016 report for the European Council on Foreign Relations, Russia was engaged in "massive and voracious intelligence-gathering campaigns, fueled by still-substantial budgets and a Kremlin culture that sees deceit and secret agendas even where none exist."
One of the main figures perceived as European far-right and far-left contact in Russia is Sergey Naryshkin, who in 2016 was appointed as the chef of Russia's Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR).
In 2007, following the Estonian government's decision to remove a statue of a Soviet soldier, the Baltic country's major commercial banks, government agencies, media outlets, and ATMs were targeted by a coordinated cyber attack which was later traced to Russia.
In April 2015, the French television channel TV5 Monde was targeted by a cyber attack which claimed to represent ISIL but French sources said their investigation was leading to Russia. In May 2015, the Bundestag's computer system was shut down for days due to a cyberattack carried out by a hacker group that was likely "being steered by the Russian state", according to the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution in Germany. The agency's head, Hans-Georg Maaßen, said that, in addition to spying, "lately Russian intelligence agencies have also shown a willingness to conduct sabotage."
Military and nuclear
In 2009, Wprost reported that Russian military exercises had included a simulated nuclear attack on Poland. In June 2012, Russian general Nikolay Makarov said that "cooperation between Finland and NATO threatens Russia's security. Finland should not desire NATO membership, rather it should preferably have closer military cooperation with Russia." In response, Finnish Prime Minister Jyrki Katainen said that "Finland will make its own decisions and [do] what is best for Finland. Such decisions will not be left to Russian generals." In April 2013, Svenska Dagbladet reported that Russia had simulated a bombing run in March on the Stockholm region and southern Sweden, using two Tu-22M3 Backfire heavy bombers and four Su-27 Flanker fighter jets. A nuclear attack against Sweden was part of the training exercises.
In May 2014, Russia's Deputy Prime Minister Dmitri Rogozin joked that he would return in a TU-160 after his plane was barred from Romania's airspace. Requesting an explanation, Romania's foreign ministry stated that "the threat of using a Russian strategic bomber plane by a Russian deputy prime minister is a very grave statement under the current regional context." Rogozin has also stated that Russia's defence sector has "many other ways of travelling the world besides tourist visas" and "tanks don't need visas".
In October 2014, Denmark's Defence Intelligence Service stated that in June of the same year Russian military jets "equipped with live missiles" had simulated an attack on the island of Bornholm as 90,000 people visited for the annual Folkemødet meeting.
In November 2014, the European Leadership Network reviewed 40 incidents involving Russia in a report titled Dangerous Brinkmanship, finding that they "add up to a highly disturbing picture of violations of national airspace, emergency scrambles, narrowly avoided midair collisions, close encounters at sea, simulated attack runs, and other dangerous actions happening on a regular basis over a very wide geographical area." In March 2015, Russia's ambassador to Denmark, Mikhail Vanin, stated that Danish warship "will be targets for Russian missiles" if the country joined NATO's missile defense system. Danish foreign minister Martin Lidegaard said the statements were "inacceptable" and "crossed the line". A few days later, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Aleksandr Lukashevich said that Russia could "neutralize" a missile defense system in Denmark. In April 2015, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland decided to increase their military cooperation, telling Aftenposten: "The Russian military are acting in a challenging way along our borders, and there have been several infringes on the borders of the Baltic nations. Russia’s propaganda and political manoevering are contributing to sowing discord between the nations, as well as inside organisations like NATO and the EU". In June 2015, Russia's ambassador to Sweden, Viktor Tatarintsev, told Dagens Nyheter that if Sweden joins NATO "there will be counter measures. Putin pointed out that there will be consequences, that Russia will have to resort to a response of the military kind and re-orientate our troops and missiles."
In April 2015, the Russian navy disrupted NordBalt cable-laying in Lithuania's exclusive economic zone. From April 2013 to November 2015, Russia held seven large-scale military exercises (65,000 to 160,000 personnel) whereas NATO exercises were generally much smaller in size, with the largest composed of 36,000 personnel. Estonia criticised Russia's military exercises, saying that they "dwarfed" NATO's and were offensive rather than defensive, "simulating the invasion of its neighbors, the destruction and seizure of critical military and economic infrastructure, and targeted nuclear strikes on NATO allies and partners."
In 2016, Sweden revised its military strategy doctrine. Parliamentary Defense Committee chairman Allan Widman stated, "The old military doctrine was shaped after the last Cold War when Sweden believed that Russia was on the road to becoming a real democracy that would no longer pose a threat to this country and its neighbors." In April 2016, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov stated that Russia would "have to take the necessary military-technical action" if Sweden joined NATO; Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven responded, "We demand respect [...] in the same way that we respect other countries' decisions about their security and defence policies."
Russian military activities in Ukraine and Georgia caused particular alarm in countries which are geographically close to Russia and those which experienced decades of Soviet military occupation. Poland's foreign minister Witold Waszczykowski stated, "We have to reject any type of wishful thinking with regard to pragmatic cooperation with Russia as long as it keeps on invading its neighbours."
Poisoning and abduction
Alexander Litvinenko, who had defected from the FSB and become a British citizen, died from radioactive polonium-210 poisoning carried out in England in November 2006. Relations between the U.K. and Russia cooled after a British murder investigation indicated that Russia's Federal Protective Service was behind his poisoning.
In September 2014, the FSB crossed into Estonia and abducted Eston Kohver, an officer of the Estonian Internal Security Service. Brian Whitmore of Radio Free Europe stated that the case "illustrates the Kremlin's campaign to intimidate its neighbors, flout global rules and norms, and test NATO's defenses and responses."
Use of migration issues
In January 2016, several Finnish authorities suspected that Russians were enabling migrants to enter Finland, and Yle, the national public-broadcasting company, reported that a Russian border guard had admitted the Federal Security Service's involvement. In March, NATO General Philip Breedlove stated, "Together, Russia and the Assad regime are deliberately weaponizing migration in an attempt to overwhelm European structures and break European resolve." A Russian state-run channel, supported by Sergey Lavrov, broadcast a false story that a 13-year-old German-Russian girl who had briefly disappeared had been raped by migrants in Berlin and that German officials were covering it up. Germany's foreign minister suggested that Russia was using the case "for political propaganda, and to inflame and influence what is already a difficult debate about migration within Germany."
Russian organised crime in the EU
In 2015, a Spanish investigation found links between Russian politicians, including allies of Vladimir Putin, and organised crime in Spain. In May 2016, a Spanish judge issued arrest warrants for Russian government officials close to Putin. In late June, Spanish authorities arrested seven people implicated in a money laundering ring with connections to United Russia, Russia's ruling political party.
In January 2016, there were allegations that the Russian mafia was concealing money in Irish Financial Services Centre funds and land in Ireland.
The EU is Russia's largest trading partner, accounting for 52.3% of all foreign Russian trade in 2008 and 75% of foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks in Russia also come from the EU. The EU exported €105 billion of goods to Russia in 2008 and Russia exported €173.2 billion to the EU. 68.2% of Russian exports to the EU are accounted for by energy and fuel supplies. For details on other trade, see the table below;
|Direction of trade||Goods||Services||FDI||Total|
|EU to Russia||€105 billion||€18 billion||€17 billion||€140 billion|
|Russia to EU||€173.2 billion||€11.5 billion||€1 billion||€185.7 billion|
Russia and the EU are both members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). The EU and Russia are currently implementing the common spaces (see below) and negotiation to replace the current Partnership and Cooperation Agreement to strengthen bilateral trade.
The Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast has, since 2004, been surrounded on land by EU members. As a result, the Oblast has been isolated from the rest of the federation due to stricter border controls that had to be brought in when Poland and Lithuania joined the EU and further tightened before they joined the Schengen Area. The new difficulties for Russians in Kaliningrad to reach the rest of Russia is a small source of tension.
In July 2011 the European Commission put forward proposals to classify the whole of Kaliningrad as a border area. This would allow Poland and Lithuania to issue special permits for Kaliningrad residents to pass through those two countries without requiring a Schengen visa.
Russia has a significant role in the European energy sector as the largest exporter of oil and natural gas to the EU. In 2007, the EU imported from Russia 185 million tonnes of crude oil, which accounted for 32.6% of total oil imports, and 100.7 million tonnes of oil equivalent of natural gas, which accounted for 38.7% of total gas imports. A number of disputes in which Russia was using pipeline shutdowns in what was described as "tool for intimidation and blackmail" caused European Union to significantly increase efforts to diversify its energy sources.
There have been agreements on other matters such as the withdrawal of taxes on EU flights over Siberia.
Meat from Poland
Further problems include a ban by Russia on Polish meat exports (due to allegations of low quality and unsafe meat exported from the country), which caused Poland to veto proposed EU-Russia pacts concerning issues such as energy and migration; an oil blockade on Lithuania; and concerns by Latvia and Poland on the Nord Stream pipeline. In 2007 Polish meat was allowed to be exported to Russia.
2014 Russian food embargo
Announced August the 6th, 2014 by President Putin. Russia banned European food imports in response to EU sanctions.
Partnership and Cooperation Agreement
The legal basis for the relations between the EU and Russia is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA). Signed in June 1994 and in force since December 1997, the PCA was supposed to be valid for 10 years. Thus, since 2007 it is annually automatically renewed, until replaced by a new agreement. The PCA provides a political, economic and cultural framework for relations between Russia and the EU. It is primarily concerned with promoting trade, investment and harmonious economic relations. However, it also mentions the parties' shared "[r]espect for democratic principles and human rights as defined in particular in the Helsinki Final Act and the Charter of Paris for a new Europe" and a commitment to international peace and security. A replacement agreement has been under negotiations since 2008 and following that and WTO entry, a more detailed agreement will be negotiated.
Russian exports to the EU have very few restrictions, except for the steel sector.
The Four Common Spaces
Russia has chosen not to participate in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), as it aspires to be an "equal partner" of the EU (as opposed to the "junior partnership" that Russia sees in the ENP). Consequently, Russia and the European Union agreed to create four Common Spaces for cooperation in different spheres. In practice there are no substantial differences (besides naming) between the sum of these agreements and the ENP Action Plans (adopted jointly by the EU and its ENP partner states). In both cases the final agreement is based on provisions from the EU acquis communautaire and is jointly discussed and adopted. For this reason, the Common Spaces receive funding from the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), which also funds the ENP.
At the St. Petersburg Summit in May 2003, the EU and Russia agreed to reinforce their co-operation by creating, in the long term, four common spaces in the framework of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement of 1997: a common economic space; a common space of freedom, security and justice; a space of co-operation in the field of external security; and a space of research, education, and cultural exchange.
The Moscow Summit in May 2005 adopted a single package of Road Maps for the creation of the four Common Spaces. These expand on the ongoing cooperation as described above, set out further specific objectives, and determine the actions necessary to make the common spaces a reality. They thereby determine the agenda for co-operation between the EU and Russia for the medium-term.
The London Summit in October 2005 focused on the practical implementation of the Road Maps for the four Common Spaces.
Common Economic Space
The objective of the common economic space is to create an open and integrated market between the EU and Russia. This space is intended to remove barriers to trade and investment and promote reforms and competitiveness, based on the principles of non-discrimination, transparency, and good governance.
Among the wide range of actions foreseen, a number of new dialogues are to be launched. Cooperation will be stepped up on regulatory policy, investment issues, competition, financial services, telecommunications, transport, energy, space activities and space launching, etc. Environment issues including nuclear safety and the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol also figure prominently.
Common Space of Freedom, Security and Justice
Work on this space has already made a large step forward with the conclusion of negotiations on the Visa Facilitation and the Readmission Agreements. Both the EU and Russia are in the process of ratifying these agreements. The visa dialogue will continue with a view to examine the conditions for a mutual visa-free travel regime as a long-term perspective. In a 15 December 2011 statement given after an EU-Russia summit, the President of the European Commission confirmed the launch of the “Common Steps towards visa-free travel” with Russia. Russia hopes to sign a deal on visa free travel as early as January 2014.
Cooperation on combating terrorism and other forms of international illegal activities such as money laundering, the fight against drugs and trafficking in human beings will continue as well as on document security through the introduction of biometric features in a range of identity documents. The EU support to border management and reform of the Russian judiciary system are among the highlights of this space.
With a view to contributing to the concrete implementation of the road map, the Justice and Home Affairs PPC met on 13 October 2005 and agreed to organise clusters of conferences and seminars, bringing together experts and practitioners on counter-terrorism, cyber-crime, document security and judicial cooperation. There was also agreement about developing greater cooperation between the European Border Agency (FRONTEX) and the Federal Border Security Service of Russia.
Common Space on External Security
The road map underlines the shared responsibility of the parties for an international order based on effective multilateralism, their support for the central role of the UN, and for the effectiveness in particular of the OSCE and the Council of Europe. The parties will strengthen their cooperation on security and crisis management in order to address global and regional challenges and key threats, notably terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). They will give particular attention to securing stability in the regions adjacent to Russian and EU borders (the "frozen conflicts" in Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Nagorno-Karabakh).
EU activities in this area are done in the framework of its Common Foreign and Security Policy.
Common Space on Research, Education, Culture
This space builds on the long-standing relations with Russia through its participation in EU Research and Development activities and the 6th FPRD in particular, and under the TEMPUS programme. It aims at capitalising on the strength of the EU and Russian research communities and cultural and intellectual heritage by reinforcing links between research and innovation and closer cooperation on education such as through convergence of university curricula and qualifications. It also lays a firm basis for cooperation in the cultural field. A European Studies Institute co-financed by both sides will be set up in Moscow for the start of the academic year 2006/7.
Russia and the EU continue to work together under Horizon 2020, which runs from 2014 to 2020.
European integration of Russia
Visa liberalization dialogue
On May 4, 2010, the EU and Russian Federation raised the prospect of beginning negotiations on a visa-free regime between their territories. However it was announced by the Council of Ministers of the EU that the EU is not completely ready to open up the borders due to high risk of increase in human trafficking and drug imports into Europe and because of the loose borders of Russia with Kazakhstan. They will instead work towards providing Russia with a "roadmap for visa-free travel." While this does not legally bind the EU to providing visa-free access to the Schengen zone for Russian citizens at any specific date in the future, it does greatly improve the chances of a new regime being established and obliges the EU to actively consider the notion, should the terms of the roadmap be met. Russia on the other hand has agreed that should the roadmap be established, it will ease access for EU citizens for whom access is not visa-free at this point, largely as a result of Russian foreign policy which states that "visa free travel must be reciprocal between states." Both the EU and Russia acknowledge, however, that there are many problems to be solved before visa-free travel is introduced.
The dialogue was temporarily frozen by the EU in March 2014 during the 2014 Crimean crisis. In 2015, Jean-Maurice Ripert, the current French Ambassador to Russia, stated that France would be interested in abolishing short-term Sсhengen visas for Russians. In June 2016, EEAS released a Russian-language video describing the necessary conditions for the visa-free regime. The same year, a number of EU officials, including the head of EEAS' Russia Division Fernando Andresen Guimarães, said that they would like to restart negotiations on visa abolishment. On May 24 2016, the German think tank DGAP released a report called "The Eastern Question: Recommendations for Western Policy", discussing the renewed Western strategy towards Russia in the wake of increased tensions between Putin's regime and EU. One of their recommendations is the visa liberalization for Russian citizens in order to "improve people-to-people contacts and to send a strong signal that there is no conflict with Russian society".
EU membership discussion
Among the most vocal supporters of Russian membership of the EU has been former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. In an article published to Italian media on 26 May 2002, he said that the next step in Russia's growing integration with the West should be EU membership. On 17 November 2005, he commented in regards to the prospect of such a membership that he is "convinced that even if it is a dream ... it is not too distant a dream and I think it will happen one day." Berlusconi has made similar comments on other occasions as well. More recently, in October 2008, he said "I consider Russia to be a Western country and my plan is for the Russian Federation to be able to become a member of the European Union in the coming years" and stated that he had this vision for years.
Russian permanent representative to the EU Vladimir Chizhov commented on this by saying that Russia has no plans of joining the EU. Vladimir Putin has said that Russia joining the EU would not be in the interests of either Russia or the EU, although he advocated close integration in various dimensions including establishment of four common spaces between Russia and the EU, including united economic, educational and scientific spaces as it was declared in the agreement in 2003.
Michael McFaul claimed in 2001 that Russia was "decades away" from qualifying for EU membership. Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder has said that though Russia must "find its place both in NATO, and, in the longer term, in the European Union, and if conditions are created for this to happen" that such a thing is not economically feasible in the near future.
Due to the Ukrainian crisis in 2015 the deputy chief editor of JEF magazine treffpunkteuropa Tobias Gerhard Schminke appealed to European leaders to think about a long-term perspective for Russian EU membership to secure enduring peace for Eastern Europe. The same year, Czech President Miloš Zeman stated that he "dreams" of Russia joining EU.
According to a number of surveys carried out by Deutsche Welle, from 36% to 54% of Russians support Russia joining EU, and about 60% of them see EU as an important partner for their country. Young people have an especially positive image of the European Union.
- Common Economic Space of the CIS
- EU-Russia Centre
- European Union Association Agreement
- Northern Dimension
- Russia in the European energy sector
- "European Union - EEAS (European External Action Service) | EU relations with Russia". eeas.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
- "EU and Russia: Strategic Partnership" (PDF). EU External Action. 2011. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
- "Russia-EU strategic partnership". Retrieved 2015-06-11.
- "Russia is no longer a strategic partner of the EU, say MEPs". European Parliament. 11 June 2015.
- "Eurostat-Tables,Graphs and Maps Interface（TGM）table". European Commission. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Field Listing – Area "Field Listing – Area" Check
|url=value (help). The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Parliamentary democracy and the Treaty of Lisbon
- Russia and Ukraine sign gas deal, BBC News (19 January 2009)
- EU moves to secure Ukrainian gas, BBC News (23 March 2009)
- Russia suspicious of EU-Ukraine gas "master plan", Reuters (March 23, 2009)
- Putin threatens to review relations with EU, Russia Today (23 March 2009)
- Russia raps EU over Ukraine gas talks , Reuters (March 26, 2009)
- Analysis: Deauville summit BBC, 19 October 2010
- White, Aoife (5 September 2012). "Gazprom Faces EU Antitrust Probe on Eastern Europe Gas Sales". Bloomberg.com.
- Martyniszyn, Marek (2014) Legislation Blocking Antitrust Investigations and the September 2012 Russian Executive Order, 37(1) World Competition 103
- Kates, Glenn; Luo, Li (1 July 2014). "Russian Gas: How Much Is That?". RFERL.
- Schreck, Carl (22 April 2015). "Explainer: The EU's Antitrust Case Against Russia's Gazprom". Radio Free Europe.
- Kanter, James (22 April 2015). "In Accusing Russian Energy Giant Gazprom, E.U. Begins a Test of Wills". The New York Times.
- "Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to Gazprom for alleged abuse of dominance on Central and Eastern European gas supply markets". European Commission. 22 April 2015.
- Johnson, Keith (22 April 2015). "EU to Gazprom: Play by the Rules". Foreign Policy.
- Fairless, Tom; Steinhauser, Gabriele (22 April 2015). "EU Files Formal Charges Against Gazprom for Abuse of Dominant Position". Wall Street Journal.
- "Playing_East_Against_West". The Economist. 23 November 2013.
- "Putin's Power Grab: First Armenia, Now Ukraine". The Daily Beast.
- "Vilnius summit overshadowed by Ukrainian trade deal rejection". DW.DE.
- "Frequently asked questions about Ukraine, the EU's Eastern Partnership and the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement" (PDF). European Union External Action. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Benitez, Jorge (2015-08-04). "Putin's False Account of NATO Frontline Troops". Newsweek. Retrieved 2015-08-20.
- The Bear in Sheep’s Clothing: Russia’s Government-Funded Organisations in the EU | Martens Centre.
- "Four Types of Russian Propaganda | Aspen Review Central Europe". www.aspeninstitute.cz. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
- "Russia's Hybrid War Against Poland". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 2015-04-29. Retrieved 2015-04-30.
- Shekhovtsov, Anton (April 2015). "The Challenge of Russia's Anti-Western Information Warfare". Diplomatiaa. Retrieved 2015-04-30.
- Higgins, Andrew (6 April 2015). "Using Cash and Charm, Putin Targets Europe's Weakest Links". The New York Times.
- Schmidt, Christophe (3 April 2015). "Russia gambles on populist parties in anti-EU campaign". Agence France-Presse. Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015.
- Budziak, Sławomir (30 March 2015). "Czech Echoes of the Kremlin's Information War". New Eastern Europe.
- Péter Krekó, Lóránt Győri. "Russia and the European Far Left" (PDF).
- "Reports multiply of Kremlin links to anti-EU parties". EU Observer. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
- Coynash, Halya (17 April 2014). "East Ukraine crisis and the 'fascist' matrix". Al Jazeera.
- Rettman, Andrew (11 June 2015). "Farage and Le Pen unite on Russia report". EUobserver.
- Anton Shekhovtsov (2015-05-03). "Russia and Front National: Following the Money". The Interpreter Magazine. Retrieved 2015-05-06.
- Graham, Georgia (16 September 2014). "Nigel Farage: Stop opposing Vladmir Putin in Ukraine and join forces to defeat Islamic terrorists". telegraph.co.uk. London.
- Corbyn, Jeremy (17 April 2014). "Nato belligerence endangers us all". Morning Star Online.
- Harding, Luke (8 December 2014). "We should beware Russia's links with Europe's right". The Guardian.
- Jauvert, Vincent (27 November 2014). "Poutine et le FN : révélations sur les réseaux russes des Le Pen". Le Nouvel Observateur.
- Dodman, Benjamin (23 November 2014). "France's cash-strapped far right turns to Russian lender". France24. Archived from the original on 23 November 2014.
- Baczynska, Gabriela (26 May 2015). "French far-right leader Marine Le Pen in Moscow amid Ukraine tensions". Reuters.
- Turchi, Marine (27 November 2014). "Far-right Front National's Russian loan: '31 mln euros more to follow'". Mediapart.
- Lichfield, John (27 November 2014). "€40m of Russian cash will allow Marine Le Pen's Front National to take advantage of rivals' woes in upcoming regional and presidential elections". The Independent. London.
- Pabst, Sabrina (29 November 2014). "Is the Kremlin financing Europe's right-wing populists?". Deutsche Welle.
- Beardsley, Eleanor; Flintoff, Corey (26 December 2014). "Europe's Far Right And Putin Get Cozy, With Benefits For Both". NPR.
- "Mediapart: National Front's Kremlin loan is worth €40mn". EU Observer. 2014-11-27. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
- "Financement du FN : des hackers russes dévoilent des échanges au Kremlin" [Financing of the National Front: Russian hackers unveil contacts with the Kremlin]. Le Monde (in French). 3 April 2015.
- Krekó, Péter; Macaulay, Marie; Molnár, Csaba; Győri, Lóránt (3 August 2015). "Europe's New Pro-Putin Coalition: the Parties of 'No'". Political Capital Institute (Hungary). Institute of Modern Russia.
- Jones, Sam; Hope, Kerin; Weaver, Courtney (28 January 2015). "Alarm bells ring over Syriza's Russian links". Financial Times.
- Coalson, Robert (28 January 2015). "New Greek Government Has Deep, Long-Standing Ties With Russian 'Fascist' Dugin". RFERL.
- Rettman, Andrew (27 January 2015). "Greece says No to EU statement on Russia". EU Observer.
- Tétrault-Farber, Gabrielle (26 January 2015). "Greek Election Wins Putin a Friend in Europe". The Moscow Times.
- Lyman, Rick; Smale, Alison (7 November 2014). "Defying Soviets, Then Pulling Hungary to Putin". The New York Times.
- Szécsi, Zoltán (17 February 2015). "Controversy over Putin visit to "illegal" memorial to 1956 Soviet invaders". politics.hu.
- Than, Krisztina (30 March 2015). "Special Report: Inside Hungary's $10.8 billion nuclear deal with Russia". Reuters.
- Shaun Walker (3 November 2014). "Ukraine: Donetsk votes for new reality in country that does not exist". the Guardian. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "A prelude to a farce: Prearranged ballots for Kremlin-backed breakaway regions". Kyiv Post. 1 November 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Andrew Higgins (30 November 2014). "Russian Money Suspected Behind Fracking Protests". New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- "Журналисты Canal+ рассказали об "альянсе Москвы и Нацфронта"". RFI. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- "Reports multiply of Kremlin links to anti-EU parties". euobserver.com. Retrieved 2016-03-19.
- Ortega Dolz, Patricia (27 February 2015). "We fought together, communists and Nazis alike, for the liberation of Russia". El Pais.
- Max Seddon (2015-03-22). "Racists, Neo-Nazis, Far Right Flock to Russia for Joint Conference". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 2015-03-23.
- Paul Goble (2015-03-22). "Russia Hosting Europe's Neo-Nazis, Nationalists and Anti-Semites, Putin Supporters All". The Interpreter Magazine. Retrieved 2015-03-23.
- Anton Shekhovtsov (2015-04-04). "What Does the Fascist Conference in St. Petersburg Tell Us About Contemporary Russia?". The Interpreter Magazine. Retrieved 2015-04-04.
- "Participants who are invited to participation in the "World National-Conservative Movement"" (PDF). 2015. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- "Kremlin cash flows towards pro-Putin MEP". LSM. 2015-04-13. Retrieved 2015-04-14.
- Holehouse, Matthew (11 June 2015). "Ukip under fire after blocking scrutiny of party donations". telegraph.co.uk. London.
- "Russian Politicians Building an International Extreme Right Alliance". www.interpretermag.com. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- Kaljurand, Marina (7 July 2016). "Estonia needs NATO's help against Russia". Washington Post.
- Valdas Adamkus, Martin Bútora, Emil Constantinescu, Pavol Demeš, Luboš Dobrovský, Mátyás Eörsi, István Gyarmati, Václav Havel, Rastislav Káčer, Sandra Kalniete, Karel Schwarzenberg, Michal Kováč, Ivan Krastev, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, Mart Laar, Kadri Liik, János Martonyi, Janusz Onyszkiewicz, Adam Daniel Rotfeld, Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Alexandr Vondra, Lech Wałęsa (15 July 2009). "An Open Letter to the Obama Administration from Central and Eastern Europe". Gazeta Wyborcza.
- Martyn-Hemphill, Richard; Morisseau, Etienne (4 April 2015). "Baltics in front line of Information War". The Baltic Times.
- Giles, Keir; Hanson, Philip; Lyne, Roderic; Nixey, James; Sherr, James; Wood, Andrew (June 2015). "The Russian challenge" (PDF). Chatham House.
- "Putin's war on the West". Economist. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "From cold war to hot war". Economist. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "In the Kremlin's pocket". Economist. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "Far-Right Europe Has a Crush on Moscow". Moscow Times. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Putin: No need to distinguish between ‘moderate’ & other terrorists
- Holmes, Lawrie (2015-11-14). "Russia plans a 'hybrid warfare campaign aimed at destabilising Europe'". The Independent.
- "Russia accused of clandestine funding of European parties as US conducts major review of Vladimir Putin's strategy / Exclusive: UK warns of "new Cold War" as Kremlin seeks to divide and rule in Europe". The Telegraph. 16 January 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
- "Those who call for Brexit are handing European power to the Kremlin". The Independent. 9 March 2016.
- Nimmo, Ben (13 February 2016). "Lobbying for Brexit: How the Kremlin's media are distorting the UK's debate". The Institute for Statecraft.
- Nimmo, Ben (16 June 2016). "Still backing Brexit". The Institute for Statecraft.
- "Hungarian students caught up in global Russian propaganda campaign against America". Atlatszo (English). 23 February 2016.
- "Russian spies pose as diplomats in Sweden". thelocal.se. 17 March 2016.
- Briançon, Pierre (16 June 2016). "The Spanish story of a Russian 'illegal'". politico.eu.
- "Russia 'biggest threat' to Sweden over past year". thelocal.se. 18 March 2015.
- Galeotti, Mark (11 May 2016). "Putin's hydra: Inside Russia's intelligence services". European Council on Foreign Relations.
- "ALDE wants investigation of Le Pen's contacts with Moscow". EurActiv.com. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "Putin names ally Sergei Naryshkin as new foreign spy chief". BBC News. 2016-09-22. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- Krebs, Brian (13 October 2007). "Estonia Incident Demonstrated Power of Russia-Based Cyber Networks". Washington Post.
- "Piratage TV5 Monde : sur la piste de hackers russes". France 24 (in French). 10 June 2015.
- "Germany says Russia probably behind cyber attack on Bundestag". Reuters. 13 May 2016.
- Day, Matthew (1 November 2009). "Russia 'simulates' nuclear attack on Poland". The Telegraph. London.
- O'Dwyer, Gerard (13 June 2012). "Russian Military Chief Stirs Anti-NATO Pot". Defense News.
- Cenciotti, David (23 April 2013). "Russia Simulated A Large-Scale Aerial Night Attack On Sweden". The Aviationist. Business Insider.
- "Russia carried out practice nuclear strike against Sweden". thelocal.se. 3 February 2016.
- Illie, Luiza (10 May 2014). "Romania queries Moscow after deputy PM sends bomber jet tweets". Reuters.
- "'Tanks don't need visas,' Putin aide tells west". Agence France-Presse. Times of India. 26 May 2015. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015.
- "Russia simulated an attack on Denmark". thelocal.dk. 31 October 2014.
- "Dangerous Brinkmanship" (PDF). European Leadership Network. 5 November 2014.
- Witte, Griff (23 November 2014). "Finland feeling vulnerable amid Russian provocations". Washington Post.
- Jensen, Teis (22 March 2015). "Russia threatens to aim nuclear missiles at Denmark ships if it joins NATO shield". Reuters.
- Olsen, Jan M. (21 March 2015). "Danish minister quarrels with Russian ambassador". Associated Press. Yahoo News.
- Kruse, Simon (26 March 2015). "»Det er ikke en trussel. Det er en advarsel«". Berlingske.
- Berg Bentzrød, Sveinung (9 April 2015). "Russian aggression: Nordic states extend their military cooperation". Aftenposten.
- "UPDATED: New documentary reveals covert Russian influence in Baltics". www.lsm.lv. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
- "Russia warns of 'risks' should Sweden join Nato". thelocal.se. 18 June 2015.
- Braw, Elisabeth (5 May 2015). "Balts Say Russian Navy Bullying Undersea Cable Crews". Radio Free Europe.
- "Russia accused of disrupting new energy link between Sweden and Lithuania". euractiv.com. 4 May 2015.
- "Power Projection: Comparing Russian and NATO Military Exercises". RFERL. Retrieved July 2016. Check date values in:
- O'Dwyer, Gerard (17 March 2016). "Sweden Adopts Tougher Military Strategy Doctrine". Defense News.
- "Swedes want answers from Russia after Nato warning". thelocal.se. 29 April 2016.
- Birnbaum, Michael (3 July 2016). "Near Russia's border with the Baltics, soldiers on both sides are practicing for war". Washington Post.
- Emmott, Robin; Siebold, Sabine (8 July 2016). "NATO agrees to reinforce eastern Poland, Baltic states against Russia". Reuters.
- Whitmore, Brian (3 June 2015). "Why Eston Kohver Matters". Radio Free Europe.
- "Russian border guard to STT: Russian security service behind northeast asylum traffic". Yle. 24 January 2016.
- "NATO Commander: Russia uses Syrian refugees as 'weapon' against West". Deutsche Welle. 2 March 2016.
- Dempsey, Judy (28 January 2016). "Russia's Manipulation of Germany's Refugee Problems". Carnegie Europe.
- Rezunkov, Viktor; Coalson, Robert (17 December 2015). "From Communist Gold To Kremlin Power: Spanish Prosecutors Outline Russia's Captive State". Radio Free Europe.
- Luhn, Alec; Harding, Luke (4 May 2016). "Spain issues arrest warrants for Russian officials close to Putin". The Guardian.
- "Al menos 7 detenidos en un nuevo golpe a la mafia rusa en Tarragona" [At least 7 detained in new blow to the Russian mafia in Tarragona]. El Mundo (in Spanish). 28 June 2016.
- Sheehan, Maeve (17 January 2016). "Russian mob hides cash in IFSC funds and land". independent.ie.
- EU-Russia bilateral trade relations, European Commission
- Pop, Valentina (29 July 2011) EU to ease travel for residents of Russian enclave, EU Observer
- "Energy Dialogue EU–Russia. The Tenth Progress Report." (PDF). European Commission. November 2009: 4–6. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "Lithuania suspects Russian oil grab". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "Europe's alternatives to Russian gas". European Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- Почему Россия отказывается от польского мяса? echo.msk.ru (Russian)
- EU and Russia tackle thorny issues at Samara summit euobserver.com 19 May 2007
- Ashifa Kassam. "Russian food embargo leaves Europe with glut of fruit, pork and mackerel". the Guardian.
- "European Union - EEAS (European External Action Service) | Legal framework". eeas.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-08-18.
- "Agreement on partnership and cooperation establishing a partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of one part, and the Russian Federation, of the other part" (PDF). p. Article 2.
- "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - The EU-Russia Partnership – basic facts and figures". europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-08-18.
- Statement by President Barroso at the press conference following the EU-Russia Summit Press conference Brussels, 15 December 2011, Europa.eu (December 15, 2011)
- "Russia Pushing for EU Visa-Free Travel Deal in January". 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
- Sokolov, Alexander; Haegeman, Karel; Spiesberger, Manfred; Boden, Mark (22 December 2014). "Facilitating EU-Russian Scientific and Societal Engagement". Science & Diplomacy. 3 (4).
- Лавров: вопросы о введении безвизового режима между Россией и ЕС проработаны [Lavrov: questions about visa-free regime between Russia and the EU worked out.] (in Russian). 2010-05-04.
- EU votes to suspend visa and economic talks, Irish Times, 7 March 2014
- La France envisage de supprimer les visas pour les Russes
- Visa liberalisation: how does it work? (Russian version)
- ЕС поборется с Кремлем отменой виз [EU will fight Kremlin with visa abolishment] (in Russian). 2016-05-06.
- The Eastern Question: Recommendations for Western Policy
- EU membership next step for Russia after NATO, Daily Times, 28 May 2002
- Italian PM Berlusconi confident Russia will join EU, EUbusiness, 17 November 2005
- Do Not Adjust Your Sets, TIME Europe Magazine, 7 July 2003
- "Berlusconi says he wants Russia to join the EU". Afp.google.com. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- "Russia not planning to join EU". Panarmenian.net. 2008-10-17. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- "Four spaces" of Russia and European Union, "Special opinion" program on Russian Radio Archived August 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Four spaces, Rossiyskaya newspaper". Rg.ru. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- "Interview of official Ambassador of Russian Foreign Ministry on relations with the EU". Rian.ru. 2004-11-25. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- TKS.RU - всё о таможне (2004-04-23). "Four spaces, TKS". Tks.ru. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- Michael A. McFaul, West or East for Russia?, The Washington Post, 9 June 2001
- Schroeder says Russia must find place in NATO, EU
- Czech President ‘Dreams’ of Russia Joining EU
- DW: Russians esteem European partners
- DW: Russians warm to the EU
- DW: Russia: Young people in particular have a positive attitude toward the EU
- Van der Loo, Guillaume (2013). "EU-Russia Trade Relations: It Takes WTO to Tango?". Legal Issues of Economic Integration. 40 (1): 7–32. ISSN 1566-6573.
- Sputnik articles on Visa-free travel between Russia and the EU
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Relations of Russia and the European Union.|
- Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the European Union
- The official site of the EU's delegation to Russia
- European External Action Service: The EU's relations with Russia
- European Union Institute for Security Studies: Research on EU-Russia Relations
- The Russo-Georgian War and Beyond: towards a European Great Power Concert, Danish Institute of International Studies
- The EU and Russia cease to be a priority for each other: The squabble over WTO membership reveals the defunct state of the strategic partnership, FIIA Comment (15) 2012, The Finnish Institute of International Affairs