Frankston, Victoria

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This article is about the Melbourne suburb. For the encompassing local government area, see City of Frankston.
Frankston
Victoria
Frankston Olivers Hill 2008.JPG
Frankston CBD viewed from Olivers Hill
Frankston is located in Melbourne
Frankston
Frankston
Coordinates 38°09′29″S 145°08′06″E / 38.158°S 145.135°E / -38.158; 145.135Coordinates: 38°09′29″S 145°08′06″E / 38.158°S 145.135°E / -38.158; 145.135
Population 35,009 (2011 census)[1]
 • Density 1,683/km2 (4,359/sq mi)
Established 1854
Postcode(s) 3199
Area 20.8 km2 (8.0 sq mi)
Location
LGA(s) City of Frankston
State electorate(s) Frankston
Federal Division(s) Dunkley
Suburbs around Frankston:
Port Phillip Seaford Frankston North
Port Phillip Frankston Langwarrin
Port Phillip Frankston South Langwarrin South

Frankston is an outer-southeastern suburb of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, in the local government area of the City of Frankston. It is 41 km south of the Melbourne city centre, at the northernmost point of the Mornington Peninsula. Due to its geographic location, it is often referred to as "the gateway to the Mornington Peninsula".[2][3]

European settlement of Frankston began around the same time as the foundation of Melbourne in 1835—initially as an unofficial fishing village serving the early Melbourne township.[4] Prior to its European settlement, the Frankston area was inhabited primarily by the Mayone-bulluk clan from the Bunurong tribe of the Kulin nation.[5] The new village of Frankston was officially established after formal land sales took place in 1854.[4][6] It became a suburb within the metropolitan area of Melbourne as a result of the urban agglomeration of the metropolis in the 1940s.[7] Today the suburb of Frankston lends its name to the broader local government area of the City of Frankston and serves as its activity and administrative centre.

Situated on the eastern shoreline of Port Phillip, Frankston has been a popular seaside destination of Melbourne since the early 1880s.[2] Today, Frankston Beach is still one of the most popular in Victoria,[8] and is recognised as one of the cleanest in Australia.[9][10] It is also home to one of the largest annual exhibitions of sand sculpting in the Southern Hemisphere.[11][12][13]

Localities in the suburb (with the postcode 3199) include: Frankston Central Business District (CBD), Frankston East, Frankston Heights, Karingal, Long Island, Mount Erin and Olivers Hill. The independent suburb of Frankston South also shares the same postcode as Frankston. According to the 2011 Australian census, the suburb of Frankston had a population of 35, 009.[1] The demonym for someone from Frankston is a Frankstonian.[14]

History[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The origins of the name Frankston have been subject to some conjecture. One enduring popular theory is that it was named after Frank Liardet, the son of prominent early Melbourne pioneer Wilbraham Liardet, who built the first brick house in Frankston at his Ballam Park estate in 1855 (in what is now the Frankston locality of Karingal).[4]

However, a letter to the editor of The Argus newspaper from a member of the Liardet family (published 30 May 1916) stated that this was not the case.[6] Included with the letter were excerpts of correspondence between the family and the Victorian state Department of Lands and Survey which also refuted the theory that Frankston was named after Frank Liardet. Alternatively, according to the included correspondence with the department, its Chief Draftsman believed that Frankston was named after the early Melbourne settler Charles Franks who was killed by Indigenous Australians.[6] It is also states that the name was used from the first survey of the area in early 1854, a year before Liardet constructed his homestead.[6]

The settler Charles Franks arrived in Melbourne in 1836 and took up a land holding on the western side of Port Phillip, near Mount Cottrel (northeast of what is now the Melbourne outer-western suburb of Wyndham Vale).[6] Franks' land neighboured that of the explorer and surveyor John Helder Wedge, one of the original settlers of Melbourne. Helder Wedge's nephew, surveyor Charles Wedge (after whom Wedge Road in what is now the City of Frankston suburb of Carrum Downs is named), managed his uncle's land before taking up his own holding in the Frankston area.[6] In the included correspondence published with the letter to editor of The Argus, the Chief Draftsman of the Department of Lands and Survey surmises that, at the time of surveying the area, the name Frankston was probably suggested to honour the Wedges' deceased former neighbour.[6]

Another popular theory—which has entered into local folklore—is that Frankston was named after a pub called Frank Stone's Hotel. In 1929, the later author Don Charlwood (a student at Frankston High School at the time) compiled a history of Frankston using living sources and local records supporting this theory.[15] Charlwood's history was published over several weeks in the The Frankston & Somerville Standard newspaper the following year.[15]

The pub, which was the earliest permanent building in the area, was built by early Frankston settler John Davey in 1846.[7][16] Located on the northwest corner of what is now Davey Street and Nepean Highway (the site of the present day Grand Hotel) it was originally called the Cannanuke Inn.[7][16] According to Charlwood, the pub had various owners under that name until it was purchased by a "Mr. Stone".[15] After the birth of his son, Frank, Stone renamed the pub Frank Stone's Hotel.[15] Charlwood implies that the town developed around the pub and that its name was adapted from it in 1854.[15]

However, according to historian Michael Jones, in his book Frankston: Resort to City, Frankston is actually named after the British army major-general Sir Thomas Harte Franks.[7] Jones' theory is strengthened by the fact that a number of other suburbs in the area, such as: Cranbourne, Hastings, Lyndhurst, Mornington and Pakenham, also had their names derived from that of British generals and statesmen. Jones suggests that Andrew Clarke, the Surveyor-General of the Port Phillip District from 1853 to 1858, and who had briefly served under Franks in India, named all of these places.[7]

Indigenous heritage[edit]

Further information: Bunurong and Kulin

Prior to the foundation of Melbourne by Europeans in 1835, the area surrounding Port Phillip was originally populated by Indigenous Australians of the Kulin nation for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years.[17] Particularly, the Frankston area was inhabited primarily by the Mayone-bulluk clan from the Bunurong tribe of the Kulin nation.[17][5]

The tribes of the Kulin nation were a nomadic peoples with no sedentary settlements.[5] Instead, they would travel between areas in their respective territories under the influence of the seasons or the weather.[5] The Bunurong tribe were hunter-gatherers who maintained an ecologically sustainable existence by travelling between past designated locations, which historically had abundant resources at that particular time of the year.[5] For the Mayone-bulluk clan, Kananook Creek and Sweetwater Creek as well as the swamps and wetlands in the northern Frankston area were often rich sources of fish, particularly eels, as well as wild fruits and vegetables in summer.[5][18]

Bunurong territory, of which Frankston is a part, stretches from the Werribee River in the western metropolitan area of Melbourne east to Wilsons Promontory in Gippsland, and was referred to as marr ne beek or "excellent country" among the Kulin nation tribes.[19] According to the Indigenous Australian mythology of the Dreamtime, the Bunurong territory was created by the ancestor spirit Lohan.[19] All Bunurong tribe members are considered direct descendents of Lohan patrilineality.[19] The creator of the Kulin nation-proper was the deity eaglehawk spirit Bunjil, and the protector of waterways and keeper of winds was the trickster crow spirit Waa.[19]

Bunjil and Waa are the two moiety totems that governed the kinship system of the Kulin nation tribes. The Mayone-bulluk clan of the Frankston area was closely linked through marriage to the Wurundjeri-balluk clan of the Melbourne city centre area, from the neighbouring Woiwurrung tribe, based on this system.[19] Two wooden sculptures of eagles, inspired by Bunjil, by acclaimed artist Bruce Armstrong; a 5 metre version on Mayone-bulluk clan land, erected on Young Street in Frankston in 2001,[20] and a 25 metre version on Wurundjeri-balluk clan land, erected on Wurundjeri Way in Melbourne Docklands in 2002,[21] are representative of this link.

The earliest recorded contact of the Bunurong tribe with Europeans in the Frankston area was in 1803. Early that year, Captain Charles Robbins sailed his ship the Cumberland into Port Phillip on a surveying expedition headed by Charles Grimes. On 30 January, Grimes went ashore at Kananook Creek in search of fresh water and made peaceful contact with "around 30 of the natives"—most likely members of the Mayone-bulluk clan.[22]

Another possible early encounter of the Mayone-bulluk clan with Europeans was with a party of escaped convicts from the failed settlement attempted by Captain David Collins at Sorrento in late 1803—on the southern Mornington Peninsula. Among the escapees was William Buckley (who later lived with the Wadawurrung-balug clan from the neighbouring Wathaurong tribe of the Kulin nation for 32 years) who, after travelling north up the Mornington Peninsula for two days, describes coming to a stream running "near the bay" (most likely Kananook Creek and Long Island in the Frankston area) where he and his party encountered a "large tribe of the natives...armed with spears" but did not make direct contact.[23]

The number of Bunurong tribe members, at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1800s, was estimated at being around 300.[24] James Fleming, a member of Charles Grimes' surveying expedition in early 1803, reported observing smallpox scars on members of the Kulin nation tribes he had encountered—indicating that an epidemic had affected them prior to 1803.[22][24] Smallpox, which arrived in Australia along with the First Fleet in 1788, is believed to have reached the Port Philip area via the first European settlement in Australia at Port Jackson (what is now Sydney) in 1790 and claimed at least half the population of the combined Kulin nation tribes.[17]

Following permanent European settlement in 1835, another smallpox epidemic reduced the number of Bunurong tribe members to 83 by 1839.[24] An influenza epidemic during the 1840s further reduced their number to 28 by 1850.[24] The last full-blood member of the Bunurong tribe, Yam-mer-book, also known as Jimmy Dunbar (from the Ngaruk-Willam clan which was geographically close to the Mayone-bulluk clan), who lived to the north of Frankston near Mordialloc, died of natural causes in 1877.[24]

Today, the descendents of the Mayone-bulluk clan of the Frankston area are represented by the Boon Wurrung Foundation,[25] and its cultural environment and heritage is managed by the Bunurong Land Council.[26] The current senior Bunurong elder is Carolyn Briggs.[27][28]

European settlement[edit]

1888 lithograph of Mark Young's Pier Hotel, Young's Baths and the Colonial Bank of Australasia in the seaside resort town of Frankston.

After the settlement of Melbourne in 1835, James Davey took up a land holding in 1846, which extended from Olivers Hill to what is now Daveys Bay. The locality of Olivers Hill was named after a local fisherman, James Oliver, who built a cottage atop the hill from where he kept an eye out for fish in the waters below.[7]

The first official land sales in the Frankston area were held in 1853. Frank Liardet, the eldest son of prominent early Melbourne settler Wilbraham Liardet, established his Ballam Park estate in 1854 (in what is now the Frankton locality of Karingal).[7][29] The Liardet homestead at the estate was the first brick house in the Frankston area and still remains today. The homestead is heritage-listed and open to the public for tours.

Thomas McComb, who arrived in Frankston in 1852, purchased much land in the area (over what is now the Frankston Central Business District) and did much to develop the local fishing industry. A new pier was completed with his support in 1857 and, between the 1850s and the arrival of the Melbourne railway in the 1880s, the area continued to develop as a fishing community.[2][7]

An Anglican church and school were built in 1855 and a pottery established in 1859.[7] The first post office in Frankston opened on 1 September 1857.[30] During the 1860s, there were estimated to be around 30 people living in Frankston, with about 200 others living in the surrounding area.

A state primary school was built in 1874 as well as a Mechanics' Institute, and a free library was opened in 1880. The first savings bank, the Colonial Bank of Australasia, opened in 1881.[7] By the mid-1880s, two brickworks and a cordial manufacturer were also operating in the area.[7] The Melbourne railway came on 1 August 1882, which saw Frankston develop into a seaside resort.[7]

20th century[edit]

Gregory Peck in front of the former Frankston railway station building, in the film On the Beach (1959).

Frankston's lure as a holiday destination increased particularly after the electrification of the railway service on 27 August 1922—which reduced average journey times from 90 to 62 minutes. Between these years, the area developed into a regional centre for the Mornington Peninsula and a playground for Melbourne's affluent.[2][7]

Franskton Life Saving Club was established in 1924.[31][32]

Frankston was the site of the first Australian Scout Jamboree in 1935.[7] It was the only jamboree in Australia to be attended by the founder of the Scouting movement, Sir Robert Baden-Powell. Several streets in the Frankston area are named after the event (Baden Powell Drive being the most prominent). The original grandstand used for the jamboree had remained a historic landmark at Frankston Park for 72 years, until it was destroyed by fire on 12 February 2008.[33]

Frankton Yacht Club was founded in 1937.[34]

The population of Frankston boomed during and after World War II, increasing from 12,000 in 1947 to 82,000 by 1982 (referring to the old town zoning system when Frankston and its surrounds were all part of the former 'Shire of Frankston and Hastings'). This was partly due to the establishment of government housing estates in the area to house the families of Australian Defence Force personnel that were stationed at the Langwarrin Military Reserve (in what is now the City of Frankston suburb of Langwarrin) as well as Balcombe Army Camp in Mount Martha and the Flinders Naval Depot near Hastings.[7]

In 1959, the Hollywood film On the Beach starring Gregory Peck and Ava Gardner was partly filmed in Frankston, at its railway station, its beach and in the surrounding area. The original novel of On the Beach was written by novelist Nevil Shute, who lived in Frankston's south-east (in what is now the City of Frankston suburb of Langwarrin).

The Frankston flotilla of the Volunteer Coast Guard was established in 1961, as one of the eight founding flotillas in Victoria.[35]

Recent history[edit]

Arched pedestrian bridge erected as part of the Frankston Waterfront development.

At the turn of the 21st century, Frankston City Council drafted a comprehensive plan to develop key areas of the Frankston foreshore—mainly around the Frankston Pier and the mouth of Kananook Creek.[36] The plan, which was delivered in stages, included: a new waterfront area with restaurants and visitor centre, a raised timber foreshoreway and pedestrian bridge over the mouth of Kananook Creek, and new life saving and yacht club houses, and was primarily constructed over existing car parking areas.[36]

The first stage, called the Frankston Waterfront, completed in the mid-2000s, included: extensive landscaping with public art (around the area south of the mouth of Kananook Creek to the Frankston Pier); erection of the arched pedestrian bridge over the mouth of Kananook Creek (next to the existing Frankston Yacht Club house); construction of the restaurant and visitor centre building (next to the Frankston Pier) along with a large playground behind it (next to the existing Frankston Volunteer Coast Guard flotilla) and the southern stretch of the foreshoreway, called the Frankston Boardwalk (from the Frankston Pier to near the base of Olivers Hill).

The A$1 million Frankston Visitor Information Centre at the Frankston Waterfront opened in 2007.[37] It has since won the Victorian Tourism Award and Australian Tourism Award for "visitor information and services" in 2012, 2013 and 2014.[37] It was also inducted into the Victorian and Australian Tourism Hall of Fame in 2014 (after which it is no longer eligible for awards).[37][38]

Sand Sculpting Australia made Frankston the home of its annual sand festival in 2008.[11][39] Held over four month from 26 December at the Frankston Waterfront, it is now the largest exhibition of sand sculpting in Australia and one of the largest in the Southern Hemisphere (using around 3,500 tonnes of sand).[11][12][13]

The second stage of the foreshore development, completed in the late-2000s, included: construction of the new Frankston Life Saving Club house (north of the Frankston Waterfront) and the northern stretch of the Frankston Boardwalk (between the new Frankton Life Saving Club and existing Frankston Yacht Club houses).[36] The third and final stage, due for completion in the mid-2010s, includes the construction of the A$7.5 million Frankston Yacht Club house.[40][41]

In 2012, the major water utility provider South East Water announced that it intended to consolidate its business operations (at the time, 700 staff spread across three office locations) in a new A$70 million headquarters based in Frankston.[42][43] The site of the building, on Kananook Creek Boulevard (along the eastern bank of Kananook Creek) in the Frankston Central Business District (CBD), cost A$4 million.[44] The eight storey 11,000 m2 building includes around 550 m2 of café and retail space which fronts a pedestrian promenade on Kananook Creek.[43][44][45] The 5 Green Star and 4.5 NABERS-rated building was designed by leading architectural firm BVN Donovan Hill and is due for completion in 2015.[42][45]

In 2014, Frankston City Council opened its A$49.7 million health and aquatic recreation centre, located on the corner of Cranbourne Road and Olive Grove near the Frankston CBD.[46] Called the Peninsula Aquatic Recreation Centre (PARC), it has four pools, including an Olympic-size pool (50 metres); an aquatic playground and two water slides (by WhiteWater West); a gym and a health and wellness centre, as well as other related facilities.[47]

Geography[edit]

Borders[edit]

The suburb of Frankston covers a large geographic area compared with other Melbourne suburbs. It also envelopes a number of localities (with the postcode 3199), which are not independent suburbs, including: Frankston Central Business District (CBD), Frankston East, Frankston Heights, Karingal, Long Island, Mount Erin and Olivers Hill.

Frankston is bordered to the west by the Port Phillip coastline; to the north by Skye Road, but also encompassing the Long Island Country Club and the Peninsula Kingswood Country Club, and Overton Road (bordering the City of Frankston suburbs of Frankston North and Seaford); to the east by the Mornington Peninsula Freeway/Peninsula Link (bordering the City of Frankston suburb of Langwarrin) and to the south by Robinsons Road and Golflinks Road (bordering the City of Frankston suburbs of Frankston South and Langwarrin South).[48]

Topography[edit]

View of Olivers Hill from the Frankston Boardwalk.
Granite rock formations in the Lower Sweetwater Creek Reserve.

The central and northern areas of Frankston are generally flat at around 10 to 12 metres above sea level (32 to 40 feet). The suburb then rises gradually towards its east, and sharply at Olivers Hill towards its south. The southern uplands of the suburb are at the northern end of an uplift area which is in a Horst-Graben structure that extends down the Mornington Peninsula.[49] Similar plutonic intrusive uplifts occur again on the peninsula at Mount Martha and Arthurs Seat. Two fault zones run under the southern uplands and continue down the Mornington Peninsula; known as the Manyung Fault and the Selwyn Fault.[49][50] These faults are generally inactive, although some minor earthquakes and tremors have historically been experienced.

Earthquakes with epicentres in or around the suburb of Frankston have occurred in 1932, 1978, 1980, 2009 and 2014.[51][52] The most recent, on 15 March 2014, measured 2.2 on the Richter magnitude scale.[53] The largest, on 22 September 2009, measured 3.0 on the Richter scale.[54]

Olivers Hill is the most prominent elevation in Frankston and rises to 55 metres above sea level (180 feet)—at its highest point in the suburb. Its origins date to approximately 415 to 360 million years ago. Its base is Mount Eliza Granite dating from the Devonian period, which was covered in lava and tuffs during the Paleogene period.[50] During the Miocene epoch in the Neogene period, the Frankston area was flooded by the sea resulting in a mix of Balcombe Clay (at deep levels) and Baxter Sandstone (at shallow levels) covering the basaltic (lava) level.[50] Fluctuating ice ages of the Pleistocene epoch in the current Quaternary period, caused sea levels to rise and fall dramatically and for sedimentary rock and sand to be deposited on the surface of the hill.[50] Aeolian processes during the mid Holocene epoch, in which Port Phillip has periodically dried up (as recently as 1000 years ago), has caused further sand to be deposited.[50]

With panoramic views across Port Philip, Olivers Hill has the most expensive real estate in Frankston. It is considered to have one of the top ten residential views in Melbourne.[55] Property in the locality has sold for between A$3 and A$4 million in 2015,[56] at the same time as the median house price in the suburb of Frankston being A$390,000.[57]

Due to fluvial processes on its levels of clay and sand, and with ongoing property development, landslips on Olivers Hill are historically common.[58] The first recorded landslip was in 1854, with at least one occurring again every decade up to the present day.[58] Anecdotally, a landslip occurred in the 1960s during a live radio broadcast by celebrity media personality Graham Kennedy; from his house on Olivers Hill, he described how his driveway was "slipping down the slope" as he spoke on air.[58][59] The most recent serious landslips occurred in 2007, 2012 and 2015.[58][59] In all three of the occurrences the fallen debris blocked lanes on the Nepean Highway.[58][59][60]

Coastline[edit]

Frankston Beach, near the Frankston Life Saving Club.
Protected native flora on the Frankston foreshore.

The suburb is at the southernmost end of Beaumaris Bay on the eastern coastline of Port Phillip; a 22 km continuous stretch of beaches, broken only by the Patterson River, Mordialloc Creek and Kananook Creek, beginning at sandstone cliffs in the Melbourne middle-southeastern suburb of Beaumaris and ending at Olivers Hill in Frankston.

Frankston Beach is continually rated as one the cleanest in Australia. It won the Keep Australia Beautiful Victorian Clean Beaches Award in 2008, 2011 and 2012 (the final year of the award), and also represented Victoria for the Australian Clean Beach Award in those years.[9][61][62] On days of storm, with gale-force westerly winds, Frankston also becomes one of the few areas of Port Phillip with a wave swell of a size which allows for surfing. As a result, Frankston Beach is one of the most popular among both locals and visitors in Victoria.[8]

Frankston City Council also has strict protection policies with regards to the sand dunes and native flora along the Frankston foreshore, and has regularly received commendations for its litter prevention and coastal rehabilitation programs.[10][62] As a result, its coastline has retained much of its natural element. Most notably an extensive raised timber foreshoreway, called the Frankston Boardwalk, winds through large sections of the foreshore (including the Frankston Foreshore Reserve) in order to protect it whilst allowing it to be enjoyed by visitors.

Only key areas of the Frankston foreshore, at the Frankston Waterfront (around the Frankston Pier and the mouth of Kananook Creek), have been developed. The Frankston Waterfront has extensive landscaping with public art, a large playground, car parking, restaurants, the Frankston Visitor Information Centre, the Frankston Yacht Club and the Frankston Volunteer Coast Guard. Slightly north of the Frankston Waterfront is the Frankston Life Saving Club.

Kananook Creek runs close to the coastline of Port Phillip, which creates an island effect, and gives the locality the name Long Island. However, it is not technically an island as the creek does not flow into the bay at any point other than its mouth near Frankston Beach. However, the creek was joined to the Patterson Lakes development in 1984 (via an underground aqueduct) and a pumping station was built to improve the water quality in the creek.[63]

A substantial sand dune (which was formed over 1000 years ago) once ran parallel to the majority of the Frankston coastline, which later provided the course for the Frankston railway line and Nepean Highway.[49]

Environment[edit]

Beauty Park.
Frankston Pier.

Frankston is generally a leafy suburb with a wide variety of natural heritage elements.[49] There are hundreds of flora species that are indigenous to the Frankston area, including over 20 species of orchids (some of which are also endemic to the area), and can be found in large natural reserves as well as formal public gardens in the suburb.[49]

The Frankston Spider Orchid (Caladenia robinsonii) is an extremely rare species of orchid that is endemic to the Frankston area.[64] It produces a single 4 cm red and cream-yellow flower with five sepals and exudes a scent that mimics the pheromones of the Thynnid wasp female, in order to attract males to pollinate it.[64] It is currently a threatened species.[64][65]

Frankston City Council has a number of programs in place that aim to increase environmental sustainability in the suburb.[66] It won the Bronze Award for "management of environment and enhancement of quality of life" at the LivCom International Awards for Livable Communities in 2004.[66] The City of Frankston has also won the Keep Australia Beautiful Victorian Sustainable Cities Award in 2008,[61][66] and it was named the Victorian Sustainable City of the Year in 2015.[67]

Large natural parks and reserves in the suburb include:

  • Bunarong Park
  • Frankston Foreshore Reserve
  • Lower Sweetwater Creek Reserve
  • Paratea Reserve

Formal public parks and gardens in the suburb include:

  • Ballam Park
  • Beauty Park
  • Frankston Waterfront (around the Frankston Pier and the mouth of Kananook Creek)
  • George Pentland Botanic Gardens

Climate[edit]

Main article: Climate of Melbourne

Frankston has a temperate climate, the same as the rest of the metropolitan area of Melbourne; however, the suburb is usually around 2 °C cooler than the Melbourne city centre. Frankston is one of the last areas of Melbourne to experience the cool change weather effect that occurs during summer.

Landmarks[edit]

The 160+ year old Frankston Pier is considered to be a landmark of the suburb. Originally built in 1857, so that local fishermen could ship their catches by boat to the fish markets of the Melbourne city centre, it has been extended and repaired a number of times over the years. Today, it is still popular with fishermen and boaters. In summer, local children dive off the pier in contravention of local by-laws.

The arched pedestrian bridge, over the mouth Kananook Creek, was erected in 2003 as part of the Frankston Waterfront development. It immediately became one of the most striking landmarks in the suburb, and is also lit in a variety of colours at night.

The Peninsula on the Bay is the tallest building in Frankston, as well as on the Mornington Peninsula, at 12 storeys. Built in 1973, at 435 Nepean Highway, the original building (an office complex previously called the Peninsula Centre) was considered to be controversial, due to its brutalist architecture, and was even declared to be "the worst building in Australia" by celebrity comedian Barry Humphries.[68] It remained completely vacant throughout the early-2000s,[68] before being redeveloped as a luxury serviced apartments and offices complex in 2013 by Asian Pacific Group.[69]

Frankston Arts Centre is the largest theatre in Frankston, and one of the largest in the metropolitan area of Melbourne. Its main theatre seats 800, and also has the second largest proscenium arched stage in Victoria.[70] It was built in 1995, on the corner of Davey Street and Young Street, and was designed by the renowned architect Daryl Jackson.[70]

Community[edit]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 Australian census, 69.6% of Frankston residents are born in Australia, with 0.9% being Indigenous Australian.[71] The most common overseas places of birth in the suburb are: England (6.4%), New Zealand (2.5%), Scotland (1.3%), India (1.2%), and China (excluding SARs and Taiwan) (0.8%).[72]

51.9% of Frankston residents have parents that are both born in Australia, 32.7% have parents that are both born overseas, and 9.1% have only a father and 6.3% have only a mother that is born overseas.[72] The most common ancestries in the suburb are: English (29.4%), Australian (25.3%), Irish (8%), Scottish (7.7%), and German (3%).[72] 82.8% speak English at home, with the most common languages other than English spoken being: Greek (1%), Mandarin (0.8%), Malayalam (0.7%), Italian (0.7%), and German (0.5%).[72]

The median age in the suburb is 38, with 16.2% of Frankton residents being over the age of 65 and 17.2% being under the age of 14.[71] The aging population in the suburb is balanced by several new housing developments in the neighbouring suburbs of the City of Frankston.

Religion[edit]

The most common religions of Frankston residents are: Catholic (22.3%), Anglican (16.3%), Uniting Church (3.5%), Presbyterian and Reformed (3.2%), with 29.1% of Frankston residents also claiming not to be religious—which is above the Victorian state average of 24%, and the Australian national average of 22.3%.[72]

Places of worship in the suburb of Frankston are predominately of Christian denominations. Of the most common religions; the Latin Catholic Church has two parishes in the suburb, St. Francis Xavier's in the Frankston Central Business District (CBD) and St. John the Evangelist's in Frankton East,[73][74] and the Eastern Catholic Church also has its Greek Orthodox parish of Theofania in Frankston East.[75] The Anglican Church has two parishes in the suburb, St. Paul's in the Frankston CBD and St. Luke's in Frankston East.[76][77]

The Uniting Church has two congregations in the suburb, in Frankston and Karingal.[78][79] The Lutheran Church also has its parish of St. Peter in Karingal, which is closely affiliated with the Uniting Church congregation.[80] Of the member-churches which did not join the Uniting Church, there are Presbyterian Church and Reformed Presbyterian Church congregations in the neighbouring City of Frankston suburbs of Frankston North and Frankston South respectively.[81][82]

There are two Churches of Christ in Frankston, one of which is a part of the Churches of Christ Conference in Australia and another which is congregationalist.[83][84] The separate Church of Christ, Scientist, also has a Christian Science Reading Room in the Frankston CBD.[85] Other significant churches in the suburb are the Seventh-day Adventist Church and the Pentacostal Jubilee Church,[86][87] along with some smaller Baptist, Evangelical and non-denominational churches.[88]

Places of worship for a number of other religions are located in the neighbouring suburbs of the City of Frankston. The Ahmadiyya Muslim community has a mosque in Langwarrin;[89] the Brahma Kumaris have a spiritual retreat in Frankston South;[90] the Eastern Catholic Church has its Serbian Orthodox parish of St. Stefan Decanski in Carrum Downs;[91] the Hindu community has its Shri Shiva Vishnu Temple in Carrum Downs, which is also the largest in Victoria;[92] and the Oriental Orthodox Church has its Jacobite Syrian parish of St. Mary in Frankston North.[93]

Housing[edit]

A dominant suburban element in the Frankston area means its property mix is not as diverse as areas closer to the Melbourne city centre, as the suburb has little multi-story development. However, as the gateway to the Mornington Peninsula, Frankston has been designated as an activity centre in accordance with various planning policies of the Government of Victoria—which aim in part to increase multi-story development in the Frankston Central Business District (CBD).[94][95]

Being one of the southernmost suburbs of the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Frankston is also one of its most affordable. As of the March quarter of 2015, the median house price in the suburb is A$390,000.[57] Comparatively, the median house price of the metropolitan area of Melbourne overall is A$638,445,[96] and the median house price of Australia generally is A$576,100.[97] Frankston consists mostly of traditional quarter-acre blocks (colloquially referred to as the "Australian Dream") and 71% of houses in the suburb consist of three or more bedrooms.[98] However, a small concentration of apartments, flats and units are centred around the areas close to the Frankston Central Business District (CBD).

According to the 2011 Australian census, 28.6% of Frankston residents own their property; 30.1% are purchasing their property; and 37.9% are renting their property. 77.2% of residents live in a house; 15.5% live in an apartment, flat or unit; and 7.3% live in a semi-detached house, terraced house or town house.[98] The suburb has an occupancy rate of 90.5%—which is above the Victorian state average of 88.7%, and the Australian national average of 89.3%.[98]

Electoral boundaries[edit]

At a local level, the City of Frankston local government area is divided into three wards, each represented by three councillors per ward, which are North-West Ward, North-East Ward and South Ward. The suburb of Frankston is located in South Ward.[99]

In Victoria, the South Eastern Metropolitan Region is the state government region for the Victorian Legislative Council that the suburb of Frankston is located in.[100] The region is represented by five members; two from the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal Party of Australia respectively, and one from the Australian Greens.[100] The District of Frankston is the state government electoral district for the Victorian Legislative Assembly that the suburb of Frankston is located in.[101] It is currently held by the Australian Labor Party, and the sitting member is Paul Edbrooke (since 2014).[101]

The state of Victoria is represented by 12 members at a federal government level for the Australian Senate. Six members were elected in 2010 and 2014 respectively; four from the Australian Labor Party, three from the Liberal Party of Australia, two from the Australian Greens, one from the National Party of Australia, one from the Australian Motoring Enthusiasts Party and an independent. The Division of Dunkley is the federal government electoral division for the Australian House of Representatives that the suburb of Frankston is located in.[102] It is currently held by the Liberal Party of Australia, and the sitting member is the Hon. Bruce Billson (since 1996).[102]

Economy[edit]

The suburb of Frankston has particular strengths in the health care, retail/hospitality and education industries.[103][104] Four sizeable hospitals, numerous health care providers, two regional shopping centres, a hard goods retail park, a university campus, a large TAFE institute as well as various secondary colleges and primary schools are all located within the suburb and are a significant source of employment.

According to the 2011 Australian census, 7.6% of Frankston residents are employed in the health care (hospital/residential care services) industry—making it the most common industry of employment for the suburb.[103] 6.8% of residents are employed in the retail/hospitality industry and 4% in the education industry.[103]

Currently, the suburb of Frankston is defined by the Victorian state Metropolitan Planning Authority as one of the nine activity centres in the metropolitan area of Melbourne.[95] It is also under consideration to be redefined as a national employment cluster for its industry strengths in health care and education, as well as for being both an economic hub and a tourism destination within the greater Mornington Peninsula region.[105][106]

Gross regional product (GRP) of the broader City of Frankston area was A$ 4.7 billion in 2014,[104] with a large amount generated from the retail/hospitality and tourism-related industries.[105] Frankston City Council drafted its first tourism strategy in 2003, which continues to have a focus on its beach and waterfront, cultural and natural heritage, major events and festivals, performing and visual arts as well as restaurants and shopping—with a large majority being located within the suburb of Frankston.[107]

Retail[edit]

Bayside Shopping Centre is the largest in Frankston and on the Mornington Peninsula.

Bayside Shopping Centre is a super-regional shopping centre, and the largest in Frankston and on the Mornington Peninsula, owned by Federation Centres (after merging with Novion Property Group in 2015).[108] It has a Myer department store; the discount department stores: Kmart and Target; the large speciality stores: Best & Less, JB Hi-Fi, Rebel Sport, Toys "R" Us and Trade Secret; three supermarkets: Aldi, Coles and Woolworths; a 12 screen Hoyts cinema multiplex; a Strike Bowling Bar and a further 250 smaller speciality stores, restaurants and food outlets.[108][109] It opened in the Frankston Central Business District (CBD) as a single mall in 1972, and is now spread over three multi-storey interlinked malls as well as a separate entertainment precinct on Wells Street.

Karingal Hub Shopping Centre is a regional shopping centre, and the second largest in Frankston, owned by Industry Superannuation Property Trust (ISPT) and managed by Federation Centres.[110] It has a Big W discount department store; the large speciality store Best & Less; two Woolworths supermarkets; a 12 screen Village cinema multiplex (that also features one of the 30 VMAX super-sized screens in Australia) and a further 120 speciality stores, restaurants and food outlets.[111] It opened in 1978, on Cranbourne Road, in the Franktson locality of Karingal, and is a single-storey mall with a small entertainment precinct. Next door to Karingal Hub Shopping Centre is the liquor supermarket Dan Murphy's and the hardware store Womersley's Mitre 10.[112][113]

Outside of Bayside Shopping Centre, the main shopping street in the Frankston CBD is Wells Street. It has a variety of boutiques, independent retailers, cafés and food outlets as well as a farmers' market on every Thursday morning.[114][115] In mid-2015, Frankston City Council spent A$3.5 million on upgrades to the street.[116] Off Wells Street, Shannon Mall (leading to the southern entrance of Bayside Shopping Centre) is a pedestrian mall that also has a number of independent retailers and cafés.

Many restaurants are located in the Frankston CBD, with a large concentration on the Nepean Highway, and cover a variety of cuisines which include: Australian (modern), Chinese (Cantonese, dumplings and modern), French, Indian (North and South), Italian, Japanese (including sashimi/sushi and teppanyaki specifically), Mediterranean (Greek and modern), Middle Eastern, North American (Mexican and modern grill), South American (Argentine and modern), Southeast Asian (fusion), Thai, Vegetarian and Vietnamese (including Pho specifically).[117][118]

Pub corner[edit]

The intersection of Davey Street and Nepean Highway in the Frankston CBD is known as "pub corner" or "hotel corner".[16] It has had a pub/hotel on at least one of its corners continually for 165+ years, since early Frankston pioneer John Davey built the Cannanuke Inn on its northeast corner in 1846.[16] A second hotel, the original Pier Hotel, was built on its northwest corner in circa 1860.[4] The third hotel, The Prince of Wales Hotel, was built on its southwest corner in 1882.[16] Each one has since been demolished and rebuilt or expanded over the years.

The southeast corner has had a chequered history. It was the site of the former Frankston post office and telephone exchange, which was built in 1910 and demolished and rebuilt in 1941.[119] It ceased service as a post office and telephone exchange in the 1980s, after which it was remodelled as a Captain America's themed restaurant. It was remodelled as a nightclub named Monkey Bar and later Saloon during the 1990s and 2000s, and even became a strip club briefly, before being remodelled as an upmarket pub called The Deck Bar in 2013.[120]

The current pubs/hotels on each of the corners are: The Pier Hotel's Flanagan's Irish Bar (northwest corner),[121] The Grand Hotel (northeast corner),[122] The Deck Bar (southeast corner), and Davey's Bar and Restaurant (southwest corner).[123] Others in the vicinity of the intersection are the pub Pelly Bar and the live music venue Pier Live.

Hard goods[edit]

Frankston Power Centre is a hard goods retail park owned by SPG Investments.[124] It has 20 large format stores mainly retailing household goods and electronics, including: Anaconda, Forty Winks, Freedom, The Good Guys, Harvey Norman, Nick Scali, Plush and Spotlight as well as a Croc's Play Centre and food outlets.[125] It is located between the Frankston CBD and Karingal, near the corner of Cranbourne Road and McMahons Road. Across from the Frankston Power Centre, on McMahons Road, is the hardware super-store Bunnings Warehouse.[126]

Major automotive dealerships including: Chrysler (also retailing Dodge and Jeep), Ford, Holden, Honda, Hyundai (also retailing Kia), Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, SsangYong, Subaru, Suzuki, Toyota and Volkswagen (also retailing Audi and Škoda) operate along Dandenong Road, in the north-west of the suburb, within a industrial area mostly involving automotive repair and light manufacturing.

Infrastructure[edit]

Health[edit]

The suburb of Frankston is at the core of a large health care industry within the broader City of Frankston area, which is the health care hub for the greater Mornington Peninsula region.[95][104][105] Health care is also the largest industry of employment for the suburb, with 7.6% of Frankston residents being employed in the hospital/residential care services sector.[103] Four hospitals providing secondary, tertiary and specialist care are located in the suburb, supported by numerous primary care providers in the surrounding area.

Hospitals[edit]

Frankston Hospital is a major 340 bed public hospital,[127] and the largest in Frankston and on the Mornington Peninsula, which is a part of the Peninsula Health Care network.[128] It is the chief provider of acute secondary and tertiary care for the broader City of Frankston area and the greater Mornington Peninsula region.[127] It opened in 1941, at 2 Hastings Road in Frankston, and has been significantly expanded over the years. Its most recent expansion included a A$81 million emergency department in 2015—which is one of the largest and busiest in Victoria.[129][130] It is a major teaching hospital, and is affiliated with nearby Monash University and Chisholm Institute as well as Deakin University.[127]

Peninsula Private Hospital is a 166 bed private hospital,[131] and the second largest hospital in Frankston, owned by Australian Unity and a part of the Ramsay Health Care network.[131][132] It provides acute secondary and some tertiary care and also has a number of primary care providers.[131] The original hospital opened in 1976 and was located on Cranbourne Road in the Frankston locality of Karingal.[133] The current hospital, at 525 McClelland Drive in Karingal, was built in 1999.[133] It was expanded with a new intensive care unit in 2012,[133] and a A$55 million emergency department is due for completion in mid-2016.[134][135] It is also a teaching hospital.[136]

Frankston Rehabilitation Hospital is a 69 bed private rehabilitation hospital, and the largest in Frankston and on the Mornington Peninsula, owned by the St John of God Health Care network.[137] It is a major provider of specialist physical and neurological rehabilitation care in the broader City of Frankston area and the greater Mornington Peninsula region.[137] It opened in 2000 and is located at 255-265 Cranbourne Road in Karingal—the former site of the Peninsula Private Hospital.[137]

Frankston Private Day Surgery is currently a 27 bed private outpatient surgery owned by Generation Heath Care and a part of the Healthscope and Genesis health care networks.[138][139] It provides surgical and oncological procedures and also has some primary care providers.[139] It opened in 2006 and is located at 24-28 Frankston-Flinders Road in Frankston.[139] In 2015, Healthscope announced that it plans to expand the surgery into an inpatient hospital called Frankston Private Hospital.[140] The new hospital, to be built in three stages, will have an additional 150 beds.[140] The first stage, initially providing an additional 60 beds, will cost A$35 million.[140]

Amenities[edit]

Peninsula Aquatic Recreation Centre (PARC) is a health and aquatic recreation facility, and the largest in Frankston and on the Mornington Peninsula, owned by Frankston City Council.[46] It has four pools, including an Olympic-size pool (50 metres) and one of the largest warm-water exercise and rehabilitation pools in Victoria;[141] a gym and a health and wellness centre, as well as other related facilities; and also provides various fitness programs and is home to a number of swimming squads.[47][142] It opened in 2014 and is located on the corner of Cranbourne Road and Olive Grove near the Frankston Central Business District (CBD).[46]

Monash Peninsula Activity and Recreation Centre (MPARC) is another large health and recreation facility, and the second largest in Frankston, owned by Monash University.[143] It includes the Peninsula Health and Fitness Centre gym;[144] playing courts for badminton, basketball, netball and volleyball; an exercise physiology lab and movement and performance studio; and is also associated with the health and physical education, occupational therapy and physiotherapy degrees of the university.[143] It is located at the Peninsula campus of Monash University, on McMahons Road in Frankston, and is open to the public.[143]

A number of other health club chains and independent gyms are also located in the suburb, including: Anytime Fitness,[145] Contours,[146] Core24,[147] Curves,[148] Doherty's Gym 24-7,[149] Engergym,[150] Goodlife Health Club,[151] Input Health Club and Snap Fitness.[152][153]

Education[edit]

The suburb of Frankston has early childhood, primary, secondary, TAFE (vocational) and tertiary education facilities. It is a major vocational and tertiary educational centre for the City of Frankston and the Mornington Peninsula, and is home to the Peninsula campus of Monash University and the largest campus of Chisholm Institute.[154][155]

There are 12 primary schools in the suburb; eight of which are government schools (including Frankston East Primary School, Frankston Primary School and Frankston Heights Primary School) and four of which are private schools. Three of the private primary schools are Catholic-aligned and the fourth is the junior campus of the independent K-12 Woodleigh School (its senior campus is located in the City of Frankston suburb of Langwarrin South).[156] The four secondary schools in the suburb are Frankston High School,[157] McClelland College and Mount Erin College,[158][159] which are government schools, and John Paul College,[160] which is a Catholic-aligned private school. The oldest private school in the suburb is the Woodleigh School, which was established in 1856.[161] The oldest government school in the suburb is Frankston Primary School which was established in 1874.[162] The original Frankston Primary schoolhouse is now operated as a museum.[163]

Frankston High School has an excellent academic record attained through a range of extension programs including for high-achieving students as well as non-academic programs.[164] It is considered to be one of the most successful government schools in the state of Victoria.[164] Admittance to Frankston High School is based on residing in the designated student catchment zone of the school. Real estate agents often market properties in the suburbs of Frankston and Frankston South as being in the "Frankston High School zone" to entice buyers who wish to send their children to the school.[citation needed]

The Peninsula campus of Monash University has a teaching and research focus in commerce, economics, education, health and human development, and is affiliated with the nearby Frankston Hospital.[165] The Peninsula campus is located on the former site of the Frankston Teachers' College, on McMahons Road in Frankston, which was founded in 1959.[166][167] It then became the State College of Victoria in 1974,[166][168] and later the Chisholm Institute of Technology in 1982.[166][169] It became a campus of Monash University in 1990, after the university merged with the Chisholm Institute of Technology.[166][170] Prior to becoming an educational facility, the campus was originally a residential property known as "Struan".[167] An Arts and Crafts style house on the property was built in 1924,[167] and serves today as the campus' postgraduate centre.[166]

Chisholm Institute in Frankston was one of the first vocational and technical schools in Victoria, and was founded at the turn of the 20th century.[171][172] It was originally known as Frankston Technical College,[172] before becoming the Frankston College of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) in 1974.[171] It merged with a number of other technical schools in the south-east of Melbourne to become the Chisholm Institute in 1998.[171] It takes its name from the former Chisholm Institute of Technology, which existed in Frankston before merging with Monash University in 1990, as well as the 19th century humanitarian Caroline Chisholm.[171] It is located on Fletcher Road in the Frankston central business district (CBD). Other large vocational training organisations in Frankston are Evocca College,[173] Pragmatic Training and SkillsPlus.[174][175]

Transport[edit]

Further information: EastLink, Melbourne and Peninsula Link
Frankston railway station

Frankston is one of the southern-most suburbs of the metropolitan area of Melbourne, as well as the gateway to the Mornington Peninsula. As such, it is well serviced by both road and rail. The suburb is connected to the rest of the metropolitan area of Melbourne by the EastLink tollway and Nepean Highway, and is connected to the rest of the Mornington Peninsula by the Moorooduc Highway, Nepean Highway and Peninsula Link.

The suburb is connected directly to the Melbourne city centre by the Frankston railway line from Frankston railway station. Local bus services run throughout the City of Frankston and also connect it to its neighbouring cities of Dandenong, Casey and Kingston. Regional bus services connect the south-western Mornington Peninsula, and the south-eastern Mornington Peninsula is connected by the Stony Point railway line from Frankston railway station as well as Leawarra railway station. The major transport terminus for the suburb is located on Young Street in the Frankston CBD.

Peninsula Link is an A$759 million freeway that opened on 18 January 2013.[176] It connects to the EastLink tollway at the City of Frankston suburb of Seaford in the north, and ends at Mount Martha on the Mornington Peninsula in the south. Peninsula Link has a partnership with Frankston's McClelland Gallery and Sculpture Park to place semi-permanent public artworks along the freeway.[177] New artworks are commissioned every two years and existing sculptures are transferred to McClelland Gallery and Sculpture Park.[177] The freeway also includes a 25 km shared walking and cycling trail that begins at Patterson Lakes in the north and ends at Moorooduc in the south.[178] It takes in wetlands, parklands and natural bushlands.[178]

Eastlink is an A$2.5 billion tolled section of the Eastern Freeway that opened on 29 June 2008.[179][180] It connects the City of Frankston with the neighbouring city of Dandenong as well as the cities of Maroondah and Whitehorse. The tollway also has large permanent public artworks placed along it; by prominent Australian artists Callum Morton, Emily Floyd, James Angus and Simeon Nelson.[181]

Culture[edit]

Arts and heritage[edit]

The suburb of Frankston is the major regional cultural hub for the greater City of Frankston and Mornington Peninsula. The area is home to a number of performance venues, performing arts companies, art galleries, heritage properties as well as parks and gardens. A driving tour called the Frankston Cultural Drive takes in a number of these places is signposted as Route 12.[182] A walking tour called the Frankston Coastal Arts Discovery Trail covers the artistic and architectural history of Frankston's beach and waterfront, as well as a variety of public art installations.[183] The trail can be accessed along the Frankston Boardwalk.

Performing arts:

Frankston Arts Centre is one of the largest performance venues outside of the Melbourne city centre in Victoria,[184] and is the largest in the City of Frankston and on the Mornington Peninsula.[184] The centre is also one of the largest performance venues of an outer-metropolitan area in Australia.[184] It opened in 1995 and was designed by architect Daryl Jackson.[184] The main theatre of the Frankston Arts Centre seats 800 and its "Cube37" creative space also seats 192.[184] It serves over a quarter of a million patrons annually,[184] and is a tour venue for premier performing arts companies and festivals; such as the Australian Ballet, Australian Opera, Melbourne International Comedy Festival, Melbourne International Film Festival, Melbourne Symphony Orchestra and Victorian Opera.[185][186] The centre is located on the corner of Davey Street and Young Street in the Frankston central business district (CBD).

The George Jenkins Theatre is the second largest performance venue in Frankston and seats 426.[187] It is located at the Peninsula campus of Monash University on McMahons Road in Frankston.[187] It is one of the three performance venues in Monash University's Academy of Performing Arts' network. It opened in 1973 and was named after the former President of the State College of Victoria in Frankston (antecedent to the present Peninsula campus of Monash University).[168] Frankston City Council also operates a number of smaller community venues suitable for performing arts.

Frankston is home to a number of amateur and professional music organisations, including: choirs, concert bands and orchestras. The largest music group in the suburb is the Frankston Music Society, which was founded by concert pianist Vera Bradford in 1967.[188] The society consists of the Frankston Symphony Orchestra, which was established in 1968,[188] and the Mornington Peninsula Chorale, which was established in 1979.[188] The oldest music group in the suburb is the Frankston City Band, which was founded in 1949.[189] Frankston is also home to the national Australian Welsh Male Choir, which was founded in the suburb in 1973.[190]

The suburb also has a number of amateur theatre companies. Peninsula Light Operatic Society (PLOS) and Panorama Theatre Company present musical theatre productions, and were founded in 1960 and 1979 respectively.[191][192] The oldest theatre company in the suburb is Frankston Theatre Group, which presents dramatic theatre productions, and was founded in 1942.[193] People's Playhouse presents youth theatre productions and was founded in 1995.[194] The Little Theatre presents contemporary theatre productions and was founded by actor Kaarin Fairfax in 2009.[195] Frankston Ballet Company was founded in 1998 and performs throughout the year.[196]

Galleries and public art:

McClelland Gallery and Sculpture Park

The major public art gallery in the area is the McClelland Gallery and Sculpture Park, located in the nearby City of Frankston suburb of Langwarrin. The gallery opened in 1971,[197] and is renowned for its sculpture park which showcases 100 artworks by prominent Australian sculptors, including: Inge King, Lenton Parr, Clement Meadmore and Norma Redpath.[197][198] It was founded by siblings Annie (Nan) and Harry McClelland, who were at the centre an artists' group located in the suburb of Frankston locality of Long Island during the 1920s.[197] The sculpture park is set in 16 hectares of parklands,[198][199] and the gallery houses a number of permanent indoor collections.[200] It is located at 390 McClelland Drive in Langwarrin. Since 2003, the gallery has also commissioned the McClelland Sculpture Survey.[201] The survey awards A$100,000 to an emerging Australian sculptor and is considered to be one of Australia's most prestigious prizes for sculpture.[201][202]

Other public galleries in Frankston include those of Frankston Arts Centre and its "Cube37" creative space, which host regular temporary exhibitions.[203][204] Notable private galleries in the area include Brialyn Boathouse Gallery and the gallery of maritime artist Richard Linton.[205][206] The major artists' group in the suburb is the Peninsula Arts Society which was founded in 1954.[207]

The suburb of Frankston also has over 50 public art installations.[208] Most are placed around the Frankston CBD as well as the beach and waterfront precincts. Recent public art additions in the suburb include: "Sentinel", a five metre tall wooden sculpture of a native sea eagle by sculptor Bruce Armstrong; "Power of Community" by mosaic artist Deborah Halpern; "Sightlines" (along the Frankston Pier) by Louise Laverack, which consists of 22 poles with nautical flag themed weather vanes and light panels which reflect the movement of the waves below;[209] and a lifesize bronze sculpture of former resident and philanthropist Dame Elisabeth Murdoch by Peter Corlett in the foyer of the Frankston Arts Centre.[210]

Heritage properties:

Ballam Park was an 8000-acre property owned by Frank Liardet, the son of early Melbourne pioneer Wilbraham Liardet.,[211] located in what is today the Frankston locality of Karingal. The Liardet's homestead at the property is in the French Colonial farmhouse style, and dates from 1855.[211] The homestead was believed to be designed by the artistic Wilbraham Liardet,[211] and was built by Thomas Cogger Allchin.[211] The homestead is constructed of brick and rendered to look like English stone,[211] and was the first brick house in Frankston.[211] Much of the original property was subdivided over time to create the locality of Karingal, including a large park and recreation reserve (named Ballam Park after the former property) which neighbours the remaining site of the homestead.[212] It is located on Cranbourne Road in Karingal.

Frankston Historical Society was founded in 1964 and is based at the Ballam Park homestead site.[211] The society operates a pioneer museum at the site, and gives guided tours of the homestead.[213] The Old Primary School in the Frankston CBD also operates as a museum.[163] Built in 1874, the schoolhouse has been preserved in its pre-20th century condition.[163] It is located on Davey Street in Frankston.

Located in the City of Frankston suburb of Langwarrin South is the National Trust property Mulberry Hill.[214] The modest mansion was home to artist and National Gallery director Sir Daryl Lindsay and his author wife Lady Joan.[214] The Lindsays were members of Nan and Harry McClelland's Long Island artists' group.[197] The house was originally a weatherboard cottage built in the 1880s, and was extended in an American Colonial style by the Lindsays in 1925.[214] The extensions were designed by architect Harold Desbrowe Annear and the gardens were designed and developed by Sir Daryl.[215] The property was bequeathed to the National Trust in 1984,[215] following Lady Joan's death, and includes collections of fine Australian art and Georgian era furniture.[214] The National Trust gives regular tours of the property.[214] It is located at 385 Golf Links Road in Langwarrin South.

Cruden Farm is a 54 hectare property owned by the Murdoch family,[216] located in the nearby City of Frankston suburb of Langwarrin.[217] The property was home to philanthropist Dame Elisabeth Murdoch till her death in 2012,[218] who spent her life developing the 8 hectares of gardens.[216][219] It is considered to be one of the finest examples of Australian landscape gardening.[219][220] The property was a wedding gift to Dame Elisabeth from her news tycoon husband Sir Keith Murdoch in 1928.[219][221] The original weatherboard house at the property was built in the late 1880s, and was extended by the Murdochs in the late 1920s.[221] The extensions were designed by architect Harold Desbrowe Annear and the initial gardens were designed by landscaper Edna Walling.[219][221] Dame Elisabeth lived at the property permanently from 1952, following the death of Sir Keith,[220] and continued to expand the gardens. Since 1971, the gardens have been maintained by Michael Morrison.[222] The property opens to the public at select times of the year and is used for public events.[219] It is located at 60 Cranbourne Road in Langwarrin.

Festivals and events[edit]

Balloon float in a parade during the 2007 Christmas Festival of Lights
A sand sculpting display at Sand Sculpting Australia's 2008/2009 "Dinostory" exhibition

The Christmas Festival of Lights has been held annually in early December since 1998,[223] and is the largest in Frankston's events calendar. It takes place outside the Frankston Civic Centre and Frankston Arts Centre on the corners of Davey Street and Young Street (which are closed to traffic during the festival) in the Frankston central business district (CBD).[224] The festival includes: carnival rides, community activities and exhibitions, food stalls, live carols and music, parades and a Santa Claus procession.[223][224] The festival culminates with the lighting of the 100 ft and 100-year-old Norfolk pine tree (Araucaria heterophylla) outside the Frankston Civic Centre and is followed by a large fireworks display.[223][224] The festival night attracts over 45,000 people.[223]

Frankston Waterfront Festival is a celebration of Frankston's seaside location that is held annually over a weekend in mid-January.[225] The festival takes place at the Frankston Waterfront precinct and includes: carnival rides, community activities and exhibitions, fireworks display, a food and wine market, live music and water activities along Frankston Beach and Kananook Creek.[225][226] The festival also coincides with Sand Sculpting Australia's annual exhibition,[225][226] which is the largest display of sand sculpting annually in Australia.[12][13] The exhibition attracts Australian and international artists who sculpt 3,500 tonnes of sand into artwork according to an annual theme. It opens on Boxing Day each year and runs till the end of April. The Frankston Waterfront Festival weekend attracts around 25,000 people,[227] and the Sand Sculpting Australia exhibition attracts over 230,000 people during its four-month run.[228]

Ventana Fiesta is boutique festival celebrating Latin American, Portuguese and Spanish culture held annually since 2006.[229] It is staged over a month between February and March.[229] It takes place at sites around Frankston and Carrum Downs, and includes: Ventana Arte – an art and craft market;[229] Ventana Film – a film festival;[229][230] Ventana Musica – traditional music performances;[229] FEVA Cup – a beach soccer tournament;[229][231] and culminates with the Ventana Street Fiesta – a live music and dance party held in Wells Street Plaza in the Frankston CBD.[229] Frankston is also a sister city to Susono in Japan, and the Frankston-Susono Friendship Association stages a Japanese Cultural Fair annually at the Frankston Arts Centre.[232]

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia's Blessing of the Waters ceremony is a Christian religious event held at Frankston Beach.[233] According to local Greek Orthodox customs, a wooden cross is thrown into Port Phillip from Frankston Pier and swimmers then race to retrieve it.[234] The swimmer who retrieves the cross is said to be blessed with 12 months of prosperity and good luck.[233][234] In Eastern Christian tradition, the event is held to commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, and takes place on Epiphany Day (6 January).[233] Frankston was the first place in the state of Victoria to stage the ceremony, which has been held at Frankston Beach for over 50 years.[233] A Greek cultural celebration at the Frankston Waterfront follows the ceremony, which includes: traditional music, dancing and food.[233]

Good Friday in Frankston is a Christian religious event that has been held at the Frankston Waterfront since 2005. It is staged by City Life Church and the Frankston Ministers' Network.[235] In Christian tradition, the event is held to commemorate the crucifixion of Jesus, and takes place on Good Friday (Western Christian date observance). The "Road to Jerusalem" is a procession that reenacts the Sanhedrin trial, carrying of the cross and crucifixion of Jesus which takes place during the event.[235][236] It proceeds through the streets of the Frankston CBD to the Frankston Waterfront and is followed by a celebration, which includes: Christian music and community activities and exhibitions.[236]

Sports and leisure[edit]

Many sporting fields and some small stadiums exist in the suburb. Most notably, the historic Frankston Park (home of the Victorian Football League's Frankston Dolphins) and the Frankston Basketball Stadium (home of the Australian Basketball Association's Frankston Blues). There are three golf courses in Frankston, the 1912-established Frankston Golf Course, Centenary Park Golf Course and the Peninsula Country Club (with two more in the greater City of Frankston). Also, the City of Frankston Bowling Club (lawn bowls) once hosted the World Bowls Tournament in 1980.[237] The men's singles event was won by David Bryant.

The suburb of Frankston also supports a number of community level clubs for Australian rules football, cricket, golf, basketball, netball, soccer and tennis, as well as baseball, hockey, badminton, volleyball, gymnastics, athletics and croquet clubs. The beach area supports a yacht club, a surf lifesaving club and the state's oldest Australian Volunteer Coast Guard flotilla. Frankston also boasts one of the largest public skate parks in Australia, and urban skateboarding is popular.

6 September 2014 saw the opening of the Peninsula Aquatic Recreation Centre (PARC), a $49.7 million regional aquatic and recreation centre featuring an Olympic-size 50m swimming pool.[238][239]

Football (Soccer) has fast become one of the most popular sports played at a junior level in the Frankston area with playing numbers increasing every year. Langwarrin Soccer Club and Frankston Pines are the leading clubs in the Frankston area both participating in the Victorian State League 1. Other teams in the area are Seaford United, Peninsula Strikers, Skye United and Baxter.

Australian rules football is popular in the suburb, and is played at both a regional and state level. The Frankston Bombers, Karingal Bulls and Frankston Y.C.W. Stonecats play in the regional Mornington Peninsula Nepean Football League (in the Peninsula and Nepean Divisions respectively). The state club in the suburb is the Frankston Dolphins, which plays in the Victorian Football League. In previous years, Frankston was the recruiting zone for professional Australian Football League clubs, Hawthorn Hawks, and later St. Kilda Saints, and many star players from each team were recruited from Frankston (see List of Frankston people).

The St. Kilda Saints Australian Football League club signed a deal with the City of Frankston in 2007 to relocate its training base to Belvedere Park in Seaford.[240] The deal included a $10 million development of a training and administration facility which was completed in 2010, based on the facilities of the UK's Chelsea and Aston Villa soccer clubs.[241]

Indoor and outdoor beach volleyball is also becoming increasingly popular in the suburb of Frankston. 2008 marked the inauguration of the Frankston Beach Volleyball Series (part of the Virgin Blue Beach Volleyball Series) which attracted A-list players, including Olympian Tamsin Barnett. The event was also broadcast on national television and, on the first day, the Nine Network's Today broadcast live from the event.[242]

Notable residents[edit]

Notable past and present residents of Frankston include: a Prime Minister of Australia, a Governor of Victoria and two Premiers of Victoria; leading Australian businesspeople and philanthropists; famous authors, journalists, artists, actors and musicians; Olympic and Commonwealth Games medalists and other champion sportspeople.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes:

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Frankston (State Suburb)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d Victoria's Regions: Frankston. Melbourne Today. Retrieved 29 January 2014
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Texts:

  • Jones, Michael. Frankston: Resort to City. Allen & Unwin: Sydney. 1989. ISBN 0-04-442114-1
  • Brown-May, Andrew and Swain, Shurlee. The Encyclopedia of Melbourne. Cambridge University Press: Melbourne. 2005. ISBN 0-521-84234-4
  • Watson, Kerry. Frankston 1901–2000: An oral/pictorial history. Frankston City Council: Frankston. 2000. (Online Version)

Other:

External links[edit]