Wyman in a promotional photo (1947)
|Born||Sarah Jane Mayfield
January 5, 1917
Saint Joseph, Missouri, U.S.
|Died||September 10, 2007
Rancho Mirage, California, U.S.
Cause of death
|Forest Lawn Mortuary and Memorial Park, Cathedral City, California.|
|Spouse(s)||Myron Futterrman (m. 1937–1938; divorced)
(m. 1940–1948; divorced)
(m. 1952–1955, 1961–1965; divorced twice)
Jane Wyman (born Sarah Jane Mayfield; January 5, 1917 – September 10, 2007) was an American singer, dancer, and film/television actress. She began her film career in 1932 and her work in television lasted into 1993. She was a prolific performer for two decades. She received an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in Johnny Belinda (1948), and later in life achieved a new level of success in the 1980s as the aging wine country matriarch Angela Channing, the lead role on Falcon Crest.
She was the first wife of Ronald Reagan; they married in 1940 and divorced in 1949.
- 1 Youth
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Death
- 5 Filmography
- 6 Television
- 7 Radio appearances
- 8 Awards and nominations
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Wyman was born Sarah Jane Mayfield in St. Joseph, Missouri. Although her birthdate has been widely reported for many years as January 4, 1914, research by biographers and genealogists indicates she was born on January 5, 1917. The most likely reason for the 1914 year of birth is that she added to her age so as to be able to work and act while still a minor. She may have moved her birthday back by one day to January 4 so as to share the same birthday as her daughter, Maureen (born January 4, 1941). The 1920 census, on the other hand, has her at 3 and living in Philadelphia, Pa. After Wyman's death, a release posted on her official website confirmed these details.
Her parents were Manning Jefferies Mayfield (c.1885–1922), a meal-company laborer, and Gladys Hope Christian (c.1891–1960), a doctor's stenographer and office assistant. In October 1921, her mother filed for divorce, and her father died unexpectedly the following year at age 37. After her father's death, her mother moved to Cleveland, Ohio, leaving her to be reared by foster parents, Emma (1866–1951) and Richard D. Fulks (1862–1928), the chief of detectives in Saint Joseph. She took their surname unofficially, including in her school records and, apparently, her first marriage certificate.
Her unsettled family life resulted in few pleasurable memories. Wyman later said, "I was raised with such strict discipline that it was years before I could reason myself out of the bitterness I brought from my childhood. In 1928, aged 11, she moved to southern California with her foster mother, but it is not known for certain if she attempted a career in motion pictures at this time, or if the relocation was due to the fact that some of Fulks' children also lived in the area. In 1930, the two moved back to Missouri, where Sarah Jane attended Lafayette High School in Saint Joseph. That same year she began a radio singing career, calling herself "Jane Durrell" and adding years to her birthdate to work legally since she would have been under age.
After dropping out of Lafayette in 1932, at age 15, she returned to Hollywood, taking on odd jobs as a manicurist and a switchboard operator, before obtaining small parts in such films as The Kid from Spain (as a "Goldwyn Girl"; 1932), My Man Godfrey (1936) and Cain and Mabel (1936). After changing her name from Jane Durrell to Jane Wyman, she began her career as a contract player with Warner Bros. in 1936 at age 19. Her big break came the following year, when she received her first starring role in Public Wedding.
Recognition and acclaim
In 1939, Wyman starred in Torchy Plays With Dynamite. In 1941, she appeared in You're in the Army Now, in which she and Regis Toomey had the longest screen kiss in cinema history: 3 minutes and 5 seconds.
Wyman finally gained critical notice in the film noir The Lost Weekend (1945). She was nominated for the 1946 Academy Award for Best Actress for The Yearling (1946), and won two years later for her role as a deaf-mute rape victim in Johnny Belinda (1948). She was the first person in the sound era to win an acting Oscar without speaking a line of dialogue. In an amusing acceptance speech, perhaps poking fun at some of her long-winded counterparts, Wyman took her statue and said only, "I accept this, very gratefully, for keeping my mouth shut once. I think I'll do it again." The Oscar win gave her the ability to choose higher profile roles, although she still showed a liking for musical comedy. She worked with such directors as Alfred Hitchcock on Stage Fright (1950), Frank Capra on Here Comes the Groom (1951) and Michael Curtiz on The Story of Will Rogers (1952). She starred in The Glass Menagerie (1950), Just for You (1952), Let's Do It Again (1953), The Blue Veil (1951) (another Oscar nomination), the remake of Edna Ferber's So Big (1953), Magnificent Obsession (1954) (Oscar nomination), Lucy Gallant (1955), All That Heaven Allows (1955), and Miracle in the Rain (1956). She replaced the ailing Gene Tierney in Holiday for Lovers (1959), and next appeared in Pollyanna (1960), Bon Voyage! (1962), and her final big screen movie, How to Commit Marriage (1969).
Her first guest-starring television role was on a 1955 episode of General Electric Theater, a show hosted by her former husband Ronald Reagan. This appearance led to roles on Summer Playhouse, Lux Playhouse, Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse, Checkmate, The Investigators, and Wagon Train. She guest starred in 1959 on The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford on NBC. She was hostess of The Bell Telephone Hour and Bob Hope Presents The Chrysler Theatre. She had telling roles in both The Sixth Sense and Insight, among other programs.
She hosted an anthology television series, Jane Wyman Presents the Fireside Theater, for which she was nominated for an Emmy Award in 1957. The ratings steadily declined, however, and the show ended after three seasons. She was later cast in two unsold pilots during the 1960s and 1970s. After those pilots were not picked up, Wyman went into semi-retirement and remained there for most of the 1970s, although she did make guest appearances on Charlie's Angels and The Love Boat.
In the spring of 1981, Wyman's career enjoyed a resurgence when she was cast as the scheming Californian vintner and matriarch Angela Channing in The Vintage Years, which was retooled as the primetime soap opera Falcon Crest. The series, which ran from December 1981 to May 1990, was created by Earl Hamner, who had created The Waltons a decade earlier. Also starring on the show was an already established character actress, Susan Sullivan, as Angela's niece-in-law, Maggie Gioberti, and the relatively unknown actor Lorenzo Lamas as Angela's irresponsible grandson, Lance Cumson. The on- and off-screen chemistry between Wyman and Lamas helped fuel the series' success. In its first season, Falcon Crest was a ratings hit, behind other 1980s prime-time soap operas, such as Dallas and Knots Landing, but initially ahead of rival soap opera Dynasty. Cesar Romero appeared from 1985 to 1987 on Falcon Crest as the romantic interest of Angela Channing.
For her role as Angela Channing, Wyman was nominated for a Soap Opera Digest Award five times (for Outstanding Actress in a Leading Role and for Outstanding Villainess: Prime Time Serial), and was also nominated for a Golden Globe Award in 1983 and 1984. Her 1984 Golden Globe nomination resulted in a win for Wyman, who took home the award for Best Performance By an Actress in a TV Series. Later in the show's run, Wyman suffered several health problems. In 1986, she had abdominal surgery which caused her to miss two episodes (her character simply "disappeared" under mysterious circumstances). In 1988, she missed another episode due to ill health and was told by her doctors to avoid work. However, she wanted to continue working, and she completed the rest of the 1988–1989 season while her health continued to deteriorate. Months later in 1989, Wyman collapsed on the set and was hospitalized due to problems with diabetes and a liver ailment. Her doctors told her that she should end her acting career. Wyman was absent for most of the ninth and final season of Falcon Crest in 1989–1990 (her character was written out of the series by making her comatose in a hospital bed following an attempted murder).
Against her doctor's advice, she returned for the final three episodes in 1990, even writing a soliloquy for the series finale. Wyman ultimately appeared in almost every episode up until the beginning of the ninth and final season, for a total of 208 of the show's 227 episodes. After Falcon Crest, Wyman acted only once more, playing Jane Seymour's screen mother in a 1993 episode of Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman. Following this, she retired from acting permanently. Wyman had starred in 83 movies, two successful TV series, and was nominated for an Academy Award four times, winning once.
Wyman married four times.
Myron Martin Futterman
Wyman married Myron Martin Futterman (1900–1965), a dress manufacturer, in New Orleans on June 29, 1937. As Wyman wanted children but Futterman did not, they separated after only three months of marriage and divorced on December 5, 1938.
In 1938, Wyman co-starred with Ronald Reagan in Brother Rat (1938), and its sequel Brother Rat and a Baby (1940). They were engaged at the Chicago Theatre, and married on January 26, 1940, at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather Church, Glendale, California. She and Reagan had three children; Maureen Elizabeth Reagan (1941–2001), their adopted son Michael Edward Reagan (born March 18, 1945), and Christine Reagan (born prematurely on June 26, 1947 and died later the same day). This event soured their marriage irreparably. Wyman stated that their break up was due to a difference in politics (Ronald Reagan was still a Democrat at the time). She filed for divorce in 1948; the divorce was finalized in 1949. Ronald Reagan is the only U.S. president to have been divorced; thus Wyman was the first and only former wife of a United States president so far. Although she remained silent during Reagan's political career, she told a newspaper interviewer in 1968 that this was not because she was:
|“||bitter or because I don't agree with him politically. I've always been a registered Republican. But it's bad taste to talk about former husbands and former wives, that's all. Also, I don't know a damn thing about politics.||”|
Following her divorce from Reagan, Wyman married German-American Hollywood music director and composer Frederick M. "Fred" Karger (1916–1979) on November 1, 1952, at El Montecito Presbyterian Church, Santa Barbara. They separated on November 7, 1954, and were granted an interlocutory divorce decree on December 7, 1954; the divorce was finalized on December 30, 1955. They remarried on March 11, 1961, and Karger divorced her again on March 9, 1965. According to The New York Times report of the divorce, the bandleader charged that the actress "had walked out on him." Wyman had a stepdaughter, Terry, from Karger's first marriage to Patti Sacks.
After Falcon Crest ended, Wyman made a guest appearance on the CBS series Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman and then completely retired from acting, spending her retirement painting and entertaining friends. A recluse, Wyman made only a few public appearances in her last years in part due to suffering from diabetes and arthritis, although she did attend her daughter Maureen's funeral in 2001 after the latter's death from cancer. (Ronald Reagan was unable to attend due to his Alzheimer's disease). She also attended the funeral of her long-time friend Loretta Young in 2000. Wyman broke her silence about her former husband upon his death in 2004, attending his funeral and issuing an official statement that read "America has lost a great president and a great, kind, and gentle man."
|“||I have lost a loving mother, my children Cameron and Ashley have lost a loving grandmother, my wife Colleen has lost a loving friend she called Mom and Hollywood has lost the classiest lady to ever grace the silver screen.||”|
It was reported that Wyman died in her sleep of natural causes. A member of the Dominican Order (as a lay tertiary) of the Roman Catholic Church, she was buried in a nun's habit. She was interred at Forest Lawn Mortuary and Memorial Park in Cathedral City, California.
|1932||Kid from Spain, TheThe Kid from Spain||Goldwyn Girl||Uncredited|
|1933||Elmer, the Great||Game Spectator||Uncredited|
|1933||Gold Diggers of 1933||Gold Digger||Uncredited|
|1934||All the King's Horses||Chorine||Uncredited|
|1935||Broadway Hostess||Chorus Girl||Uncredited|
|1935||George White's 1935 Scandals||Chorine||Uncredited|
|1936||King of Burlesque||Dancer||Uncredited|
|1936||Anything Goes||Chorus Girl||Uncredited|
|1936||Bengal Tiger||Saloon Girl||Uncredited|
|1936||My Man Godfrey||Socialite||Uncredited|
|1936||Stage Struck||Bessie Funfnick||Uncredited|
|1936||Cain and Mabel||Chorus Girl||Uncredited|
|1936||Here Comes Carter||Nurse||Uncredited|
|1936||Sunday Round-Up, TheThe Sunday Round-Up||Butte Soule||Short film|
|1936||Polo Joe||Girl at Polo Field||Uncredited|
|1936||Gold Diggers of 1937||Chorus Girl||Uncredited|
|1937||Smart Blonde||Dixie the Hat Check Girl|
|1937||Ready, Willing and Able||Dot|
|1937||King and the Chorus Girl, TheThe King and the Chorus Girl||Babette Latour|
|1937||Little Pioneer||Katie Snee||Short film|
|1937||Singing Marine, TheThe Singing Marine||Joan|
|1937||Public Wedding||Florence Lane Burke|
|1937||Mr. Dodd Takes the Air||Marjorie Day|
|1937||Over the Goal||Co-Ed||Uncredited|
|1938||Spy Ring, TheThe Spy Ring||Elaine Burdette|
|1938||He Couldn't Say No||Violet Coney|
|1938||Fools for Scandal||Party Guest||Uncredited|
|1938||Wide Open Faces||Betty Martin|
|1938||Crowd Roars, TheThe Crowd Roars||Vivian|
|1938||Brother Rat||Claire Adams|
|1939||Kid from Kokomo, TheThe Kid from Kokomo||Marian Bronson|
|1939||Torchy Blane... Playing with Dynamite||Torchy Blane|
|1939||Kid Nightingale||Judy Craig|
|1939||Private Detective||Myrna 'Jinx' Winslow|
|1940||Brother Rat and a Baby||Claire Terry|
|1940||Angel from Texas, AnAn Angel from Texas||Marge Allen|
|1940||Flight Angels||Nan Hudson|
|1940||Gambling on the High Seas||Laurie Ogden|
|1940||My Love Came Back||Joy O'Keefe|
|1940||Tugboat Annie Sails Again||Peggy Armstrong|
|1941||Honeymoon for Three||Elizabeth Clochessy|
|1941||Bad Men of Missouri||Mary Hathaway|
|1941||Body Disappears, TheThe Body Disappears||Joan Shotesbury|
|1941||You're in the Army Now||Bliss Dobson|
|1942||Larceny, Inc.||Denny Costello|
|1942||My Favorite Spy||Connie|
|1942||Footlight Serenade||Flo La Verne|
|1943||Princess O'Rourke||Jean Campbell|
|1944||Make Your Own Bed||Susan Courtney|
|1944||The Doughgirls||Vivian Marsden Halstead|
|1944||Crime by Night||Robbie Vance|
|1945||Lost Weekend, TheThe Lost Weekend||Helen St. James|
|1946||One More Tomorrow||Frankie Connors|
|1946||Night and Day||Gracie Harris|
|1946||Yearling, TheThe Yearling||Orry Baxter||Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress|
|1947||Magic Town||Mary Peterman|
|1948||Johnny Belinda||Belinda McDonald||Academy Award for Best Actress
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
|1949||Kiss in the Dark, AA Kiss in the Dark||Polly Haines|
|1949||Lady Takes a Sailor, TheThe Lady Takes a Sailor||Jennifer Smith|
|1950||Stage Fright||Eve Gill|
|1950||Glass Menagerie, TheThe Glass Menagerie||Laura Wingfield|
|1951||Three Guys Named Mike||Marcy Lewis|
|1951||Here Comes the Groom||Emmadel Jones|
|1951||Blue Veil, TheThe Blue Veil||Louise Mason||Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
|1952||Story of Will Rogers, TheThe Story of Will Rogers||Betty Rogers|
|1952||Just for You||Carolina Hill|
|1953||Three Lives||Commentator||Short film|
|1953||Let's Do It Again||Constance 'Connie' Stuart|
|1953||So Big||Selina DeJong|
|1954||Magnificent Obsession||Helen Phillips||Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress|
|1955||All That Heaven Allows||Cary Scott|
|1955||Lucy Gallant||Lucy Gallant|
|1956||Miracle in the Rain||Ruth Wood|
|1959||Holiday for Lovers||Mrs. Mary Dean|
|1962||Bon Voyage!||Katie Willard|
|1969||How to Commit Marriage||Elaine Benson|
|1971||Failing of Raymond, TheThe Failing of Raymond||Mary Bloomquist||Television film|
|1973||Amanda Fallon||Dr. Amanda Fallon||Television film|
|1979||Incredible Journey of Doctor Meg Laurel, TheThe Incredible Journey of Doctor Meg Laurel||Granny Arrowroot||Television film|
Box office ranking
For several years, film exhibitors voted Wyman as among the most popular stars in the country:
- 1949 – 25th (US), 6th (UK)
- 1952 – 15th most popular (US)
- 1953 – 19th (US)
- 1954 – 9th (US)
- 1955 – 18th (US)
- 1956 – 23rd (US)
|1955||G.E. True Theater||Dr. Amelia Morrow||Episode: "Amelia"|
|1955–1958||Jane Wyman Presents The Fireside Theatre||Various||49 episodes
Nominated—Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series (1957, 1959)
|1958||Wagon Train||Dr. Carol Ames Willoughby||Episode: "The Doctor Willoughby Story"|
|1959||Lux Video Theatre||Selena Shelby||Episode: "A Deadly Guest"|
|1960||Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse||Dr. Kate||Episode: "Dr. Kate"|
|1960||Startime||Host||Episode: "Academy Award Songs"|
|1960||Checkmate||Joan Talmadge||Episode: "Lady on the Brink"|
|1961||Investigators, TheThe Investigators||Elaine||Episode: "Death Leaves a Tip"|
|1962||Wagon Train||Hannah||Episode: "The Wagon Train Mutiny"|
|1964||Insight||Marie||Episode: "The Hermit"|
|1966||Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre||Addie Joslin||Episode: "When Hell Froze"|
|1967||Insight||Auschwitz Victim||Episode: "Why Does God Allow Men to Suffer?"|
|1968||Red Skelton Hour, TheThe Red Skelton Hour||Clara Appleby||Episode: "18.9"|
|1970||My Three Sons||Sylvia Cannon||Episode: "Who Is Sylvia?"|
|1972||Sixth Sense, TheThe Sixth Sense||Ruth Ames||Episode: "If I Should Die Before I Wake"|
|1972||Bold Ones: The New Doctors, TheThe Bold Ones: The New Doctors||Dr. Amanda Fallon||Episode: "Discovery at Fourteen"|
|1973||Bold Ones: The New Doctors, TheThe Bold Ones: The New Doctors||Dr. Amanda Fallon||Episode: "And Other Springs I May Not See"|
|1974||Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law||Sophia Ryder||Episode: "The Desertion of Keith Ryder"|
|1980||Love Boat, TheThe Love Boat||Sister Patricia||Episode: "Another Day, Another Time"|
|1980||Charlie's Angels||Eleanor Willard||Episode: "To See an Angel Die"|
|1981–1990||Falcon Crest||Angela Channing||228 episodes
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama
|1993||Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman||Elizabeth Quinn||Episode: "The Visitor"|
|Screen Guild Players||The Lost Weekend||January 7, 1946|||
|Hollywood Star Playhouse||A Letter from Laura||February 24, 1952|||
|Hallmark Playhouse||Whistler's Mother||May 8, 1952|||
|Lux Radio Theatre||The Blue Veil||November 24, 1952|||
Awards and nominations
- Nominated: Best Actress, The Yearling (1946)
- Won: Best Actress, Johnny Belinda (1948)
- Nominated: Best Actress, The Blue Veil (1951)
- Nominated: Best Actress, Magnificent Obsession (1954)
- Nominated: Best Lead Actress – Drama Series, Jane Wyman Presents The Fireside Theatre (1957)
- Nominated: Best Lead Actress – Drama Series, Jane Wyman Presents The Fireside Theatre (1959)
Golden Globe Awards
- Won: Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama, Johnny Belinda (1949)
- Won: Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama, The Blue Veil (1952)
- Nominated: Best Actress – Drama Series, Falcon Crest (1983)
- Won: Best Actress – Drama Series, Falcon Crest (1984)
Wyman has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; one for motion pictures at 6607 Hollywood Boulevard and one for television at 1620 Vine Street.
- Actress, Philanthropist Jane Wyman Dies. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
- Edwards, Anne. Early Reagan: The Rise to Power. William Morrow & Co (November 1990); ISBN 0-688-06050-1.
- Bubbeo, Daniel. The Women of Warner Brothers: The Lives and Careers of 15 Leading Ladies. McFarland & Company (October 2001); ISBN 0-7864-1137-6.
- Colacello, Bob. Ronnie and Nancy: Their Path to the White House – 1911 to 1980. Warner Books; 1st Warner Books Edition (2004); ISBN 0-446-53272-X.
- Wyman is listed in the U.S. Census taken in April 1930 as being 18 years old, when she was actually 13. U.S. Census, April 1, 1930, State of California, County of Los Angeles, City of Los Angeles, enumeration district 328, p. 13A, family 503.
- U.S. Census, April 15, 1910, State of Missouri, County of Buchanan, enumeration district 54, p. 5-A, family 99. California death index, 1940–1997.
- Jane Wyman, 90, Star of Film and TV, Is Dead, The New York Times, September 11, 2007. Fulks' position was upgraded to mayor of Saint Louis by the Warner Bros. publicity department when his foster daughter became a successful actress. Source: Jane Wyman (obituary), The Times (London), September 11, 2007.
- Jane Wyman (obituary). The Independent (London), September 11, 2007.
- cinemaspot.com, quoting Guinness Book of World Records
- Jane Wyman's Oscar acceptance speech, 1948 on YouTube
- Silverman, Stephen (September 10, 2007). "Falcon Crest Star Jane Wyman Dies at 93". People. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- Biography. Jane Wyman. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
- Jane Wyman biography. Official Jane Wyman website.
- "Film Actress Wins Divorce", Los Angeles Times, December 6, 1938, p. 3.
- "Dispute Over Theatre Splits Chicago City Council". The New York Times. May 8, 1984. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
- Oliver, Marilyn (March 31, 1988). "Locations Range From the Exotic to the Pristine". The Los Angeles Times.
- "Biography". Jane Wyman. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- "Reagan: Home". HBO. Retrieved 2011-09-05.
- "Jane Wyman Divorced", The New York Times, March 10, 1965.
- "Frederick M. Karger, 63, Arranger and Composer", The New York Times, August 6, 1979.
- Paul Kengor, God and Ronald Reagan: A Spiritual Life. Harper Collins Publishers (2004). p. 50.
- Church of the Good Shepherd: Our History
- "Johnny Belinda Actress Jane Wyman Dies", USA Today, September 10, 2007.
- Oscar-Winner Jane Wyman, Ronald Reagan's First Wife, Dead at 93. Fox News. September 10, 2007.
- Alan Petrucelli, Morbid Curiosity: The Disturbing Demises of the Famous and Infamous. Penguin Group (2009). p. 5.
- Jane Wyman at Find a Grave
- "Filmdom Ranks Its Money-Spinning Stars Best At Box-Office.". The Sydney Morning Herald (National Library of Australia). 30 March 1950. p. 12. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "TOPS AT HOME.". The Courier-Mail (Brisbane: National Library of Australia). 31 December 1949. p. 4. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "BOX OFFICE DRAW.". The Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW: National Library of Australia). 29 December 1952. p. 3. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Those Were the Days". Nostalgia Digest 39 (1): 32–41. Winter 2013.
- Kirby, Walter (February 24, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 38. Retrieved May 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Kirby, Walter (May 4, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 50. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Kirby, Walter (November 23, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 48. Retrieved June 16, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jane Wyman.|
- Jane Wyman Official website
- Jane Wyman, 90, Star of Film and TV, Is Dead
- Jane Wyman at the Internet Movie Database
- Jane Wyman at the TCM Movie Database
- Tough Love Reminisces by Michael Reagan
- Obituary in the Boston Globe
- Jane Wyman at Virtual History