Kankaria Lake

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Rosy starling murmuration over Kankaria Lake, Ahmedabad

Kankaria Lake
Kankaria Carnival 2 Ahmedabad.JPG
Kankaria Lake during the Kankaria Carnival in Ahmedabad
Location Maninagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Coordinates 23°00′22″N 72°36′04″E / 23.006°N 72.6011°E / 23.006; 72.6011Coordinates: 23°00′22″N 72°36′04″E / 23.006°N 72.6011°E / 23.006; 72.6011
Lake type Artificial lake
Primary inflows Storm water[1]
Catchment area 640,000 m2 (6,900,000 sq ft)[1]
Basin countries India
Max. length 560 m (1,840 ft)
Max. width 560 m (1,840 ft)
Surface area 76 acres (31 ha)
Average depth 6 m (20 ft)[1]
Max. depth 7 m (23 ft)[1]
Shore length1 2.25 km (1.40 mi)[1]
Islands Nagina wadi[1]
Settlements Ahmedabad
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Kankaria Lake, formerly known as Hauj-e-Qutb, is the second largest lake in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. It is located in the south-eastern part of the city, in the Maninagar area. It was completed in 1451 during the reign of Sultan Qutb-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II though its origin is placed in the Chaulukya period sometimes. A lakefront is developed around it, which has many public attractions such as a zoo, toy train, kids city, tethered balloon ride, water rides, water park, food stalls, and entertainment facilities. The lakefront was revamped in 2008. Kankaria Carnival is a week-long festival held here in the last week of December. Many cultural, art, and social activities are organised during the carnival.[2]

Etymology[edit]

Several stories are told for its name Kankaria. One reason said is that it was named this due to large quantities of limestone (kankar in Gujarati) dug out of it during excavation. Another story narrates that the Sultan Qutb-ud-Din asked the saint Shah Alam to select the site for the tank and the garden. The saint scattered some pebbles at the site which was excavated and the lake was built. Thus it was named Kankaria. Another story says the saint Hazrat-i-Shah Alam cut his foot on a pebble while passing through excavation and exclaimed, "What a pebble!" So it was named Kankaria (pebbly). It was mentioned as Hauj-e-Qutb (the tank of Qutb) after the Sultan Qutb-ud-Din in the inscription at Kankaria.[3][1]

History[edit]

Map of Kankaria lake and its amenities.

There are various versions of its origin. According to the 14th century chronicler Merutunga, Chaulukya ruler Karna built a temple dedicated to the goddess Kochharba at Ashapalli after defeating the its Bhil chief Asha. He also established the Karnavati city nearby, where he commissioned the Karneshvara/Karnamukteshwara and Jayantidevi temples. He also built the Karnasagara tank at Karnavati next to Karneshvara temple. Karnavati is identified with modern Ahmedabad and Karnasagar tank is identified with Kankaria lake but this identification is not certain.[4][5]

The construction of the lake started by Sultan Muizz-ud-Din Muhammad Shah II in the 15th century. The inscription at the lake mentions that it was completed during the reign of Sultan Qutb-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II in 1451. According to this inscription, its name is placed as "Hauj-e-Qutb" (Pond of Qutb) after him.[3][6]

Throughout the period of the Gujarat Sultanate and of Mughal rule, the Kankaria lake with its Nagina Bagh were the favourite leisure place of rulers and the people and it were among the tourist sights of Ahmedabad ever since. The European travellers of the seventeenth century, Pietro Della Valle (1623), Johan Albrecht de Mandelslo (1638), Jean de Thévenot (l666), all had visited the lake gave its accounts. Mandelslo who visited Gujarat during the reign of Shah Jahan wrote in 1638,[3]

I went thence along a Sone Bridge, which is four hundred paces in length, to another Garden called Niccinabag (Nagina Baug), that is to say, the Jewel, and they say it was planted by a beautiful and rich young lady. The garden is not very great, no more than the house within it; but both are very advantageously seated in a place high enough to discover all the adjacent champion, and, upon the avenues of the Bridge, to make the noblest prospect that ever I saw. The rain which falls in the winter-time supplies a great fish-pond or pool in the middle of the garden. But in summer they make use of certain engines wherewith many oxen put together draw up the water out of wells which are so deep that they are never dry. A man can seldom go to this garden, but he shall find some young women bathing themselves; they will not permit the Indians should see them, but suffered us to come in and speak to them.

— Mandelslo's Travels into the Indies, [7]

British artist James Forbes visited Ahmadabad in 1781 after the fall of Mughal Empire when Ahmedabad was under Maratha rule. He found the gardens at lake neglected, the summer-palace in ruins and the bridge with 48 stone arches connecting Nagina Baug island to the bank in dilapidated condition. He specially noted a species of palmyra in the Nagina Baug which is very uncommon. The tree grown in a straight stem very high and then spreading several branches of with a tuft of sprading leaves at the end of each branch. It is still there. After a century, when Ahmedabad was under the British rule, the Kankaria lake was restored by the Collector of the district, Borradalle in 1872. A road was built from the Raipur gate to the lake. The high banks of the lake were organised and the trees were planted on them. Of the original arched bridge, a small portion was restored and the rest of length is made with earther bank. In the island, the steps were restored on all four sides, the ancient well was cleared out, the fountain and the pleasure house were restored. the new pierced parapet wall built. In 1879, it was proposed to connect the lake with Khari river by 11 miles long canal and supply water to Chandola lake but it never materialised.[3]

In 1928, Kankaria was declared protected under the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act.[8]

The central garden and the walkway had been revamped and utilities are enhanced by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation in 2007-2008.[9] Upon completion of the renovation at the cost of INR 30 crore,[1] the lake was officially inaugurated on 25 December 2008 in a week long event known as Kankaria Carnival.[10][11]

Architecture[edit]

The supply sluice of Kankaria Lake, 1866
Cupola near one of the approaches of lake which no longer exists
Viaduct to Naginawadi in 1891

The reservoir is a 34-sided regular polygon[1] covering an area of 76 acres and having a shore length of approximately one and a quarter mile, or 2 km.[6] It is surrounded by flights of cut stone steps and in six places, slopes, giving access to the water. These slopes were covered by square cupolas, each raised on 12 pillars.[3]

An island in the centre of the lake contains a garden and is called Nagina Wadi, formerly Bagh-e-Nagina (beautiful garden in Urdu); it is connected to the bank by a bridge, originally of 48 arches. The garden is mentioned in Mirat-e-Ahmadi as "the Jewel (Nagina) in the centre of the ring of lake". The garden contains a pleasure house or summer palace called Ghattamandal. During restoration, the British constructed a parapet wall around the garden.[3][1]

The lake had a water purification system which is lost now. There are well carved supply sluices on the east side. Their buttresses or jambs of sluices resemble those of the minarets of mosques in Ahmedabad. Between these buttresses, there is a screen six feet thick screen punctured by three large openings for inflow of water. These openings are six feet in diametre and the margin of it is beautifully carved.[3][6]

Attractions[edit]

Kankaria Zoo[edit]

Kankaria Zoo

Kankaria Zoo, officially Kamla Nehru Zoological Garden, was established by Rueben David in 1951 spread over 21 acres. It was rated the best zoo in Asia in 1974.[12] They are 450 mammals, 2,000 birds, 140 reptiles in a 31-acre zoo. It houses wild animals like tigers, lions, python, anaconda, snakes, elephants, albino (white) animals like the rhesus monkey, spotted deer, white blackbuck, chinkara, elephant, emu, jungle babbler, bush-quail and common palm civet. Kankaria Zoo has also bred of rare species like pythons, crocodiles, bearcats and wild asses.[13] Reuben David was awarded the Padma Shri in 1974 for it.[12]

Balvatika[edit]

It is a children's park named after Jawaharlal Nehru. Balvatika has a boat house, playroom, butterfly and weapon displays, mirror house, toy house and planetarium. Presently most part of the park is under renovation.

Amusement Park[edit]

Netherlands based company installed five rides in the amusement park in 2014. It includes the Boomerang Roller Coaster, the Flipping Arm, the Torching Tower, Disk 'O' pendulum and the merry-go-round. It will also have a kids play zone for computer games.[14]

Kids City[edit]

Kids City is a miniature world designed for kids. It is spread in 4240 sq.metre area having 18 activity centres[15] including banks, fire station, science lab, radio station, police station, court room and prison, dental as well as medical hospital, theatre, BRTS, heritage gallery, town governance, IT centre, News room, ice-cream factory, etc.[16] AMC had applied for copyrights and patents on the individual games in the premises, the unique point system, Virmo (Virtual Money) and the design of the different venues in games.[17]

Toy Trains[edit]

Atal Express - Toy Train

A train named Atal Express (Named after Atal Bihari Vajpayee on his birthday 25 December 2008) was imported from London, the train circles the lake on a 4.5 km track at a speed of 10 km/h with capacity of 150 passengers.[18][1] The train has the capacity to carry 150 passengers, including 36 adults. The train is manufactured by Severn Lamb.[19] During the first 11 months of introducing the train, it attracted nearly a million visitors.[20] After the success of this train, another train was also started which named Swarnim Jayanti Express.[21] All trains on the railway, and hence the railway itself, are 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge.[22]

Balloon Safari[edit]

Tethered helium balloon

Ahmedabad Eye is a tethered balloon ride set up near Kankaria Lake after renovation. The tethered balloon complex spread over 3000 square yard, is divided into four sections including a restaurant, tethered balloon, heritage exhibit and an exhibition displaying the making of the Ahmedabad Eye. SKYZ is a balloon themed restaurant located at the Ahmedabad Eye complex. It is managed by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation.[23][24] Rainforest theme restaurant is also there.

Nagina Wadi[edit]

Nagina Wadi island

Nagina Wadi is an island in center of Kankaria Lake. It houses a small summer palace originally built for Mughal royals. Nagina Wadi is accessed by a straight, tree-lined walkway traversing half of the lake. In 2009, Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and Amrapali Group built a musical fountain with multicolored laser lights which are displayed during the night.[25] Food stalls are also there.

Stone Mural Park[edit]

India's biggest Stone Mural Park named Gurjar Gaurav Gatha[26] on the side walls of the circular lake in which sculptors are depicting, in pink sand stone, the history and rise of Gujarat is under construction.[15] It has murals covering 3150 sq feet depicting the history of Ahmedabad right now but when completed, it will measure 6000 feet in length and will be world's largest mural (30000 sq.metre).[27]

Following subjects are being included in murals: folklores and history of Ahmedabad, great rulers of Gujarat, ports, commerce and good practices(ethical business-trade traditions), education, freedom fight, cultural heritage, art and literature, expression of culture, today’s Gujarat, global Gujaratis, selected stories of common Gujaratis in past centuries.[26] It will also includes stories about ancient sage Dadhichi, Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, Jhaverchand Meghani and Indulal Yagnik.[15]

Dutch and Armenian tombs[edit]

Dutch Tombs near Kankaria lake, 1866

The Dutch and Armenian tombs are on One Tree Hill embankment which shows the strong trade presence of the Dutch East India Company in the city during the 17th century. They are Saracenic in style with domes and pillars. The dates of the tombs are deciphered which range from 1641 to 1699. The Armenian tombs perhaps belonged to brokers in the Dutch factory.[6][28]

Joyrides[edit]

Segways are introduced for people for easy movement around lake. A mini golf course; Aqua Kart and other water sports; Vertical Swing, Paint Ball Shooting, Black Flash and rides, Sky Fly and other joyrides were introduced.[29]

Other[edit]

Dadu Dayal temple

Other attractions include historical Dadu Dayal temple, Natural History Museum, desert safari, aquarium, gardens like One Tree Hill garden, Butterfly Park, football ground, water sports and rides, open-air theatre, Jaldhara water park, boating and small amusement park. It is a good place for yoga, walking, and running, especially early morning. There is also a gym on campus known as Ambubhai Purani Vyayamshala.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ashutosh Kumar, Sharma MP (2014). "Application of Water Quality Index and Diversity Index for Pollution Assessment of Kankaria Lake at Ahmedabad, India". Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering. 04 (03). doi:10.4172/2165-784x.1000144. ISSN 2165-784X. 
  2. ^ "Kankaria carnival 2011:Read a long list of events, complete schedule". www.lightreading.com. DeshGujarat. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Commissariat, M. S. (1938). History of Gujarat. I. Longman, Greens & Co. pp. 147–150. 
  4. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar (1956). Chaulukyas of Gujarat. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 65. OCLC 4413150. 
  5. ^ Tommaso Bobbio (2015). Urbanisation, Citizenship and Conflict in India: Ahmedabad 1900-2000. Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-317-51400-8. 
  6. ^ a b c d Desai, Anjali H. (2007). India Guide Gujarat. India Guide Publications. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-9789517-0-2. 
  7. ^ "into the Indies". The Voyages and Travells of the Ambassadors Sent by Frederick Duke of Holstein, to the Great Duke of Muscovy, and the King of Persia: Begun in the Year M.DC.XXXIII, and Finish'd in M.DC.XXXIX : Containing a Compleat History of Muscovy, Tartary, Persia, and Other Adjacent Countries : with Several Publick Transactions Reaching Near the Present Times : in VII Books. John Starkey, and Thomas Basset. 1669. pp. 25–26. 
  8. ^ "The Many Colours Of Development". Outlook. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 31 December 2008. 
  10. ^ "City's cultural history to be carnival theme". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  11. ^ "Kankaria Carnival in Ahmedabad from December 25th to 31st". DeshGujarat. 2008-11-15. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  12. ^ a b News, TNN (19 September 2012). "World hailed his experiments at zoo". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  13. ^ Paul, John (19 September 2012). "Tarzan - Jew in a zoo". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  14. ^ "Heart-pounding amusement coming up at Kankaria". The Times of India. 24 Jun 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c "Kankaria lake front in Ahmedabad a big hit among tourists". India Today. PTI. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  16. ^ "KIDS city at Rs 100 per kid at Kankaria Carnival". Gujarat News. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  17. ^ "AMC seeks copyright of Kid's City". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  18. ^ "Modi dedicates 'Atal Express' to children". Thaindian News. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  19. ^ "Kankaria toy train on way from London - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  20. ^ "Toy train at Kankaria". gujaratglobal.com. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  21. ^ "AMC plans another toy train for Kankaria". Times of India. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  22. ^ "Lincoln | Severn Lamb". www.severn-lamb.com. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  23. ^ "Tethered balloon to be ready by September". Ahmedabad Mirror. 
  24. ^ "Ahmedabad Eye official Website". Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 
  25. ^ Bulletin of the Institution of Engineers (India)., Volume 25. Institution of Engineers (India), Institution of Engineers (India). 1975. p. 17. Retrieved 17 October 2012. 
  26. ^ a b "Kankaria Mural showcases the story, glory and history of Gujarat". deshgujarat.com. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  27. ^ "Religious leaders visit mural at Kankaria". DNA. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  28. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Ahmedabad. Government Central Press. 1879. pp. 284–285.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  29. ^ "More joyrides to be introduced at Kankaria, but only for daredevils". The Times of India. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 

External links[edit]