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Sabarmati River

Coordinates: 22°18′N 72°22′E / 22.300°N 72.367°E / 22.300; 72.367
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Sabarmati River
Sabarmati River near Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Interactive Map
StateGujarat, Rajasthan
CitiesAhmedabad, Gandhinagar
Physical characteristics
 • locationAravalli Range, Udaipur District, Rajasthan, India
 • elevation782 m (2,566 ft)
 • location
Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India
Length371 km (231 mi)[1]
Basin size30,680 km2 (11,850 sq mi)[1]
 • average120 m3/s (4,200 cu ft/s)
 • locationAhmedabad[2]
 • average33 m3/s (1,200 cu ft/s)
 • minimum0 m3/s (0 cu ft/s)
 • maximum484 m3/s (17,100 cu ft/s)
Basin features
 • leftWakal River, Harnav River, Hathmati River, Watrak River[1]
 • rightSei River[1]

The Sabarmati River is one of the major west-flowing rivers in India.[3] It originates in the Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan and meets the Gulf of Khambhat of Arabian Sea after travelling 371 km (231 mi) in a south-westerly direction across Rajasthan and Gujarat.[3] 48 km (30 mi) of the river length is in Rajasthan, while 323 km (201 mi) is in Gujarat.[3]


The Sabarmati River originates in the Aravalli Range in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The total length of the river is 371 km (231 mi).[4] After travelling 48 km (30 mi) in Rajasthan it flows into the Indian state of Gujarat where it is joined by a left bank tributary, Wakal, near the village Ghonpankhari.[5] From there, the river continues southwest to Mhauri and meets a right bank tributary, the Sei River. Continuing its journey, it is joined by a left bank tributary, the Harnav River, before entering the Dharoi reservoir. After the Sabarmati passes the Dharoi dam it meets another left bank tributary, the Hathmati River.[5] From there, the river flows past the city of Ahmedabad and is joined by a left bank tributary, the Watrak River. The Sabarmati River continues to flow and drains into the Gulf of Khambhat, in the Arabian Sea.[5]


The catchment area of the Sabarmati basin is 21,674 km2 (8,368 sq mi) out of which 4,124 km2 (1,592 sq mi) lies in Rajasthan State and the remaining 18,550 km2 (7,160 sq mi) in Gujarat.[6] The basin is located in a semi-arid zone with rainfall ranging from 450 to 800 mm (18 to 31 in) in different parts of the basin.[7] The river traverses three geomorphic zones: rocky uplands, middle alluvial plains, and lower estuarine zone.[8]

The major tributaries are the Watrak, Wakal, Hathmati, Harnav, and Sei rivers.[3][6][9] Average annual water availability in the Sabarmati basin is 308 m3 (10,900 cu ft) per capita, which is significantly lower than the national average of 1,545 m3 (54,600 cu ft) per capita.[10]

The Sabarmati is a seasonal river whose flows are dominated by the monsoon, with little or no flows post-monsoon.[7] An average flow of 33 m3 (1,200 cu ft) per second was measured at Ahmedabad during the period 1968–1979.[11] Over the past century, the flood of August 1973 is considered to be the largest flood,[7] when a flow of 14,150 m3 (500,000 cu ft) per second was measured at Dharoi.[12]

Significance in Hinduism[edit]

In Rajasthan, it is believed that the Sabarmati River originated due to the penance of ascetic Kashyapa on Mount Abu.[13] His penance had pleased Shiva and in return, Shiva gave ascetic Kashyapa the Ganges River. The Ganges River flowed from Shiva's hair onto Mount Abu and became the Sabarmati River.[13] In another legend surrounding the origin of the river, Shiva brought the goddess Ganga to Gujarat and that caused the Sabarmati to come into being.[14]


Rajashekhara's Kavya-mimamsa (10th century) calls the river Shvabhravati (IAST: Śvabhravatī). The 11th century text Shringara-manjari-katha calls it "Sambhramavati" (literally, "full of fickleness").[15]

Jain Acharya Buddhisagarsuri has written many poems about the Sabarmati River.[16]

During India's independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi established the Sabarmati Ashram as his home on the banks of this river.[17]

In 2018, an assessment by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) named the Kheroj-Vautha stretch of the Sabarmati among the most polluted river stretches in India.[18]


There are several reservoirs on the Sabarmati and its tributaries. The Dharoi dam is located on the main river.[19] The Hathmati, Harnav and Guhai dams are located on the tributaries meeting the main river upstream of Ahmedabad while Meshvo reservoir, Meshvo pick-ueir, Mazam and Watrak dams are located on tributaries meeting downstream. The Kalpasar is planned project in the Gulf of Khambhat.[citation needed]

In 2002, water from the Narmada river was released into the Sabarmati River through the Sardar Sarovar dam.[20]


Sabarmati Riverfront[edit]

The Sabarmati Riverfront project is one of the most ambitious projects undertaken by the government to enrich the economy. As per the research conducted by couple of academicians, the main concern of the riverfront project was to reduce river pollution, increase tourism, and prevent future floods.[21] As of 2020, the second phase of the project has received in-principle approval.[22] KPMG has listed the Sabarmati Riverfront project in its top 100 most innovative global infrastructure projects.[23]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Sabarmati Basin. Government of India Ministry of Water Resources. 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  2. ^ "Sabarmati Basin Station: Ahmedabad". UNH/GRDC. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Water Year Book 2011-12: Mahi, Sabarmati & Other West Flowing Rivers (PDF). Gandhinagar: Central Water Commission. 2012. p. 14.
  4. ^ Singh, Dhruv Sen, ed. (2018). The Indian rivers : scientific and socio-economic aspects. Springer Nature Singapore. p. 466.
  5. ^ a b c Jain, S. K.; Agarwal, Pushpendra K; Singh, V. P. (2007). Hydrology and water resources of India. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 589–579. Bibcode:2007hwri.book.....J.
  6. ^ a b "Sabarmati River, India". National River Conservation Directorate.
  7. ^ a b c Sridhar, Alpa; Chamyal, L.S.; Patel, Mansi (25 August 2014). "Palaeoflood record of high-magnitude events during historical time in the Sabarmati River, Gujarat" (PDF). Current Science. 107 (4): 675–679. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  8. ^ Thokchom, Sarda; Bhattacharya, Falguni; Prasad, A. Durga; Dogra, N.N.; Rastogi, B.K. (2017). "Paleoenvironmental implications and drainage adjustment in the middle reaches of the Sabarmati river, Gujarat: Implications towards hydrological variability". Quaternary International. 454: 1–14. Bibcode:2017QuInt.454....1T. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2017.07.026. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  9. ^ Water Resources Assessment of Sabarmati River Basin, India. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage. 2005. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  10. ^ Integrated Hydrological Data Book (PDF). New Delhi: Central Water Commission. 2016. p. 1.
  11. ^ "Sabarmati Basin, Station: Ahmedabad". UNH/GRDC Composite Runoff Fields v 1.0. UNH/GRDC. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  12. ^ Rakhecha, P.R. (2002). "The Extremes of the Extreme: Extraordinary Floods (Proceedings of a symposium held at Reykjavik, Iceland, July 2000), IAHS Publ. No. 271, 2002.". Highest floods in India (PDF). IAHS. pp. 167–172. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  13. ^ a b Eck, Diana L. (2012). India : a sacred geography. New York: Harmony. p. 283.
  14. ^ "The sacrificial maiden river". The Times of India. 2 September 2002. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.
  15. ^ Kalpalata Munshi (1959). Śṛṅgāramañjarī Kathā of Paramāra King Bhojadeva. Singhi Jain Series. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 77, 22 (translation section).
  16. ^ "पीएम मोदी ने जिन जैन मुनि का ज़िक्र किया वो कौन हैं". BBC News Hindi (in Hindi). 16 August 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  17. ^ "Sabarmati Ashram History".
  18. ^ Jacob Koshy (17 September 2018). "More river stretches are critically polluted: Central Pollution Control Board". The Hindu.
  19. ^ "Gujarat's Dharoi dam water release: Lower promenades of Sabarmati riverfront closed till water recedes". The Indian Express. 18 August 2022. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  20. ^ "Release of Narmada waters to Sabarmati brings hope of rich agricultural yields". India Today. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  21. ^ "Mehta, Vishwa & Bhatt, Bhasker. (2017). Waterfront Development: A Case Study of Sabarmati Riverfront". ResearchGate. 1 March 2017.
  22. ^ "Sabarmati Riverfront Phase 2 plan receives in-principle approval". The Indian Express. 27 October 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  23. ^ "Sabarmati riverfront among top 100 global projects". www.thehindubusinessline.com. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2023.

External links[edit]

22°18′N 72°22′E / 22.300°N 72.367°E / 22.300; 72.367