Linden, New Jersey
|Linden, New Jersey|
|City of Linden|
|Motto: "Big enough to lead, small enough to care"|
Location of Linden in Union County. Inset: Location of Union County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Linden, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||January 1, 1925|
|• Body||City Council|
|• Mayor||Derek Armstead (D, term ends December 31, 2018)|
|• Clerk||Joseph Bodek|
|• Total||11.407 sq mi (29.545 km2)|
|• Land||10.675 sq mi (27.648 km2)|
|• Water||0.732 sq mi (1.897 km2) 6.42%|
|Area rank||197th of 566 in state
2nd of 21 in county
|Elevation||7 ft (2 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2015)||42,021|
|• Rank||52nd of 566 in state
4th of 21 in county
|• Density||3,793.8/sq mi (1,464.8/km2)|
|• Density rank||164th of 566 in state
13th of 21 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0885278|
Linden is a city in southeastern Union County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, located about 13 miles (21 km) southwest of Manhattan and bordering Staten Island, a borough of New York City, across the Arthur Kill. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 40,499, reflecting an increase of 1,105 (+2.8%) from the 39,394 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,693 (+7.3%) from the 36,701 counted in the 1990 Census.
Linden was originally formed as a township on March 4, 1861 from portions of Elizabeth, Rahway and Union Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Cranford (March 14, 1871), Linden Borough (March 30, 1882) and Roselle (December 20, 1894). Linden was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 1, 1925, replacing both Linden Township and Linden Borough, based on the results of a referendum held on November 8, 1923. The city's name derives from linden trees brought from Germany.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Economy
- 4 Arts and culture
- 5 Parks and recreation
- 6 Government
- 7 Education
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Popular culture
- 10 Notable people
- 11 References
- 12 External links
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 11.407 square miles (29.545 km2), including 10.675 square miles (27.648 km2) of land and 0.732 square miles (1.897 km2) of water (6.42%).
The city borders the municipalities of Clark Township, Cranford Township, Elizabeth, Rahway, Roselle and Winfield Township in Union County; Carteret and Woodbridge Township in Middlesex County; and Staten Island in New York City across the Arthur Kill tidal strait.
1870-1920 1870 1880-1890
1930-1990 2000 2010
*=Lost territory in previous decade.
Linden is a regional hub of Polish immigration and features a significant number of establishments featuring the food and culture of Poland. 13.1% of residents are of Polish origin and 15.6% of its residents five years old and above in the center of the city of Linden primarily speak the Polish language at home. The Skulski Art Gallery of the Polish Cultural Foundation of neighboring Clark has exhibited Linden-based artists. Polish-American grocery specialty shop Pulaski Meats takes up nearly a city block. Polish language services are held at two Roman Catholic churches, including at the heavily Polish parish St. Theresa of the Child Jesus Roman Catholic Church, established in the 1920s.
|Largest ancestries (2010)||Percent|
The 2010 United States Census counted 40,499 people, 14,909 households, and 10,272 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,793.8 per square mile (1,464.8/km2). The city contained 15,872 housing units at an average density of 1,486.8 per square mile (574.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 59.15% (23,957) White, 26.88% (10,888) Black or African American, 0.29% (118) Native American, 2.71% (1,099) Asian, 0.02% (8) Pacific Islander, 7.57% (3,066) from other races, and 3.37% (1,363) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 24.93% (10,095) of the population.
Out of a total of 14,909 households, 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.1% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.27.
In the city, 21.8% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.8 years. For every 100 females the census counted 91.1 males, but for 100 females at least 18 years old, it was 87.7 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey shows that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $55,859 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,529) and the median family income was $64,439 (+/- $4,027). Males had a median income of $45,890 (+/- $3,397) versus $39,288 (+/- $2,842) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $27,011 (+/- $1,161). About 5.9% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.1% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
|Largest ancestries (2000)||Percent|
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 39,394 people, 15,052 households, and 10,084 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,645.5 people per square mile (1,407.0/km²). There were 15,567 housing units at an average density of 1,440.6 per square mile (556.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 66.08% White, 22.80% African American, 0.14% Native American, 2.35% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.88% from other races, and 3.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.40% of the population.
There were 15,052 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.21.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, and 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,345, and the median income for a family was $54,903. Males had a median income of $39,457 versus $30,395 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,314. About 5.0% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
Together with Elizabeth, Linden is home to the Bayway Refinery, a Phillips 66 refining facility that helps supply petroleum-based products to the New York/New Jersey area, producing approximately 230,000 barrels per day (37,000 m3/d), making it the second-largest on the East Coast of the United States and one of the country's 25 largest facilities.
From 1937 to 2005, Linden was home to Linden Assembly, a General Motors manufacturing plant that produced Oldsmobile, Pontiac, Buick and other GM automobiles, but also produced planes during World War II. As of Spring of 2008 most of the plant has been torn down for redevelopment by Duke Realty Corporation, which purchased the 100 acres (40 ha) site for $76.5 million.
Arts and culture
Raymond Wood Bauer Promenade is the home of outdoor concerts and other performing arts in Linden. Live bands play R&B, funk and jazz at several live performance venues, and late R&B and jazz vocalist Linda Hayes, who played with the well-known Platters (of which her brother was lead singer) was from Linden.
Catholic-born artist Thomas Lanigan-Schmidt grew up in poverty in 1950s and 60s Linden, New Jersey. Openly gay, he recently had a career retrospective on his exploration of "gay sexuality, class struggle, and religion" in his art at MoMA PS1, and is also known for being photographed as a youth at the Stonewall Riots. Lanigan-Schmidt worked as a 1960s Linden youth doing "odd jobs to help support his family and was bullied by high school thugs," moving to New York City as a young man. As a child in 1950s Linden, after Lanigan-Schmidt was assigned to decorate the school bulletin board in his Catholic elementary school, he built a detailed model of a church altar. The impressive model was featured in a local paper while Lanigan-Schmidt was a student at St. Elizabeth School at 170 Hussa Street. The school closed in 2014; it is a part of the campus of St. Elizabeth of Hungary Roman Catholic Church in Linden.
One of the artists from noted New Jersey hardcore (now LA-based) punk hip-hop group Ho99o9 (pronounced "Horror"), theOGM, has Linden roots. Independent horror filmmaker and musician Bradley Creanzo works out of Linden.
1910 Fruitgum Company is a bubblegum pop band from 1960s Linden.
De Luxe Records (later DeLuxe Records) was a record company and label formed in 1944 in Linden, New Jersey, and is known for its famed R&B and early rock recordings. In the mid-20th century, Linden was the headquarters for the Regal Records, as well as the budget record label Springboard International Records later in the century. Transco, before acquisition by Apollo, made sound recording industry acetate discs (also called acetate blanks, dubplates or lacquers) out of Linden.
The Linden Cultural and Heritage Committee exists to bring entertainment events to area residents such as craft bazaars, street fairs, concerts, and plays, and the Linden Society for Historic Preservation works to preserve the history of the city.
The City is also famed for having one of the limited Chevy's restaurants remaining in the tri-state area which draws in patrons from all over the greater New Jersey area.
Parks and recreation
- Hawk Rise Sanctuary is a new bird sanctuary created by the City of Linden and the New Jersey Audubon Society on the banks of the Rahway River.
- John Russell Wheeler Park is home to the Linden Skatepark for skateboarders at Winans Avenue and West Edgar Road near where Morses Creek winds through the park. Residents have complained of pollution fears further down Morses Creek where it enters the Refinery and becomes polluted. Rosehill Cemetery in Linden was drenched during Sandy by an oil-soaked tidal surge from Bayway Refinery.
- Peach Orchard Park sits at Dill Ave, Hussa St., and Cranford Ave behind School #4. It is home to Peach Orchard Brook, a tributary of Morses Creek.
- Capt. James J. Dunn Memorial Park - Rose Parkway near Seymour Avenue
- Sgt. Alexander Wales Memorial Park - West Curtis near Ainsworth Street
- Clifford Lawson Memorial Park - Between Washington Ave. & Walnut St.
- Cpl. Ronald Knosky Memorial Park - No. Stiles Street & Elm Street
- Lexington Avenue Park at West Blanke Street
- Blanke Street Park at Price Street
- Miltonia Street Park at Stiles Street
- James Dobson Park - East Blanke Street at Maple Avenue
- Cleveland Avenue Park - Between Bower and McCandless
- George T. Farewell Memorial Park - Ziegler Avenue and Bergen Avenue
- Dr. Martin L. King Jr. Memorial Park - McCandless at Dill
- Hattie Johnson Playground - Lincoln at Union
- Charles Street Park at Middlesex Street
- James Iozzi Memorial Park - Dill Avenue
- Fifth Ward Park -Dill and Adams
- Hagel Avenue Park – Alberta & Fay Avenue
- Eddy Avenue Park- 12th Street – Mopsick & Winans
- L/Cpl. Melnyk Memorial Park - at Clinton Street
- Clinton Street Play Area at 15th Street
- Buchanan Street Park at Lower Road & Parkway Avenue
- Memorial Park (include Mather Spring) - Between Wood Avenue & Lower Road
- Seventeenth Street Park - E. 17th and 18th Streets
- Seventh Ward Park - So. Stiles, between 17th & 18th St.
- Tremley Park – Main Street at Wood Avenue
- Wanda Anita Green Memorial Park - Grier Avenue & Mack Place
- United Airlines Flight 93 Memorial
- Bachellor Avenue Park – at Urbanowitz Avenue
- Milkosky Park – Bedle Place & Park Avenue
- St. Marks Park - Between Hussa Street & Essex Avenue
- McGillvray Place Park – between Klem & Bedle
- Newton Street Park - At Pallant Avenue
- Sunnyside Park - Summit Terrace at Melrose
- Thomas J. Weiser Park - At Wood Avenue & Raritan Road
- Woodrow Wilson Memorial Park - Academy between Orchard & Summit
- Al Kalla Park - Between Wickersham & Highland Avenue
- Windsor Road at Stiles Street
Linden is governed under the City form of government with a mayor and an 11-member City Council, of which 10 are elected from wards. The mayor and council president are elected at-large to four-year terms of office, while the other 10 members are elected from wards to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or four seats up for election each year in a three-year cycle.
- Council President – Jorge Alvarez (D, 2018)
- First Ward – Lisa A. Ormon (D, 2018)
- Second Ward – Donald F. Beyer (I, 2016)
- Third Ward – Peter A. Brown Jr. (D, 2016)
- Fourth Ward – Monty Brooks (D, 2017)
- Fifth Ward – Rhashonna Cosby-Hurling (D, 2016)
- Sixth Ward – Robert J. Sadowski (D, 2017)
- Seventh Ward – Ralph Strano (D, 2016; elected to serve an unexpired term)
- Eighth Ward – Michele Yamakaitis (D, 2017)
- Ninth Ward – Armando Medina (D, 2018)
- Tenth Ward – Gretchen M. Hickey (D, 2017)
In November 2015, the City Council selected Ralph Strano from a list of three candidates nominated by the Democratic municipal committee to fill the Seventh Ward seat expiring in December 2016 that had been held by Mike Minarchenko until his resignation from office the previous month; Strano served on an interim basis until the November 2016 general election, when he was elected to serve the balance of the term of office.
John T. Gregorio, served as mayor of Linden for 30, non-consecutive years until December 31, 2006, and was repeatedly tagged with scandal during his mayoral career, including one felony conviction, later pardoned, which forced him from office for two terms. Gregorio returned as mayor following his conviction.
Rhashonna Cosby-Hurling, who represents the Fifth Ward, became the first African American female elected to the City Council when she took office in 2011.
Federal, state and county representation
Linden is located in the 10th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 22nd state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Linden had been split between the 7th Congressional District, the 10th Congressional Districta and the 13th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.
New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).
For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 22nd Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nicholas Scutari (D, Linden) and in the General Assembly by Jerry Green (D, Plainfield) and James J. Kennedy (D, Rahway). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Union County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose nine members are elected at-large to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis with three seats coming up for election each year, with an appointed County Manager overseeing the day-to-day operations of the county. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects a Chairman and Vice Chairman from among its members. As of 2014[update], Union County's Freeholders are Chairman Christopher Hudak (D, Linden, term ends December 31, 2014), Vice Chairman Mohamed S. Jalloh (D, Roselle, 2015), Bruce Bergen (D, Springfield Township, 2015), Linda Carter (D, Plainfield, 2016), Angel G. Estrada (D, Elizabeth, 2014), Sergio Granados (D, Elizabeth, 2016) Bette Jane Kowalski (D, Cranford, 2016), Alexander Mirabella (D, Fanwood, 2015) and Vernell Wright (D, Union, 2014). Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Joanne Rajoppi (D, Union, 2015), Sheriff Ralph Froehlich (D, Union, 2016) and Surrogate James S. LaCorte (D, Springfield Township, 2014). The County Manager is Alfred Faella.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 21,494 registered voters in Linden, of which 11,831 (55.0% vs. 41.8% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 1,319 (6.1% vs. 15.3%) were registered as Republicans and 8,339 (38.8% vs. 42.9%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 5 voters registered to other parties. Among the city's 2010 Census population, 53.1% (vs. 53.3% in Union County) were registered to vote, including 67.9% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 70.6% countywide).
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 11,213 votes (73.3% vs. 66.0% countywide), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 3,814 votes (24.9% vs. 32.3%) and other candidates with 135 votes (0.9% vs. 0.8%), among the 15,303 ballots cast by the city's 22,753 registered voters, for a turnout of 67.3% (vs. 68.8% in Union County). In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 10,728 votes (66.5% vs. 63.1% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 5,037 votes (31.2% vs. 35.2%) and other candidates with 162 votes (1.0% vs. 0.9%), among the 16,142 ballots cast by the city's 22,266 registered voters, for a turnout of 72.5% (vs. 74.7% in Union County). In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 9,222 votes (64.0% vs. 58.3% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 4,966 votes (34.4% vs. 40.3%) and other candidates with 116 votes (0.8% vs. 0.7%), among the 14,419 ballots cast by the city's 20,596 registered voters, for a turnout of 70.0% (vs. 72.3% in the whole county).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 54.6% of the vote (4,255 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 43.9% (3,420 votes), and other candidates with 1.6% (123 votes), among the 8,158 ballots cast by the city's 22,416 registered voters (360 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 36.4%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 5,429 ballots cast (57.8% vs. 50.6% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 3,272 votes (34.8% vs. 41.7%), Independent Chris Daggett with 452 votes (4.8% vs. 5.9%) and other candidates with 98 votes (1.0% vs. 0.8%), among the 9,390 ballots cast by the city's 21,742 registered voters, yielding a 43.2% turnout (vs. 46.5% in the county).
The Linden Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. As of the 2011-12 school year, the district's 11 schools had an enrollment of 5,978 students and 479.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.48:1. Schools in the district (with 2011-12 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are eight elementary schools — School No. 1 (grades 3–5; 293 students), School No. 2 (PreK-5; 390), School No. 4 (PreK-4; 428), School No. 5 (PreK-2; 360), School No. 6 (PreK-5; 341), School No. 8 (PreK-5; 333), School No. 9 (PreK-5; 385) and School No. 10 (PreK-5; 358) — Myles J. McManus Middle School (5-8; 696) and Joseph E. Soehl Middle School (6-8; 709) for middle school and Linden High School for grades 9–12 (1,785).
- Sinai Christian Academy, Pre-K through 12th grade
- Saints Mary and Elizabeth Academy was a Catholic school serving students in Pre-K through 8th grade that operated under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark until its closure at the end of the 2013-14 school year due to declining enrollment.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the city had a total of 109.72 miles (176.58 km) of roadways, of which 87.01 miles (140.03 km) were maintained by the municipality, 13.53 miles (21.77 km) by Union County, 6.19 miles (9.96 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 2.99 miles (4.81 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.
Linden is served by U.S. Route 1/9 and Route 27. In terms of limited access roads, the Garden State Parkway passes about 500 feet west of the city limits. The city is also the western terminus of Interstate 278, which travels through all five boroughs of New York City. The New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95) passes through the eastern portion of the city, with a few ramps that lead to the nearest exit (Exit 13 for I-278) which is right on the city limits with nearby Elizabeth.
Local public transportation is provided by NJ Transit with bus service to Elizabeth, Perth Amboy and Newark. New Jersey Transit routes 112 and 115 provide local service and interstate service to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan, on the 62 and 94 routes to Newark, and local service on the 56 and 57 routes.
The Linden train station offers service on NJ Transit's North Jersey Coast Line and the Northeast Corridor Line, northbound to Newark Penn Station, Secaucus Junction and New York Penn Station, and southbound towards the Trenton Transit Center, with connections available at those locations
Linden Airport is a small general aviation facility and reliever airport located on the eastern side of the city along U.S. Route 1/9. The airport was constructed for the United States Navy in 1942 for use in development and testing of the Grumman F4F Wildcat and was taken over by the City of Linden after World War II. Newark Liberty International Airport is approximately 15 minutes away.
Linden was chosen as the primary filming location for Volume 2 of the streetball video series, AND1 Mixtapes. One of the original five streetballers to sign with AND1, Waliyy Dixon, a Linden native who also goes by the nickname "Main Event," helped host a night of basketball at 4th Ward Park that claimed attendance by 2,000 spectators.
Hal Linden, the stage and screen actor, television director and musician best known as the star of the TV series Barney Miller, based his stage name on the city's name, after seeing the word "Linden" on a water tower while heading to from Philadelphia to perform in New York City.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Linden include:
- Tiffany Andrade (born 1985), Miss New Jersey USA 2008 & 2nd runner-up to Miss USA 2008.
- Kevin Carolan (born 1968), actor and comedian.
- John Charles (born 1944), former cornerback and safety who played eight seasons in the National Football League.
- George Thomas Coker (born 1943), United States Navy navigator who spent over six years as a POW after being shot down over North Vietnam in 1966.
- Waliyy Dixon (born 1974), aka "Main Event" on the AND1 Mixtape Tour; one of the original players on the famous AND1-sponsored streetball tours.
- Carolyn Dorin-Ballard (born 1964), professional bowler.
- Cathy Dorin-Lizzi (born 1966), professional bowler, sister of Carolyn.
- Calvin Duncan (born 1961), NBA player who was selected by the Cleveland Cavaliers in the second round (30th pick overall) of 1985 NBA Draft.
- Linda Hayes (born 1923 as Bertha Williams), jazz and R&B singer.
- Eddie Kasko (born 1932), former infielder, manager, scout and front office executive in Major League Baseball.
- Thomas Lanigan-Schmidt (born 1948), artist and veteran of the Stonewall riots.
- Mike Nardi (born 1985), basketball player who has played for Scavolini Spar Pesaro in the Italian League – Serie A.
- Vincent Obsitnik (born 1938), Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to the Slovak Republic.
- Giovanni Riggi (1925–2015), mobster and member of the DeCavalcante crime family since the 1940s.
- Danny Stiles (1923–2011), radio personality at WNYC, WNSW, WJDM and WPAT in the New York City market.
- Troy Stradford (born 1964), former running back who played for six seasons in the NFL.
- Joseph Suliga (1958–2005), former member of the New Jersey Senate who was the youngest person ever elected to the Linden Public Schools Board of Education, at the age of 19.
- Craig Taylor (born 1966), former running back for the Cincinnati Bengals.
- Muhammad Wilkerson (born 1989), defensive end who has played for the New York Jets.
- Robert Zarinsky (1940–2008), convicted murderer and suspected serial killer.
- 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Mayor Derek Armstead, City of Linden. Accessed Derek Armstead.
- 2016 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- City Clerk, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 94.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: City of Linden, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 7, 2013.
- PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 - 2015 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 22, 2016.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- 2010 Census Populations: Union County, Asbury Park Press. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Linden city, Union County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 9. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Linden city, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- Look Up a ZIP Code for Linden, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Linden, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 239. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed September 3, 2015.
- Locality Search, State of New Jersey. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- Areas touching Linden, MapIt. Accessed September 3, 2015.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 29, 2016.
- Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed October 18, 2013. Data is summed for Linden Township and Linden Borough for the census years of 1890-1920 when the two municipalities co-existed.
- Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 281, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed October 18, 2013. "Linden had a population in 1870 of 1,396."
- Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 259. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 99. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 339. Accessed October 18, 2013. Population for the three years is the sum of the data shown for the borough (936 in 1890, 402 in 1900 and 610 in 1910) and township (125 in 1890, 619 in 1900 and 1,988 in 1910)
- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 719. Accessed October 18, 2013. The population shown in the table for 1910 and 1920 is the sum of the population for the borough (610 in 1910 and 1,756 in 1920) and the township (1,988 in 1910 and 6,612 in 1920), as listed in footnote 20.
- Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Linden city, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Linden city, Union County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- http://www.city-data.com/city/Linden-New-Jersey.htm; https://www.neighborhoodscout.com/nj/linden/city-center/
- Feeney, Kelly. "Kielbasa Kingdom", The New York Times, December 3, 2010. Accessed December 10, 2016.
- http://unionnewsdaily.com/headline-news/27965; Linden, New Jersey pg 100 by Lauren Pancurak Yeats; http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/The-Home-Forum/2010/0401/For-the-love-of-babka-the-Slavic-sweet-bread-with-a-long-tale
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Linden city, Union County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 23, 2012.
- Caroom, Eliot. "ConocoPhillips' Bayway Refinery in Linden one of a dying breed on East Coast", The Star-Ledger, November 17, 2011. Accessed July 23, 2012. "Bayway is the second largest of 12 refineries on the East Coast, and the 25th largest in the United States, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. It employs about 800 people at the Linden facility."
- GM to End Blazer/Jimmy Production and Close New Jersey Plant, Automobile.com, dated December 6, 2004.
- Friedman, Alexi. "Former GM plant is razed for Linden 'renaissance'", The Star-Ledger, August 31, 2008. Accessed July 23, 2012. "Demolition crews have finished clearing the massive site on the former General Motors assembly plant in Linden, making way for a planned industrial and retail park that Linden officials hope will play a key role in the city's renaissance.... After Indianapolis-based Duke Realty Corp. purchased the property from GM for $76.5 million, crews from the demolition firm Testa Corp. began dismantling the site in February. Razing the 2.7 million-square-foot automotive plant that encompassed 100 acres along Routes 1&9 -- and across from Linden Airport -- was supposed to take a year, but was completed earlier this month, far ahead of schedule."
- To Merck & Co., Inc. for 100 years of community investment and redevelopment., New Jersey Future, 2003. Accessed July 23, 2012. "Merck & Co., Inc. is celebrating the 100th anniversary of its research and manufacturing facility in the cities of Rahway and Linden, where it has grown considerably with the support of its civic partners.In the summer of 1903, a small manufacturing operation began on 150 acres of land 20 miles southwest of New York City in Rahway, New Jersey."
- Medleys Jazz Restaurant; Robins Nest Rhythm & Blues in Tremley Point
- BOMB Magazine : Thomas Lanigan-Schmidt by Jessica Baran http://bombmagazine.org/article/7157/; Newspaper clipping, "Pupil Constructs Church Model," c. 1955; http://res.cloudinary.com/bombmagazine/image/upload/v1412026777/paper_clipping_body.jpg (he is misattributed in the photo; he is the boy on the lower right).
- http://www.searchmytrash.com/cgi-bin/articlecreditsb.pl?bradleycreanzo(8-14); http://clclt.com/charlotte/adjust-your-tracking-worth-tracking-down/Content?oid=3169803; https://horrormoviesuncut.com/2014/12/30/get-down-on-your-knees-bible-belt-slasher-the-holy-terror-dvd-details-and-clips/
- Whats New?, New Jersey Audubon Society. Accessed December 9, 2016.
- Elected Officials, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- Cerra, Michael F. "Forms of Government; Everything You've Always Wanted to Know ,But Were Afraid to Ask", New Jersey State League of Municipalities. Accessed July 23, 2012. "The number of council members can vary. For instance, the City of Linden currently has eleven council members, a provision which preceded the 1987 revisions."
- Directory, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 2016 Municipal User Friendly Budget, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- Union County 2016 Directory, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed August 3, 2016.
- November 5, 2015 General Election Official Results, Union County, New Jersey, updated November 9, 2015. Accessed August 3, 2016.
- November 4, 2014 General Election Official Results, Union County, New Jersey, updated January 7, 2015. Accessed August 3, 2016.
- November 5, 2013 General Election Results, Union County, New Jersey, updated November 12, 2013. Accessed August 3, 2016.
- Council President Jorge Alvarez, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 2nd Ward Councilman Lisa Ormon, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 2nd Ward Councilman Donald Beyer, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 3rd Ward Councilman Peter Brown Jr., City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 4th Ward Councilman Monty Brooks, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 5th Ward Councilwoman Rhashonna Cosby-Hurling, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 6th Ward Councilman Robert J. Sadowski, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 7th Ward Councilman Ralph Strano, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 8th Ward Councilwoman Michele Yamakaitis, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 9th Ward Councilman Armando Medina, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- 10th Ward Councilwoman Gretchen Hickey, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016.
- Minutes of the Regular Meeting of the 2015 Council of the City of Linden, held Tuesday, November 10, 2015, City of Linden. Accessed August 4, 2016. "WHEREAS, Mike Minarchenko, a duly elected member of the City Council of the City of Linden,has resigned from his office effective October 21, 2015; and WHEREAS, pursuant to the provisions of the Municipal Vacancy Law, specifically N.J.S.A. 40A:16-11, the municipal committee of the Democratic Party, of which Mr. Minarchenko is a member, has put forward three nominations to fill the vacancy, including the name Ralph Strano. NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, by the City Council of the City of Linden, County of Union, State of New Jersey, that Ralph Strano is hereby appointed to fill the unexpired term of Mike Minarchenko in accordance with the law and that Ralph Strano shall replace Mr. Minarchenko in all committees he is a part of."
- General Election November 8, 2016, Union County, New Jersey, updated November 8, 2016. Accessed November 9, 2016.
- Strupp, Joe. "A Man of Influence", New Jersey Monthly, May 2006. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- Russell, Suzanne C. "New Linden council member proud to be first black woman in post", Courier News, January 17, 2011. Accessed November 24, 2014. "Rhashonna Cosby-Hurling gets goose bumps when she thinks of the history mark she is setting as the city's first African-American woman to serve on the Linden City Council."
- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2016 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 59, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed July 20, 2016.
- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 60, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed May 22, 2015.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
- About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
- Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
- Senators of the 114th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
- Legislative Roster 2016-2017 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 17, 2016.
- "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- County Government, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Freeholder Christopher Hudak, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Freeholder Mohamed S. Jalloh, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Bruce Bergen, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Freeholder Vice Chairman Linda Carter, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Freeholder Angel G. Estrada, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Freeholder Sergio Granados, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Freeholder Bette Jane Kowalski, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Freeholder Alexander Mirabella, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Freeholder Vernell Wright, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Board of Chosen Freeholders, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Union County Clerk, Joanne Rajoppi, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Union County Sheriff Ralph Froehlich, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Surrogate, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Elected Officials – Clerk – Sheriff – Surrogate, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- County Manager, Union County, New Jersey. Accessed January 26, 2014.
- Voter Registration Summary - Union, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- GCT-P7: Selected Age Groups: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision; 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- Presidential November 6, 2012 General Election Results - Union County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 15, 2013. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast November 6, 2012 General Election Results - Union County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 15, 2013. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Union County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- 2004 Presidential Election: Union County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- "Governor - Union County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 5, 2013 - General Election Results - Union County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- 2009 Governor: Union County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed May 19, 2013.
- District information for Linden School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed November 24, 2014.
- School Data for the Linden Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed November 24, 2014.
- School No. 1, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- School No. 2, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- School No. 4, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- School No. 5, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- School No. 6, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- School No. 8, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- School No. 9, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- School No. 10, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Myles J. McManus Middle School, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Joseph E. Soehl Middle School, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Linden High School, Linden Public Schools. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- New Jersey School Directory for the Linden Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed December 29, 2016.
- Home page, Sinai Christian Academy. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Haggerty, Neil. "NJ Catholic schools fight to keep doors open as future dims", The Star-Ledger, July 7, 2014. Accessed December 10, 2016. "Goodness said the four schools closed this year — St. Agnes School in Clark, Saints Mary and Elizabeth Academy in Linden, Blessed Pope John XXIII Academy in West Orange and Most Sacred Heart of Jesus School in Wallington — were not financially sound and could not keep their enrollment up for the archdiocese's new 'Lighting the Way' program, implemented this month."
- Union County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
- Interstate 278 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Union County Bus/Rail Connections, NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed July 23, 2011.
- Linden station, NJ Transit. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Northeast Corridor Line, NJ Transit. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- North Jersey Coast Line, NJ Transit. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Linden Airport. Accessed October 18, 2013.
- Palmer, Chris. AND1 Streetball: All the ballers, moves, slams and shine, p. 38.HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 9780060724443. Accessed June 16, 2009.
- Jordan, Chris. "Linden go-go bar gets its close-up in Oscar-nominated 'The Wrestler", Courier News, February 20, 2009, backed up by the Internet Archive as of January 12, 2016. Accessed August 4, 2016. "Move over Bada-Bing of The Sopranos, Cheeques at 1230 East Linden Ave., in Linden, featured in the movie The Wrestler, is taking over as the most famous go-go in New Jersey."
- Lowerison, Jean. "Hal Linden coming to Welk San Diego", SDGLN.com, February 12, 2014. Accessed September 21, 2016. "Born Harold Lipschitz in New York City, he wanted to be a bandleader and studied classical clarinet, playing with symphony orchestras from the age of 15.... He chose his stage name on the way from Philadelphia to an acting job in New York, when he saw the water tower in Linden, New Jersey."
- Opinion. "One great moment in Linden's history", Home News Tribune, June 16, 2008. Accessed July 23, 2012. "Linden's newly created History Hall of Fame also will be housed at the museum; its first inductee, Tiffany Andrade of Linden, was this year's second runner-up for the title of Miss America USA."
- "Biography of Tiffany Andrade", Miss New Jersey USA Website. Accessed April 20, 2008.
- Kolton, Tara. "Actor with Wanaque roots takes the Broadway stage in Newsies the Musical", Suburban Trends, September 6, 2012. Accessed January 27, 2015. "Now a resident of Linden, Carolan grew up in Wanaque and attended the St. Francis of Assisi School before graduating from Neumann Prep in Wayne."
- via Associated Press. "Purdue Loses Top Defender", St. Joseph News-Press, October 21, 1966. Accessed July 23, 2012. "The 6-1, 195-pound senior from Linden, N.J., was hurt just before the close of the day's practice."
- "A JERSEY P.O.W. AMONG RELEASED; Freeing of Navigator Brings Happy Tears in Linden", The New York Times, March 5, 1973. Accessed December 5, 2007.
- Linden Athletic Hall of Fame. Accessed January 30, 2009.
- Pezzano, Chuck. "BOHN, DORIN-BALLARD REAP MORE ACCOLADES", The Record (Bergen County), February 24, 2002. Accessed May 13, 2007. "Parker Bohn III of Jackson and Carolyn Dorin-Ballard of Linden were named honorary captains of the recently announced All-America teams in polls conducted by the American Bowling Congress and Women's International Bowling Congress."
- Caballero, Paula. "INSIDE BOWLING Sisters have historic meeting in LPBT finals", Fort Worth Star-Telegram, June 23, 1997. Accessed May 13, 2007." Cathy Dorin of Linden, N.J., outdueled sister Carolyn Dorin-Ballard of North Richland Hills, 245-203, Thursday in the first stepladder match of the $65,000 Sam's Town Tunica Mid South Classic in Memphis, Tenn."
- Calvin Duncan. The Draft Review. 2009. Accessed September 15, 2009.
- Eagle, Bob L.; and LeBlanc, Eric S. Blues: A Regional Experience, p. 265. ABC-CLIO, 2013. ISBN 9780313344244. Accessed November 24, 2014. "Linda Hayes (Bertha Lulu Williams) (v) (Linden, Union County, December 10, 1923—[Bertha L. Roberson] Atlanta, Georgia, May 26, 1998)."
- Crehan, Herbert F. Red Sox Heroes of Yesteryear, p. 191. Rounder Books, 2005. ISBN 9781579401184. Accessed May 13, 2007. "I was the last one cut, but I headed home to Linden, New Jersey, Figuring I had better get a job."
- Stonewall Rebellion, University of Wisconsin. Accessed April 22, 2011. "Thomas Lanigan-Schmidt was born in 1948 and raised in the multi-ethnic Catholic enclaves of Elizabeth and Linden, New Jersey."
- Wielgus, Jennifer. "Villanova product Nardi ready to hold court", Bucks County Courier Times, July 6, 2008. Accessed July 23, 2012. "His team bused all over Italy to play, with trips taking up to six hours through mountains and countryside - a far cry from Nardi's urban hometown of Linden, N.J."
- Staff. U.S. ambassador returns to Linden (Obsitnik '59), United States Naval Academy, May 6, 2009. Accessed July 23, 2011. "Obsitnik shared his story of being born in Slovakia and moving to Linden as a child. He listed his addresses in Linden: his first house, at 308 East Elm St.; the house at 714 Roselle St. that his parents rented; and 308 East Curtis St., which his father built. From there, Obsitnik attended the Naval Academy and worked as an executive for IBM, Unisys and Litton Corp. Obsitnik graduated from Linden High School in 1955, and he recalled a few differences between the 1950s and today. Uniforms were one."
- Staff. "Feds indict reputed mob boss", The Washington Times, July 15, 1992. Accessed July 23, 2012. "Giovanni Riggi, 67, of Linden, N.J., is the fifth alleged mob boss whom federal grand juries in Brooklyn have indicted in the last 18 months."
- Model, Eric. "Danny Stiles: The 'Vicar of Vintage' endures even after his passing", NewJerseyNewsroom.com, June 20, 2011. Accessed July 23, 2012. "Danny Stiles was born in 1923 and grew up in Newark and Linden during the Great Depression After graduating from high school in 1941, he enlisted for the Navy after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. After being honorably discharged due to an injured hip, Stiles went to college and held several jobs before starting his radio career."
- Thomsen, Ian. "HE'S IN A STATE OF ANTICIPATION; BC'S STRADFORD EYES A BIG YEAR", The Boston Globe, August 27, 1985. Accessed July 20, 2012. "He was a 5-foot-8-inch basketball player who could dunk two- handed, but [Troy Stradford] was mainly a 1,000-yard tailback each of his last two years at Linden High School."
- Becker, Arielle, Levin. "Ex-senator mourned in Linden", Home News Tribune, February 20, 2005. Accessed July 23, 2011. "Union County Democratic Chairwoman Charlotte DeFilippo recalled the day 27 years ago when the 19-year-old Suliga walked into her office, wearing a suit and looking younger than his 19 years, and announced that he was running for the Linden school board."
- Staff. "Closing comes early for Bellevue Stratford", The Pittsburgh Press, March 5, 1986. Accessed April 22, 2011. "Rose was named in warrants sworn by Jones and Craig Taylor, another WVU football player of Linden, N.J."
- Vrentas, Jenny. "Former Linden High star Muhammad Wilkerson likely to be first New Jerseyan selected in 2011 NFL Draft", The Star-Ledger, April 25, 2011. Accessed July 23, 2011. "Raised in Elizabeth and Linden, Wilkerson grew up a Giants fan until he became simply a fan of the game. The third of four children, he and his mother share a close connection, reinforced by their tradition of sending 'hugs' in daily text messages."
- Russell, Suzanne C. "Unsolved killings probed", Asbury Park Press, August 19, 1999. Accessed April 22, 2011. "Law enforcement officials today will resume their search of a Linden home owned by Robert Zarinsky, the man serving a life sentence for the 1969 killing of a 17-year-old Atlantic Highlands girl whose body was never found."
- Linden website
- Linden Public Schools
- Linden Public Schools's 2014–15 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- School Data for the Linden Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics
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