Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. They are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. They are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques (such as distillation, cold pressing, or Solvent extraction). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.
Agar oil or oodh, distilled from Agarwood ( ). Highly prized for its fragrance. Aquilaria malaccensis 
Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of ( ). Oil contains 35–65% Carum copticum thymol. 
Angelica root oil, distilled from the . Angelica archangelica
Anise oil, from the , rich odor of Pimpinella anisum licorice, used medicinally.
Asafoetida oil, used medicinally and to flavor food.
Balsam of Peru, from the , used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance, and in medicine and pharmaceutical items for healing properties. Myroxylon
Basil oil is used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy.
Bay oil is used in perfumery; Aromatherapeutic for sprains, colds, flu, insomnia, rheumatism.
Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
Black Pepper oil is distilled from the berries of . The warm, soothing effect makes it ideal for treating muscle aches, pains and strains and promoting healthy digestion. Piper nigrum
Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely used. Formerly used medicinally.
Birch oil is aromatheapeutic for gout, Rheumatism, Eczema, Ulcers.
Camphor oil is used for cold, cough, fever, rheumatism, and arthritis.
Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles. 
Calamodin oil or Calamansi Essential Oil comes from a citrus tree in the Philippines extracted via cold press or steam distillation.
Caraway oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent. 
Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc. Zingiberaceae
Carrot seed oil, used in aromatherapy.
Cedar oil (or Cedarwood oil), primarily used in perfumes and fragrances.
Chamomile oil, There are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy; Roman and German. Both have similar medicinal properties but German chamomile contains a higher level of azulin (an anti-inflammatory agent).
Calamus oil Used medicinally, in perfumery and (formerly) as a food additive
Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring and medicinally.
Citron oil, used in Ayurvedic medicine and perfumery.
Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent, as well as medicinally.
Clary Sage oil, used in perfumery and as an additive flavoring in some alcoholic beverages. 
Clove oil, used as a topical anesthetic to relieve dental pain.
Coffee oil, used to flavor food.
Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), formerly used medicinally in Europe; still used as such in southwest Asia. Discovered to contain up to 12.5% of the toxin  β-thujone. 
Costus root oil, used medicinally.
Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry.
Cubeb oil, used medicinally and to flavor foods.
Cumin oil/Black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products. Also used in veterinary medicine.
Cypress oil, used in cosmetics and medicine.
Curry leaf oil, used medicinally and to flavor food.
Davana oil, from the , used as a perfume ingredient and as a Artemisia pallens germicide.
Dill oil, chemically almost identical to seed oil. High carvone content.
Elecampane oil, used in herbal medicine.
Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide. Commonly used in cough medicine, among other medicinal uses. 
Fennel seed oil, used medicinally, particularly for treating colic in infants.
Fenugreek oil, used medicinally and for cosmetics from ancient times.
Frankincense oil, used for aromatherapy and in perfumes.
Galangal oil , used medicinally and to flavor food.
Galbanum oil, used in perfumery.  
Geranium oil, also referred to as Geranol. Used in herbal medicine, particularly in aromatherapy. Also used for hormonal imbalance, for this reason geranium is often considered to be "female" oil. Used in perfumery as well.  
Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures, and has been studied extensively as a nausea treatment, where it was found more effective than placebo.    
Goldenrod oil used in herbal medicine, including treatment of urological problems. 
Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene.
Henna oil, used in body art. Known to be dangerous to people with certain enzyme deficiencies. Pre-mixed pastes are considered dangerous, primarily due to adulterants.   
Hickory nut oil.
Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance.
Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor. Also used medicinally, including traditional medicine.
Lavender oil, used primarily as a fragrance. Also used medicinally.
Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used medicinally, as an antiseptic, and in cosmetics.
Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highly fragrant grass from India. In India, it is used to help treat fevers and infections. The oil is very useful for insect repellent.
Lime, anti septic, anti viral, astringent, aperitif, bactericidal, disinfectant, febrifuge, haemostatic, restorative and tonic.
Litsea cubeba oil, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy.
Melaleuca See Tea tree oil
Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil used primarily medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy.
Mentha arvensis oil, Mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications.
Moringa oil, can be used directly on the skin and hair. It can also be used in soap and as a base for other cosmetics.
Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin.
Mustard oil, containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard
Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell. Used medicinally.
Neem oil or Neem Tree Oil
Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree.
Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d- Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.
Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol, making it a useful fungicide. Also used to treat digestive problems. 
Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris ( ), Iris florentina and Iris germanica . It is used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally. Iris pallida 
Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men's fragrances.
Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes.
Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50–60% perillaldehyde.
Pennyroyal oil, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage.
Peppermint oil, used in a wide variety of medicinal applications.
Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy.
Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, Used primarily as a fragrance.
Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the or Rosa rubiginosa . Used medicinally. Rosa mosqueta
Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of . Used in aromatherapy, topically to sooth muscles, and medicinal for its antibacterial and anti-fungal properties. Rosmarinus officinalis 
Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications. Also used medicinally.
Sage oil, used medicinally.
Sandalwood oil, used primarily as a fragrance, for its pleasant, woody fragrance. 
Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, inter alia. Sassafras oil is heavily regulated in the United States due to its high safrole content. 
Savory oil, from species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications. Satureja
Schisandra oil, used medicinally.
Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications.
Spikenard, used medicinally.
Spruce has calming and elevating properties. It can be used as a topical application for muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, and rheumatism. Spruce Oil has also been used to improve breathing conditions of asthma, bronchitis, coughs, and general weakness.
Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. 90% of the world's  star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful for avian flu
Tarragon oil, distilled from , used medicinally. Artemisia dracunculus
Tea tree oil, extracted from . Promoted for medicinal use, but with limited evidence of effectiveness. Melaleuca alternifolia
Thyme oil, used medicinally.
Tsuga belongs to the pine tree family. It is used as analgesic, antirheumatic, blood cleanser, and stimulant. It treats cough, respiratory conditions, kidney ailments, urinary infections.
Turmeric, used medicinally and to flavor food.
Valerian is used for insomnia, migraines, nervous dyspepsia, and dandruff.
Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from India. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy.
Western red cedar
Wintergreen can be used as an analgesic, anodyne, anti rheumatic & anti arthritic, anti spasmodic, anti septic, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emenagogue and stimulant.
Yarrow oil is used medicinally to relieve joint pain.
Ylang-ylang is used for calming, antiseptic, and aphrodisiac purposes, as well as hypertension and skin diseases.
Zedoary, used medicinally and to flavor food.
See also [ edit ]
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy and Herbalism ( ISBN 1852307218) 1995
The Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aromatherapy
References [ edit ]
^ "Agar". Nagaon. Archived from the original on 2006-09-20 . Retrieved . 2006-11-17
^ Singh, Gurdip; Maurya, Sumitra; Catalan, C.; de Lampasona, M. P. (June 2004). "Chemical Constituents, Antifungal and Antioxidative Effects of Ajwain Essential Oil and Its Acetone Extract". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52 (11): 3292–3296. doi: 10.1021/jf035211c.
^ Hemp: A New Crop with New Uses for North America, from the Purdue University NewCROP Web site.
^ Caraway oil, from the Victoria, Australia Department of Primary Industries Web site.
^ Clebsch, Betsy; Barner, Carol D. (2003). . Timber Press. p. 261. The New Book of Salvias ISBN 978-0-88192-560-9.
^ Cumo, Christopher (2013). Encyclopedia of Cultivated Plants A-F. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 329–332. ISBN 978-1-59884-774-1.
^ , ISHS Acta Horticulturae 306: International Symposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, XXIII IHC Tanacetum Balsamita L.: A Medicinal Plant from Guadalajara (Spain)
^ Eucalyptus oil
^ LAWRENCE, B.M; "Progress in Essential Oils" 'Perfumer and Flavorist' August/September 1978 vol 3, No 4 p 54
^ McANDREW, B.A; MICHALKIEWICZ, D.M; "Analysis of Galbanum Oils". Dev Food Sci. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publications 1988 v 18 pp 573 – 585
^ "Pelargoniums - An Herb Society of America Fact Sheet" (PDF). The Herb Society of America. 2006 . Retrieved . 20 December 2012
^ "Apple Geranium". Natural Medicinal Herbs.
^ "Ginger, NCCIH Herbs at a Glance". US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health . Retrieved . 25 April 2012
^ Marx, WM; Teleni L; McCarthy AL; Vitetta L; McKavanagh D; Thomson D; Isenring E. (2013). "Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review". Nutr Rev. 71 (4): 245–54. doi: 10.1111/nure.12016. PMID 23550785.
^ Ernst, E.; Pittler, M.H. (1 March 2000). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). British Journal of Anesthesia. 84 (3): 367–371. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013442. PMID 10793599 . Retrieved . 6 September 2006
^ O'Connor, Anahad (August 21, 2007). "The Claim: Eating Ginger Can Cure Motion Sickness". . The New York Times
^ Melzig, M. F. (November 2004). "Goldenrod--a classical exponent in the urological phytotherapy". Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946). 154 (21–22): 523–7. doi: 10.1007/s10354-004-0118-4. ISSN 0043-5341. PMID 15638071.
^ Raupp P, Hassan JA, Varughese M, Kristiansson B (November 2001). "Henna causes life threatening haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 85 (5): 411–2. doi: 10.1136/adc.85.5.411. PMC 1718961 . PMID 11668106.
^ Dron P, Lafourcade MP, Leprince F, et al. (June 2007). "Allergies associated with body piercing and tattoos: a report of the Allergy Vigilance Network". European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 39 (6): 189–92. PMID 17713170.
^ Kang IJ, Lee MH (July 2006). "Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye". Contact Dermatitis. 55 (1): 26–9. doi: 10.1111/j.0105-1873.2006.00845.x. PMID 16842550.
^ Oregano oil
^ "Orris oil". Encyclopaedia Britannica . Retrieved . 2006-11-20
^ FAO. "Sandalwood oil". Flavours and fragances of plant origin . Retrieved . 2006-07-25
^ Article §1310.04, Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Code No. 21 of Jan 27, 2012. Retrieved on May 18, 2016.
^ J.E. Simon, A.F. Chadwick & L.E. Craker (1984). "Anise". . Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography , cited on the Purdue Center for New Crops Web site