Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. They are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. They are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques (such as distillation, cold pressing, or Solvent extraction). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.
Agar oil or oodh, distilled from agarwood ( ). Highly prized for its fragrance. Aquilaria malaccensis 
Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of ( ). Oil contains 35–65% Carum copticum thymol. 
Angelica root oil, distilled from the . Angelica archangelica
Anise oil, from the , rich odor of Pimpinella anisum licorice
Asafoetida oil, used to flavor food.
Balsam of Peru, from the , used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance Myroxylon
Basil oil, used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy
Bay oil is used in perfumery and aromatherapy
Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
Black pepper oil is distilled from the berries of . Piper nigrum
Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely used. Formerly used medicinally.
Birch oil used in aromatherapy
Camphor oil used in cosmetics and household cleaners. 
Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles. 
Calamodin oil or calamansi essential oil comes from a citrus tree in the Philippines extracted via cold press or steam distillation.
Caraway seed oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent. 
Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of Zingiberaceae (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc.
Carrot seed oil, used in aromatherapy.
Cedar oil (or cedarwood oil), primarily used in perfumes and fragrances.
Chamomile oil, there are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy, Roman and German. German chamomile contains a higher level of the chemical azulene
Calamus oil Used in perfumery and formerly as a food additive
Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring
leaves and flowers used in perfumery. Cistus ladanifer
Citron oil, used in Ayurveda and perfumery.
Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent
Clary Sage oil, used in perfumery and as an additive flavoring in some alcoholic beverages. 
Coconut oil, used for skin, food, and hair
Clove oil used in perfumery and medicinally.
Coffee oil, used to flavor food.
Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), formerly used medicinally in Europe; still used as such in southwest Asia. Discovered to contain up to 12.5% of the toxin  β-thujone. 
Costus root oil
Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry.
Cubeb oil, used to flavor foods.
Cumin seed oil/black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products
Cypress oil, used in cosmetics
Curry leaf oil, used to flavor food.
Davana oil, from the , used as a perfume ingredient Artemisia pallens
Dill oil, chemically almost identical to Caraway seed oil. High carvone content.
Elecampane oil Elemi oil, used as a perfume and fragrance ingredient. Comes from the oleoresins of
and Canarium luzonicum which are common in the Philippines. Canarium ovatum
Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide.
Fennel seed oil
Fenugreek oil, used for cosmetics from ancient times.
Frankincense oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
Galangal oil , used to flavor food.
Galbanum oil, used in perfumery.  
Garlic oil is distilled from . Allium sativum
Geranium oil, also referred to as geranol. Used in herbal medicine, aromatherapy, and perfumery. 
Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures, and has been studied extensively as a nausea treatment, where it was found more effective than placebo.    
Goldenrod oil used in herbal medicine, including treatment of urological problems. 
Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene.
Henna oil, used in body art. Known to be dangerous to people with certain enzyme deficiencies. Pre-mixed pastes are considered dangerous, primarily due to adulterants.   
Hickory nut oil
Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance.
Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor.
Lavender oil, used primarily as a fragrance.
Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used in cosmetics.
Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highly fragrant grass from India. The oil is very useful for insect repellent.
, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy. Litsea cubeba oil
Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil
, mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy. Mentha arvensis oil
Moringa oil, can be used directly on the skin and hair. It can also be used in soap and as a base for other cosmetics.
Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin.
Mustard oil, containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard
Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell.
Neem oil or neem tree oil
Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree.
Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d- Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.
Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol
Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris ( ), Iris florentina and Iris germanica . It is used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally. Iris pallida 
Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men's fragrances.
Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes.
Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50–60% perillaldehyde.
Pennyroyal oil, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage.
Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy.
Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, used primarily as a fragrance.
Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the or Rosa rubiginosa . Rosa mosqueta
Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of . Rosmarinus officinalis
Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications. Sage oil,
Sandalwood oil, used primarily as a fragrance, for its pleasant, woody fragrance. 
Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, inter alia. Sassafras oil is heavily regulated in the United States due to its high safrole content. 
Savory oil, from species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications. Satureja
Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications.
Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. 90% of the world's  star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful for avian flu
Tarragon oil, distilled from Artemisia dracunculus
Tea tree oil, extracted from . Melaleuca alternifolia
Tsuga belongs to the pine tree family.
Turmeric, used to flavor food.
Warionia, used as a perfume ingredient
Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from India. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy.
Western red cedar
Yarrow oil Ylang-ylang
See also [ edit ]
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy and Herbalism ( ISBN 1852307218) 1995 The Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aromatherapy
References [ edit ]
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