List of hybrid creatures in mythology

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The following is a list of mythological hybrids grouped morphologically based on their constituent species. Hybrids not found in classical mythology but developed in the context of modern pop culture are listed in a separate section. For actual hybridization in zoology, see Hybrid (biology)#List.

Partly human[edit]

Upper part human[edit]

A Centaur fighting a man
  • Centauroid
    • Anggitay - A strictly-female creature that has the upper body of a human with the lower body of a horse and is sometimes portrayed with a horn.
    • Centaur - A creature that has the upper body of a human with the lower body of a horse
    • Onocentaur - A creature that has the upper body of a human with the lower body of a donkey.
    • Ipotane - A human with the hindquarters of a horse.
  • Goat
A medieval depiction of a harpy as a bird-woman
  • Bird
    • Harpy - A half-bird, half-woman creature of Greek mythology, portrayed sometimes as a woman with bird legs.
    • Lilitu - A woman with bird legs sometimes with wings found in later Greek mythology.
    • Kinnara - Half-human, half-bird in later Indian mythology.
A colored engraved conjecture of Dagon as a merman from a bas-relief at the Louvre.
  • Fish
    • Dagon - A half-man, half-fish deity.
    • Ichthyocentaurs - Creatures that have the torsos of a man or woman, the front legs of a horse, and the tails of a fish.
    • Mermaid/Merman - A race of half-human, half-fish creatures.
    • Triton - A Greek God who is the same as Merman. Some depictions have him with two fish tails.
    • Jengu
    • Matsya - An avatar of Lord Vishnu that is half-man half-fish.
    • Sirena - A mermaid from Philippine folklore.
    • Siren - Some versions have it close to a mermaid, but not quite. Most are described to have scaly skin.
    • Siyokoy - Mermen with scaled but humanoid bodies from Philippine folklore. It is the male counterpart of the Sirena.
A nure-onna as depicted in Sawaki Suushi's Hyakkai-Zukan
  • Snake
    • Echidna
    • Fu Xi - A god said to have been made by Nu Wa.
    • Lamia - Like a mermaid but with the lower body like that of a snake.
    • Nü Wa - A woman with the lower body of a serpent in Chinese folklore.
    • Ketu - An Asura who has the lower parts of a snake and said to have four arms.
    • Nāga - A term referring to human/snake mixes of all kinds
    • Nure-onna - A creature with the upper body of a woman with the lower body of a snake.
  • Other

Human-headed[edit]

Assyrian Lamassu dated 721 BCE Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago.
  • Atargatis – Human face, fish body.
  • Bai Ze - The descriptions vary for this beast.
  • Buraq - A creature from Persian iconography that has the head of a man and the body of a winged horse.
  • Hatuibwari - Human head, serpent body, bat wings.
  • Kamadhenu: Human head, body of a cow, winged, tail of a peacock
  • Manticore – A Persian legendary creature similar to the Egyptian sphinx. It has the body of a red lion, a human head with three rows of sharp teeth (like a shark), sometimes bat-like wings, and a trumpet-like voice. Other aspects of the creature vary from story to story. It may be horned, winged, or both. The tail is that of either a dragon or a scorpion, and it may shoot venomous spines to either paralyze or kill its victims..
  • Penghou - A creature with the face of a man and the body of a dog.
  • Sphinx – Human head, lion body, occasional bird wings.
  • Shedu - A deity that is often depicted with a human head, a bull's or lion's body, and bird's wings.
  • Zhuyin - It has the face of a man and the body of a snake.
  • Avian (Bird):
    • Alkonost - A creature from Russian folklore with the head of a woman with the body of a bird, said to make beautiful sounds that make anyone who hears them forget all that they know and not want anything more ever again. Counterpart of the Sirin, which it lives with in the underworld.
    • Gamayun - A creature portrayed with the head a woman with the body of a bird from Russian mythology.
    • Harpy - A half-bird, half-woman creature of Greek mythology, portrayed often as a woman with a body of a bird and the head of a human.
    • Siren - A creature of Greek mythology with a bird body and a human's head.
    • Sirin - Half-bird, half-human creature with the head and chest of a woman from Russian folklore. Its bird half is generally that of an owl's body.
    • See also Buraq, Hatuibwari, Sphinx, and Shedu/Lamassu (all flying, but not with bird bodies)

Human with animal head[edit]

Ganesha, with Elephant's head
Horus, with Falcon's head

Human with added animal parts[edit]

Horns of a goat and a ram, goat's fur and ears, nose and canines of a pig, a typical depiction of the devil in Christian art. The goat, ram and pig are consistently associated with the Devil.[1] Detail of a 16th-century painting by Jacob de Backer in the National Museum in Warsaw.
  • Winged
    • Angel - Common iconography depicting a human with bird wings.
    • Drakaina - A female species from Greek mythology that is draconian in nature, primarily depicted as a woman with dragon features.
    • Fairy - A humanoid with insect-like wings.
    • Mothman - A humanoid moth.
    • Seraph - An elite angel that is described with multiple wings.
    • Valkyrie - A creature of Norse mythology that led those that died in battle to Valhalla.
    • Winged Genie - A genie with bird wings.
  • Legs
  • Horned
  • Snake-haired
    • Gorgon - Each of them has snakes in place of their hair; sometimes also depicted with a snake-like lower body.

Part animal, part human[edit]

Garuda carrying his master Vishnu. Garuda has an eagle's head, wings and legs
  • Avatea - A god that has the right half a man and the left half a fish.
  • Bat - An Egyptian Goddess with the horns and ears of a cow.
  • Bes - An Egyptian God with the hindquarters of a lion.
  • Garuda - A creature that has the head and wings of an eagle and body of a man.
  • Hanuman - A humanoid monkey God.
  • Jambavan - A humanoid bear depicted in Ramayana.
  • Nandi - Some Puranas describe Nandi or Nandikeshvara as bull-faced, with a human body that resembles that of Shiva in proportion and aspect.
  • Werecat - A creature that is part cat, part human, or switches form between the two.
  • Werewolf - A creature that becomes a wolf/human-like beast during the nights of full moons, but is human otherwise.

Non-human[edit]

Quadrupeds with the wings of a bird[edit]

Pegasus, as the horse of Muses, was put on the roof of Poznań Opera House (Max Littmann, 1910)

Two kinds of animal parts[edit]

'Gajasimha', Museum of Cham Sculpture
  • Allocamelus – A Heraldic creature that has the head of a donkey and the body of a camel.
  • Basilisk and Cockatrice – Both of them are depicted of being a mix between a chicken and a reptile.
  • Catoblepas - A creature with the head of a wild boar and the body of a cape buffalo.
  • Cerberus - A Greek mythological dog that guarded the gates of the underworld, almost always portrayed with three heads and having a mane of serpents, as well as the front half of one for a tail.
  • Criosphinx - A Sphinx that has the head of a ram.
  • Gajamina - A creature with the head of an elephant and body of a fish.
  • Gajasimha – A creature that has the head of an elephant and the body of a lion.
  • Griffin – A creature that has the front quarters of an eagle and the hind quarters of a lion.
  • Hieracosphinx - A type of Sphinx that had a falcon head.
  • Hippalectryon – The front half is that of a horse and the rear half has a rooster's wings, tail, and legs.
  • Hippocampus – A Greek mythological creature that is half-horse half-fish.
  • Hippogriff - A creature that has the front quarters of an eagle and hind quarters of a horse.
  • Merlion - A creature with the head of a lion and the body of a fish.
  • Ophiotaurus – A creature that is half-bull half-serpent.
  • Sea-goat - A creature that is half-goat half-fish. Identified with the constellation Capricornus. Used in Roman imperial coinage.
  • Sea-lion - A creature that is half-lion half-fish.
  • Serpopard - A creature that is part snake and part African leopard.
  • Shug Monkey - A creature that is part monkey and part dog.
  • Skvader – A Swedish creature that has the forequarters and hind-legs of a hare and the back, wings and tail of a female wood grouse.
  • Ushi-oni - A Yōkai with a horned bovine head and often depicted with a spider-like body.
  • Rullonx - A bull with the head and hooves of a rhino, although it has the head of a rhino it has 3 horns [One centered, One Right, One Left.] It was said to be the symbol of strength and sacrifice.

Three kinds of animal parts[edit]

  • Ammit – An Egyptian creature that has the head of a crocodile, the front legs of a lion, and the back legs and hindquarters of a hippopotamus.
  • Chimera – A Greek mythology creature that has the head and front legs of a lion, the head and back legs of a goat, and the head of a snake for a tail. Some media appearances have a three-headed Chimera that often include a dragon head and wings to go with the other parts.
  • Jackalope – A jackrabbit with the horns of a pronghorn and sometimes the tail and/or legs of a pheasant.
  • Sharabha - A Hindu mythological creature deity having legs of deer, wings of bird and head of a lion.
  • Simurgh - A Griffin-like exclusively-female creature of Persian mythology with the head of a dog and the claws of a lion (although sometimes with a human face).

Four kinds of animal parts[edit]

Five or more kinds of animal parts[edit]

Navagunjara, has limb representing eight animals, including a human hand.
  • Baku – A Japanese creature that has the head of an elephant, the eyes of a rhinoceros, the legs of a tiger, the body of a bear, and the tail of an ox.
  • Calygreyhound - A mythical creature that appears on Medieval heraldry. It is described as having the head of a wildcat, the torso of a deer or antelope, the claws of an eagle as its forefeet, ox hooves, antlers or horns on its head, the hind legs of a lion or ox, and its tail like a lion or poodle. May sometimes be depicted with wings.
  • Fenghuang – A Chinese creature that has the head of a golden pheasant, the body of a mandarin duck, the tail of a peacock, the legs of a crane, the mouth of a parrot, and the wings of a swallow.
  • Navagunjara - A Hindu creature with head of a rooster, neck of a peacock, back of a bull, tail as a sepent, three legs of an elephant, tiger and deer or horse, fourth limb being a human hand holding a lotus.
  • Qilin – A Chinese creature with the head of a dragon, the antlers of a deer, the scales of a fish, the hooves of an ox, and the tail of a lion. The Japanese version is depicted as a deer-shaped dragon with the tail of an ox.

Modern fiction[edit]

The following hybrid creatures appear in modern fiction:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fritscher, Jack (2004). Popular Witchcraft: Straight from the Witch's Mouth. Popular Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-299-20304-2. The pig, goat, ram — all of these creatures are consistently associated with the Devil.