Tigerair Mandala

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Tigerair Mandala
Tigerair Mandala.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
FoundedApril 17, 1969 (as Mandala Airlines)
Commenced operations2012
Ceased operationsJuly 1, 2014
HubsSoekarno Hatta International Airport
Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport
Juanda International Airport
Fleet size13 (All to be transferred to IndiGo)
Destinations11 (7 domestic, 4 international)
Parent companySaratoga Investama Sedaya (51.3%)

Wisma Soewarna Unit 1C-1G
Soewarna Business Park Kav. E1-2
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport
Cengkareng 19110, Indonesia

Key peoplePaul Rombeek(President Director)
Mike Coltman (VP Operations)
Andry Irwan (Finance Director)

Tigerair Mandala (formerly Mandala Airlines) was a low-cost airline headquartered in Jakarta, Indonesia and an associate company of the Singapore-based Tigerair Group. The former full service airline repositioned itself as a budget airline/low-cost carrier (LCC) following a year-long grounding in 2011 caused by debt woes. Mandala resumed operations in April 2012 following an injection of fresh capital by Indonesian conglomerate Saratoga Investment Corp which took over 51% of the airline, with partner Tigerair taking up 33.3% and the rest by creditors.

Formally operating together with other associates in the Tigerair Group, Tigerair Mandala shared Tigerair's sales, distribution and marketing channels to tap into Tigerair's wider network across Southeast Asia, Australia, China and India. Tigerair Mandala's fleet of new Airbus A320 aircraft (brand new aircraft originally ordered for Tigerair Singapore) flew primarily within the more populous regions of Java and Sumatra, providing domestic and regional international connections of no more than five hours.

All former Tigerair Mandala's aircraft are being maintained under Singapore Airlines Engineering Company (SIAEC). As one of Indonesian airlines which is not listed under EU ban, Tigerair Mandala applied one of the highest safety standard and maintenance. It planned to increase its fleet to 15 aircraft by end 2013 [1] and to 25 by 2015.[2]

Tigerair Mandala ceased all operations on 1 July 2014, following the decision of the main shareholders to cease funding the airline.[3]

On August 21, 2014, IndiGo announced that 12 of the Tigerair Holding A320 will be sold. It may be from Tigerair Mandala.[4]

In December 2014, PT Mandala Airlines has filed for bankruptcy at the Central Jakarta Commercial Court.[5]


A Mandala Lockheed L-188 Electra at Perth Airport (early 1990s).
A Seulawah Air Services Douglas DC-3

PT Mandala Airlines was founded on April 17, 1969. The founders were Col. Sofjar, Maj. Gen. Raden Soerjo, Adil Aljol, Maj. (Air Force) Soegandi Partosoegondo, Kasbi Indradjanoe and Darwin Ramli. The airline was owned by PT Dharma Kencana Sakti, which in turn was the commercial arm of Yayasan Dharma Putra Kostrad, a foundation linked to Kostrad, the strategic reserve command of the Indonesian army. The airline was named after Operation Mandala, the military operations to incorporate West Papua into Indonesia. The name also refers to mandala, a Sanskrit term for a diagram symbolizing the universe, which is used as the logo of the corporation.

In its early years Mandala Airlines operated flights between Jakarta and destinations in eastern Indonesia, such as Ambon, Gorontalo, Kendari, Makassar and Manado. In 1972 Mandala took over Seulawah Air Services (another military-owned airline), which flew to cities in western Indonesia, such as Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, Medan, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru and Pontianak, giving the airline a national coverage.

Under military management, Mandala Airlines kept a relatively quiet existence as a second-tier airline. In 1992, it retired the last of its aged turboprop fleet and replaced them with leased second hand jet aircraft. In 2001, it suffered a financial scandal,[6] in which no less than IDR 135.5 billion (about USD 13.5 million) was stolen from the company funds by a senior Kostrad officer.[7]

Despite being awarded as Indonesia's "Most Potential Brand in Airlines Service" in 2002,[8] Mandala found it hard to compete with other recently emerged Indonesian airlines. In September 2005, Mandala experienced a high-profile accident in Medan. At about the same month, political developments in Indonesia forced the military to divest itself of its businesses, resulting in Mandala Airlines being offered for sale. After the Indonesian government refused to take over Mandala Airlines,[9] Cardig International acquired the airline for IDR 300 billion (USD 34 million) in April 2006.[10] Indigo Partners acquired 49% of Cardig's shares in October 2006.

An Airbus A319-100 in former livery

Within one year of its acquisition, Mandala Airlines transformed its image into a modern airline satisfying international standards of safety.[8] It adopted the low-cost carrier model, in order to compete with other low-cost airlines in Indonesia.[11] Mandala Airlines created a special niche among Indonesia's low-cost carriers by creating an image as a safe airline, taking advantage of the relatively young age of its fleet.

Mandala has now completed the IOSA (IATA Operational Safety Audit) of the International Air Transport Association (IATA),[12] and other manufacturer audits. It contracted maintenance of its aircraft to Singapore Airlines Engineering Company (SIAEC).[13] Its safety improvements were recognized by the European Union as Mandala was among four Indonesian airlines (the others were Garuda Indonesia, Airfast Indonesia and Premiair) officially struck from the EU airline ban list on July 14, 2009.[14] Mandala is listed in Category 1 by the Indonesian Civil Aviation Authority for airline safety quality.[15]

In January 2009, Mandala Airlines completed the phasing out of its older Boeing aircraft, replacing them with newer Airbuses. On April 20, 2009, Mandala moved its Jakarta operations to the new Terminal 3 of the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport.[16] In April 2010, Mandala Airlines announced international services to Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore. These services started on June 25, 2010.[17]

Shortly after services between Jakarta and Macau started on 21 July 2010, the airline announced that all flights between 22 and 29 August 2010 had been cancelled. Concerns were raised by some passengers that the company did not provide adequate information about the abrupt cancellations.[18]

On January 13, 2011, Mandala Airlines temporarily stopped flying all of their fleet due to debt problems. In May 2011, Singapore-based Tiger Airways thru Road Aviation Pte. Ltd.[19] and Saratoga Investama, an Indonesian strategic investment company owned by Edwin Soeryadjaya, Patrick Walujo and Sandiaga Uno, announced their plans in a filing to the Singapore Stock Exchange on Thursday. Tiger Airways will acquire a 33 percent stake, while the Saratoga Group will buy 51 percent of Mandala.[20] Mandala Airlines will focus on Low Cost Carrier (LCC) market because one of the shareholders, Tiger Airways also run an LCC operation.[21]

The company was reported to have asked the commercial court to delay debt recovery action against the airline.[22] The official application for postponement of debt payments to the Commercial Court has been filed for Rp.800 billion to about 271 creditors.[23] At end of February 2011, the creditors had finally accepted the airline's debt settlement proposal to convert debt to equity. It was approved by 70.58 percent of total creditors from the total debt of Rp.2.4 trillion.[24] After struggle with the funds, on September 24, 2011 the acquisition transaction was finally closed. Mandala would be back in the air 90 days after it, but certainly should got a new Air Operator Certificate first during it.[25] Two Mandala aircraft have been checked by the Transportation Ministry inspectors and Mandala Airlines have to resume service by February 15, 2012 or its AOC license would be revoked. Mandala will have 10 aircraft within one year.[26]

Mandala resumed operations on Thursday 5 April 2012 as a partner airline of Tiger Airways, with one domestic route between its home base Jakarta and Medan, the capital of North Sumatra. This will be followed by its first international destination when it launches the Medan-Singapore route on 20 April 2012,[27] adding a second Indonesian destination to Tiger's Singapore network after Jakarta. From May, Tiger Airways Mandala will also fly twice daily to Malaysia's capital Kuala Lumpur from Jakarta.[28] Passengers holding on to Mandala tickets for flights after the company ceased operations in 2011 were offered a complimentary travel voucher redeemable through the company's new Tiger-based website.

On July 3, 2013, as part of the Tiger Airways Group, Mandala Airlines announced its transformation into ‘Tigerair Mandala’ (RI) in conjunction to Tiger Airways brand refresh to Tigerair. By operating under the new brand name, the airlines also adopted a new logo.

The change is also occurring to other airlines under the Tigerair Group, namely Tiger Airways to Tigerair (TR), Tiger Australia to Tigerair Australia (TT) and SEAIR to Tigerair Philippines (DG).[citation needed]

Corporate affairs[edit]

In 1971 the head office was in Djl Blora 23 in Jakarta.[29]

Corporate identity[edit]

This version of the logo was used from 1969 to 2006.
Mandala Airlines logo from 2006 to 2012.

The airline's logo is a golden eight-pointed mandala reflecting the eight characters of humanity and the eight elements in Javanese tradition, with a five-petaled lotus in its centre reflecting Indonesia's five-principled state ideology, Pancasila. A new logo was unveiled on November 1, 2006, emphasizing the new image of the corporation. The new logo, designed by Veronica Halim & Eddy Purwanto of Nuage Branding, keeps the mandala and lotus theme of the original, but has a more streamlined design.

The current livery of Mandala Airlines is a "Eurowhite" scheme, consisting of a white fuselage with a blue 'mandala' title. The company logo is applied on the tail and the outboard sides of engine nacelles. Mandala's previous livery was also a "eurowhite" scheme with a different typeface for the 'Mandala' title, a blue tail and the original logo. The airline's earliest scheme was a bare-metal lower and white upper fuselage with a blue cheatline across the cabin windows and a red 'MANDALA' title.

Other recent liveries used by Mandala Airlines include a gold and blue wavy scheme with a large billboard 'Mandala' title introduced in early 2008, a mainly-white scheme with gold and blue hockey stick stripes on the fuselage and a blue tail, and an all-white scheme.

Following its restructuring, the new hybrid Tiger Airways Mandala livery reflects its status as Tiger Airways' partner airline in Indonesia by keeping the blue 'mandala' title on the fuselage of the Airbus A320 but having its wingtips and logo on the tail replaced with Tiger's stripes and colours.

From 2013, the striped aircraft tail that used to be the main element of Tigerair Mandala’s logo has made way for contemporary grey rounded font typography, with orange accents and an orange smile-looking tail.


Mandala Air Airbus A320-200 in new livery

Tigerair Mandala resumed operations in 2012.

In-flight service[edit]

A Mandala Airlines Boeing 737-200 landing at Sultan Syarif Kasim II Airport

Mandala Airlines adopts the same low-frills concept of Tigerair by offering a single class service on all its 180-seat Airbus A320 aircraft. There is a buy-on-board food and beverage service but no in-flight entertainment is offered, except for the in-flight magazine. Preferred seats can be reserved online during the booking process, otherwise they are allocated during airport check-in. Other ancillary services offered to passengers include Tiger's priority boarding "BoardMeFirst".

Under the old Mandala Priority Privileges[30] program, the airline offered a baggage allowance of 20 kg (44 lb) per passenger, with an extra 5 kg (11 lb) for priority passengers. Priority passengers also benefited from choice seats at the front of the aircraft, free airport lounge access and free food and beverages in both lounges and in-flight.


Following the restructuring which saw Tigerair become one of its key investors, passengers can make a booking from Tigerair website comprising airline tickets for Tigerair Singapore, Tigerair Australia, Tigerair Philippines and as well as interline bookings with Scoot.


As of May 2014, the Tigerair Mandala fleet consists of the following aircraft:

Aircraft Total Orders Passenger seats
Airbus A320-200
13 (These aircraft will be dry leased to IndiGo)

Former fleet[edit]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

A Boeing 737-200 similar to the one pictured here crashed in Medan with 100 out of 117 people on board killed in 2005

During its 40 years of operation, Mandala Airlines has experienced two significant accidents and several minor incidents. However, it has had no incidents since 2007, when it began to retire older aircraft and introduce newer ones.

  • On February 1, 1975, a Vickers Viscount overran the runway during landing at Taipei Songshan Airport and ended up in a paddy field.[33] Another Viscount overran the runway of Manado Airport on January 7, 1976. The aircraft was landing in intermittent slight rain, touching down 520 meters (1706 feet) down the runway, crossed a ditch and 3 drains before coming to rest 180 meters (591 feet) past the end of the runway. There were no fatalities in both incidents.[34]
  • On October 18, 1977, a Hawker Siddeley HS 748 crashed in Manila, Philippines during a certification flight. Two of three crew members were killed.[35]
  • On May 1, 1981, a Vickers Viscount ran off the runway at Semarang, causing the right main gear and nose gear to collapse.[36] Another Viscount belly-landed at Yogyakarta on January 13, 1985. In both cases there were no fatalities but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.[37]
  • On November 30, 1985, a Lockheed L-188 Electra had its main gear wheels separated when approaching for landing at Padang. The wheels fell through the roof of a watch repair shop. The aircraft was diverted to Medan for a wheels-up landing. All propellers broke off and the aircraft burst into flames after coming to rest. All 45 passengers and crew members survived, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.[38]
  • On July 24, 1992, Mandala Airlines Flight 660, a Vickers Viscount flying from Makassar to Ambon, crashed into Inahau Hill (located at Liliboy village, about 15 km (9 mi) west of the intended destination) while on an instrument approach in a heavy rainstorm. All 70 passengers and crew members were killed. At the time, it was Indonesia's third worst aviation accident.[39]
  • On 29 September 1999, Mandala Airlines, Antonov An-12 touched down 1300 meters short of runway 36 in Pekanbaru, the plane broke in two. There were no fatalities in the incident.[40]
  • On September 5, 2005, Mandala Airlines Flight 091, a Boeing 737-200 departing for Jakarta, crashed seconds after taking off from Medan. Out of 117 passengers and crew members, 100 died. One passenger died later from injuries sustained during the crash in a hospital. As the aircraft crashed into a heavily populated residential area, 49 persons on the ground were also killed, and at least 26 were injured.[41] This accident is the fourth worst aviation accident in Indonesia, and also the world's worst accident involving a Boeing 737-200.
  • On October 3, 2006, a Boeing 737-200 arriving from Balikpapan skidded 50 meters off the runway during landing at Tarakan. There were no injuries. Visibility was below 400 meters at the time due to heavy haze.[42] Months later, on December 18, another Boeing 737-200 skidded off the runway at Malang due to adverse weather. No injuries were reported to the 77 passengers on board.[43] Malang was the scene for another incident on November 1, 2007, when another Boeing 737-200 skidded when landing due to adverse weather. No serious injury occurred, but 5 persons were slightly injured out of 89 passengers and crew members.[44]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Mandala designates Pekanbaru as minihub in Sumatra".
  2. ^ "Mandala Fokuskan Penerbangan di Jawa dan Sumatera".
  3. ^ Tiger Airways to Shut Down Mandala Venture Amid Restructuring
  4. ^ http://www.economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/transportation/airlines-/-aviation/indigo-to-take-12-planes-on-lease-from-tigerair[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "Mandala Airlines files for bankruptcy". December 23, 2014.
  6. ^ Marbun, R: "Democratization and Reform", p. 56. UNISCI Discussion Paper, No. 15 (October 2007).
  7. ^ Gaya Bisnis Militer di Tiga Kota
  8. ^ a b Mandala Airlines is awarded by the PR Society of Indonesia
  9. ^ Bisnis Militer: Pemerintah Batal Ambil Mandala
  10. ^ Indonesia's Cardig buys ailing Mandala Airlines
  11. ^ Warwick Brady: Leading a transformation at Indonesia's Mandala
  12. ^ Mandala Airlines Corporate Profile
  13. ^ Mandala appointed SIAEC for its aircraft maintenance Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Extract from Commission Regulation of 14 July 2009 amending Regulation 474/2006 establishing the Community list of air carriers which are subject to an operating ban within the Community[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ Penilaian Kinerja Maskapai Penerbangan Periode X (Juni 2009) Archived 2012-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Mandala is moving to Terminal 3
  17. ^ Mandala Airlines Buka Empat Rute Internasional
  18. ^ 曼達拉航空取消一周航班 - Exmoo! - 在澳門.看世界 Archived 2011-07-10 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Tiger Airways Buys Into Mandala | The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 2012-02-05.
  20. ^ New Investors Could Return Mandala to Indonesia’s Skies | The Jakarta Globe Archived 2012-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Mandala to focus on low cost carrier market: Expert | The Jakarta Post Archived 2011-05-24 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Indonesia's Mandala Airlines suspends flight over debt problems https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSJKB00421520110112
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-05. Retrieved 2011-01-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2011-04-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ "Mandala aims to fly as soon as acquisition is finally closed". September 26, 2011.
  26. ^ "Mandala may return to skies in mid-February". January 12, 2012.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2012-05-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2012-05-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ Flight International. 6 May 1971. p. 636 (Archive). "Djl Blora 23"
  30. ^ Mandala Priority Privileges
  31. ^ Airliners.net
  32. ^ example on airhistory.net
  33. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVM Taipei-Sung Shan Airport (TSA)
  34. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVK Manado-Samratulangi Airport (MDC)
  35. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Hawker Siddeley HS-748-232 Srs. 2 PK-RHS Manila
  36. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 832 Viscount PK-RVN Semarang-Achmad Yani Airport (SRG)
  37. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVT Yogyakarta-Adisutjipto Airport (JOG)
  38. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed L-188C Electra PK-RLG Medan-Polonia Airport (MES)
  39. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 816 Viscount PK-RVU Ambon-Pattimura Airport (AMQ)
  40. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19990929-0
  41. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-230 PK-RIM Medan-Polonia Airport (MES)
  42. ^ Jet skids off runway amid thick haze in Indonesia
  43. ^ Mandala B737 skidded off runway
  44. ^ Mandala Airlines B 737 Overshoots Runway – 5 Injured

External links[edit]