Soekarno–Hatta International Airport

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Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno-Hatta
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport logo.png
Soekarno-Hatta Airport aerial view.jpg
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
IATA: CGKICAO: WIII
WMO: 96749
Summary
Airport type Public / International
Owner Government of Indonesia
Operator PT Angkasa Pura II
Serves Jabodetabek
Location Benda, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
Opened May 1, 1985 (1985-05-01)
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 32 ft / 10 m
Coordinates 06°07′32″S 106°39′21″E / 6.12556°S 106.65583°E / -6.12556; 106.65583Coordinates: 06°07′32″S 106°39′21″E / 6.12556°S 106.65583°E / -6.12556; 106.65583
Website http://www.soekarnohatta-airport.co.id/
Map
CGK is located in Java
CGK
CGK
CGK is located in Indonesia
CGK
CGK
Location within Java Island, Indonesia
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
07R/25L 12,008 3,660 Paved
07L/25R 11,811 3,600 Paved
Process Process Process Asphalt Concrete
Statistics (2013)
Passengers 59,701,543
Aircraft Movements 369,740
Cargo (metric tonnes) 342,473
Economic & Social impact $5.1 billion & 705 thousand[1]
Source: Passenger and Aircraft Movements from ACI[2]
Cargo from Angkasa Pura II Airports Company[3]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno–Hatta) (IATA: CGKICAO: WIII), abbreviated SHIA[4] or Soetta,[5] is the primary airport serving the Greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia. Named after the first president and vice-president of Indonesia, Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta, the airport is located in Benda, Tangerang, approximately 20 km northwest of central Jakarta. Due to its proximity to the suburb of Cengkareng, the airport is also known as Cengkareng Airport, with the assigned three-letter IATA designator: "CGK". The airport was the busiest and the largest airport in Indonesia and was the 18th busiest airport in the world.

The airport commenced domestic operations in 1985 to replace the old over-capacity Kemayoran Airport, and the airport was expanded by 1991 to replace Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, for international flights, with Halim only having been commissioned as a temporary solution until Soekarno-Hatta was completed. Kemayoran Airport has since been demolished and it is now a residential area, while Halim still serves charter, VIP, and private flights. Recently Halim has been re-opened as Jakarta's second commercial airport for domestic flights to relieve Soekarno-Hatta which is running over-capacity, due to the rapid growth of airline travel in Indonesia.

After renovations and expansions of Terminal 3, current capacity of Soekarno-Hatta is 51 million,[6] but the airport served 54 million passengers in 2015, making it the 18th busiest airport in the world, and the busiest airport in the Southern Hemisphere. There are nonstop flights to a large number of destinations in Asia and Australia, and several flights to Europe daily, ranking as the 17th most connected airport in the world, and the largest megahub in Asia according to OAG.[7]

Although over capacity, after a survey from April 23 to May 3, the Airport Council International (ACI) stated on May 4, 2012 that Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is being operated safely.[8] On August 2, 2012, the ground-breaking ceremony for Terminal 3 was held in order to transform the airport into an "Aerotropolis" airport with a capacity of 62 million passengers a year, initially expected to be completed in 2015, though it has since been delayed to 2017.[9] A third, 3,660-by-60-metre (12,010 ft × 200 ft), parallel runway is planned to begin construction sometime in 2015 to increase its capacity to 430,000 airplanes a year, costing 4 trillion rupiah,[10] although it has not yet started construction due to lengthy negotiations with landowners. A fourth runway is planned to begin operations by 2024 to accommodate 550,000 aircraft traffic in 2025.[11] The two existing runways suffer from pavement and strength issues, which limits the airport's capacity to serve large aircraft: the Airbus A380 cannot feasibly serve the airport, while Garuda Indonesia's own 777-300ERs are limited in capacity when serving long-haul flights to Europe, which caused the airline to introduce an intermediate stop at Singapore on some of its flights to Amsterdam and all of its flights to London Heathrow. The airport struggles to accommodate all flights at its current limit of 72 planes per hour, frequently forming long lines to take off and land, despite this, some within the airport's operator want to reduce the number to 64 an hour, while airlines, particularly those frequently affected with delays due to heavy traffic, are lobbying to increase the capacity to 84 planes an hour. Although difficult, it is not impossible; Heathrow Airport in London, Hong Kong International Airport, and Dubai International Airport are able to serve over 100 planes an hour with two parallel runways each.

History[edit]

Used between 1928 and 1985, Kemayoran Airfield was considered unsatisfactory[when?] because it was too close to the major Halim Perdanakusuma Indonesian military airport. The civil airspace in the area became increasingly restricted, while air traffic increased rapidly, posing problems for international air traffic. In 1969, a senior communication officers meeting in Bangkok expressed these concerns.[citation needed]

Departure area at Terminal 2

In the early 1970s, with the help of USAID, eight potential locations were analyzed for a new international airport, namely Kemayoran, Malaka, Babakan, Jonggol, Halim, Curug, South Tangerang and North Tangerang.[citation needed] Finally, the North Tangerang site was chosen; it was also noted that Jonggol could be used as an alternative airfield. Meanwhile, as an interim step, the Indonesian government upgraded the Halim Perdanakusumah airfield for use for passenger services. The old Kemayoran site was closed in 1985, and the land was later used for commercial and housing purposes.[12]

Between 1974 and 1975, a Canadian consultant/consortium, consisting of Aviation Planning Services Ltd., ACRESS International Ltd., and Searle Wilbee Rowland (SWR), won a bid for the new airport feasibility project. The feasibility study started on February 20, 1974, with a total cost of 1 million Canadian dollars. The one-year project proceeded with an Indonesian partner represented by PT Konavi. By the end of March 1975, the study revealed a plan to build three inline runways, three international terminal buildings, three domestic buildings and one building for Hajj flights. Three stores for the domestic terminals would be built between 1975 and 1981 at a cost of US$465 million and one domestic terminal including an apron from 1982–1985 at a cost of US$126 million. A new terminal project, named the Jakarta International Airport Cengkareng, began.[13]

Design[edit]

Tropical garden fill the spaces between Javanese-styled pendopo waiting and boarding pavilions.

The airport's terminal 1 and 2 was designed by Paul Andreu, a French architect who also designed Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport. One of the characteristics of the airport is the incorporation of the local architecture into the design, and the presence of tropical gardens between the waiting lounges. These unique characteristics earned the airport the 1995 Aga Khan Award for Architecture.[14] The runways run northeast–southwest. There are two parallel runways, on the north and south side. The airport terminal took the plan of spanning fan, with the main entrances of terminals connected to a series of waiting and boarding pavilions via corridors. These waiting and boarding pavilions are connected to the airplanes through boarding bridges. Terminal 1 is in the southern side of the airport, while Terminal 2 and 3 are on the north side.

The airport concept is described as "garden within the airport" or "airport in the garden", as tropical decorative and flower plants fill the spaces between corridors, waiting and boarding pavilions. The boarding pavilions demonstrate local Indonesian vernacular architecture, particularly the roof, in the Javanese stepped-roof pendopo and joglo style. The interior design displays the diversity of Indonesian art and culture, with ethnic decorative elements taken from wooden carvings of Java, Bali, Sumatra, Dayak, Toraja to Papua. Another example is the railings of stairs, doors and gates, which show the kala-makara (giant head and mythical fish-elephant creature) theme typical in ancient Indonesian temples such as Borobudur. Terminal 3, however, has a different architectural style—unlike the ethnic-inspired Indonesian vernacular architecture of terminals 1 and 2, terminal 3 uses the contemporary modern style of large glass windows with metal frames and columns.

Project phases[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta Ticket office

To allocate the land and also determine the provincial border,[clarification needed] time was needed. Authorities at Amsterdam Schiphol airport were consulted about the airport plans, and concluded that the proposal was rather expensive and over-designed. The cost rose because of using a decentralized system. The centralized system was seen as a more suitable option.

The team chose a decentralized system similar to Orly Airport, Lyon Satolas, Hannover Airport and Kansas City Airport due to its simplicity and effectiveness.

On November 12, 1976, the building project tender was won by the French Aeroport de Paris.

On May 18, 1977, the final design was agreed on by the Indonesian government and Aeroport de Paris with a fixed cost of about 22,323,203 French francs and Rp177,156,000 equivalent to 2,100,000 francs. The work was scheduled to take 18 months. The government appointed PT. Konavi as the local partner. The plan included 2 runways with taxiways, one access road in the east and one in the west (closed to public use) for airport services, 3 terminals capable of accommodating 3 million passengers per year, and 1 module for international flights and 2 for domestic. "An airport inside a garden" was chosen as the design idea.

On May 20, 1980, a four-year contract was signed. Sainraptet Brice, SAE, Colas together with PT. Waskita Karya were chosen to be the developers. Ir. Karno Barkah MSc. was appointed the project director, responsible for the airport's construction.[15]

On December 1, 1980, the Indonesian government signed a contract for Rp. 384.8 billion with developers. The cost structure was: Rp140,450,513,000 from the state budget, 1,223,457 francs donated by France and US$15,898,251 from the USA.

On December 1, 1984, the airport structure was completed.

The new airport opened on May 1, 1985 for domestic flights.

The second circular terminal was opened on May 1, 1991 for international operations.

Phases of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport Project
Phase Year Description Status
Phase 1 1985 Opening of Terminal 1 with a capacity of 9 million passengers per annum Completed
Phase 2 1991 Opening of Terminal 2 with a capacity of 18 million passengers per annum Completed
Phase 3 2011 Construction of Terminal 3 phase 1 with a capacity of 22 million passengers per annum Completed
Refurbishing of Terminal 2 to increase capacity to 53 million passengers per annum In progress
Fully built new Freight Terminal Pending
Phase 4 2017 Completion of Terminal 3 with a capacity of 43 million passengers per annum In progress
Construction of Airport Railway In progress
Construction of third runway In progress
Fully built integrated building[clarification needed] In Progress
Construction of Terminal 4 In Progress
Phase 5 2022 Refurbishment of Terminal 1 to increase capacity to 62 million passengers per annum Pending

Plans[edit]

In the newest masterplan, the capacity of the airport is to be increased from 22 million passengers per annum to 62 million per annum in 2014. The airport will use new theme "Modern Airport With Traditional Sense" for the project. Angkasa Pura II, as the operator, designed Soekarno–Hatta Airport to have 3 passenger terminals, 1 new freight terminal (cargo village) and an 'Integrated Building' (designed to unite terminal one and two) in 2014. Also, there will be an increase in apron capacity from 125 airplanes to 174 airplanes. By 2015, additional upgrades are expected to increase the airport's capacity to 75 million passengers.[16] An airport train from Manggarai Station and a people mover for ground transportation to/from and inside the airport are also in planning.

Angkasa Pura II will spend Rp.11.7 trillion ($1.36 billion) to change the airport into a 'world class' airport which will be called 'aerotropolis', by 2014. In the first stage, Terminal 3 will be expanded and thereafter Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 will be integrated with green walls[clarification needed] and the airport will have a convention hall, shopping center, hotel, playground, recreational facilities and parking area for 20,000 vehicles.[17]

To anticipate a surge in passenger numbers, at least a ten percent increase each year, the government is preparing to build a third runway. This was planned to be completed in 2017. If the airport has 3 runways, the service capacity will rise to 623,420 movements per year and it will be able to anticipate growth at least until 2030. The expansion will use about 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) from 10 villages in the Teluk Naga and Kosambi subdistricts.[18][19] The expansion plan has been rejected by Tangerang Municipal Government because the residents living around the airport wouldn't be able to earn income for their family. The local government offered another location such as in Balaraja, but Angkasa Pura II corporate secretary said that building a new airport would not be an easy task, as it requires a thorough study.[20]

Due to lack of space to further expand at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, the government plans to build a new airport around Cikarang and Karawang. The airport would be integrated with the planned Cilamaya International Seaport in Karawang.[21]

Terminals[edit]

The land area of the airport is 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi). It has two independent parallel 3,600-metre (11,800 ft) long runways connected by two cross taxiways. There are three main terminal buildings; Terminal 1 (domestic flights only), Terminal 2 (all international flights and Sriwijaya Air, NAM Air and Indonesia AirAsia domestic flights) and Terminal 3 (Garuda Indonesia domestic flights). There is also a freight terminal for domestic and international cargo.

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport has 292 check-in counters, 36 baggage carousels and 73 gates. The sub-terminals (1A, 1B, 1C, 2D, 2E, and 2F) have 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carousels and 7 gates each. Terminal 3 has 142 check-in counters, 6 baggage carousels and 31 gates. More gates and check in counter in Terminal 3 will be opened in March 2017.

Terminal 1[edit]

Terminal 1 is the first terminal built, finished in 1985. It is located on the south side of the airport, across from Terminal 2. Terminal 1 has 3 sub-terminals, each equipped with 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carousels and 7 gates. It has the capacity to handle 9 million passengers per annum.

The gates in Terminal 1 have a prefix of A, B or C. The gates are A1–A7, B1–B7 and C1–C7. In the newest masterplan, Terminal 1 will have its capacity increased to 18 million passengers per annum. Terminal 1 is used for domestic flights except for those operated by Garuda Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air, NAM Air and Indonesia AirAsia.

Terminal 2[edit]

Check In Area Terminal 2

Terminal 2 was the second terminal built, completed in 1991, and is located on the west-northern side of the airport, across from Terminal 1. Like Terminal 1, it has three sub-terminals, labeled D through F, each with seven gates and 25 check-in counters. Terminal 2D is home to all international operations out of Soekarno-Hatta, while Terminal 2E are home to Garuda Indonesia's international flights and SkyTeam members,[22] and Terminal 2F is home to Sriwijaya Air, NAM Air and Indonesia AirAsia domestic flights.[23][24]

With a capacity of 9 million passengers per annum, Terminal 2 is struggling to keep up with the increasing number of passengers that travel through it each day. Expansions and upgrades will increase the capacity to 19 million per annum, while the opening of Terminal 3 Ultimate, which will house Garuda Indonesia and SkyTeam, will help to relieve the over-capacity problem at Terminal 2.

Terminal 3[edit]

Terminal 3 was the third terminal built, will be completed in 2017, and is located on the east-northern side of the airport. The first phase of Terminal 3 is the first pier of the two planned piers, located on the west side of the terminal, opened on April 15, 2009. The terminal has a different style than terminals 1 and 2, using an eco-friendly modern design. It currently houses the Garuda Indonesia domestic flights. With a capacity of 4 million passengers per annum, Terminal 3 has 30 check-in counters, 6 baggage carousels and 3 gates with two jet bridges. Terminal 3 officially opened for international flights on November 15, 2011, when Indonesia AirAsia started using Terminal 3 as its new base for international flights as well as domestic flights.[25] Immigration has cancelled the policy to close immigration counter in Terminal 3 and immigration counter in Terminal 3 is still operational, but plan to centralized immigration counter in Terminal 2 only is still valid.[26]

The New Terminal 3 (known as "Terminal 3 Ultimate") was formally opened on August 9, 2016. The floor area of the new terminal covers 422,804 m2 (4,551,020 sq ft), consists of the main building terminal (331,101 m2 (3,563,940 sq ft)), the parking building (85,578 m2 (921,150 sq ft)) and the VVIP passengers building (6,124 m2 (65,920 sq ft)),[27] with 28 gates, 112 check-in counters and 48 aerobridges.[28] At its commencement, it only serves all Garuda Indonesia flights. Some international flights are aimed to move into Terminal 3 (with the exception of budget airlines and Lion Air) by March 2017.[29]

The building of Terminal 3 Ultimate has no connection with the building of the old Terminal 3. The older Terminal 3 will be renovated with a connection to be built between the old and new terminals.

The Terminal 3 Ultimate serves as a destination terminal and also as a transit terminal with 10 international gates, 18 domestic gates[30] and 10 bus gates. It is slated to be larger than Changi Airport Terminal 3, Singapore which is the benchmark for SHIA.[31][32]

The Terminal 3 Ultimate is equipped with BHS level 5 to detect bombs and directly move into blankets, an Airport Security System (ASS) which can control up to 600 CCTVs to detect faces who are available in the security register, Intelligence Building Management System (IBMS) which can control uses of water and electricity (ecogreen), rain water system to produce clean water from rain, recycle water system to produce toilet water from used toilet water, and illumination technology control to illuminate depends on weather surrounding terminal.[33] T3 expansion area will span 1.2 kilometers and the T3 apron can serve 40 aircraft. When finished, T3 will be an aerotropolis terminal.[34]

The T3 Ultimate also can serve 60 airplanes from the current 40 airplanes.[35] After T3 expansion is finished, and T1 and T2 will be revitalized, so all the three terminals finally will accommodate 67 million passengers a year.[36]

Freight Terminal[edit]

The freight terminal is located on the east side of terminal 1. This terminal was used to handle cargo at the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, both domestic and international cargo. In the newest master plan, the freight terminal will move to the west side of terminal 2 and have a larger capacity than the current terminal.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

Airlines Destinations Terminal
AirAsia Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–International 2E
Air China Beijing-Capital, Xiamen 2D
Airfast Indonesia Surabaya, Timika 1C
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Seasonal: Osaka-Kansai
2D
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon 2D
Aviastar Bandar Lampung, Ketapang, Lubuklinggau, Muara Bungo 1C
Batik Air Ambon, Balikpapan, Batam, Jayapura, Kendari, Kupang, Lombok, Makassar, Manado, Medan, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Semarang, Surabaya, Yogyakarta 1C
Batik Air Singapore 2D
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong 2D
Cebu Pacific Manila 2D
China Airlines Hong Kong, Taipei–Taoyuan 2E
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Shenzhen[37] 2E
Citilink Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Batam, Bengkulu, Denpasar/Bali, Jambi, Makassar, Manado, Mataram-Lombok, Medan, Padang, Pangkal Pinang, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Surabaya, Tanjung Pandan, Yogyakarta 1C
Citilink Charter: Jeddah 2D
EgyptAir Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Cairo[38] 2D
Emirates Dubai–International 2D
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 2D
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan 2D
Flynas Charter: Jeddah 2D
Garuda Indonesia Amsterdam, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Jeddah, Kuala Lumpur–International, London–Heathrow, Medina, Melbourne, Osaka–Kansai, Perth, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo–Haneda 2E
Garuda Indonesia Ambon, Balikpapan, Banda Aceh, Bandar Lampung, Banjarmasin, Batam, Bengkulu, Biak, Denpasar/Bali, Jambi, Jayapura, Kendari, Kupang, Makassar, Manado, Malang, Mataram-Lombok, Medan, Padang, Palangkaraya, Palembang, Palu, Pangkal Pinang, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Surabaya, Surakarta/Solo, Tanjung Pandan, Tanjung Pinang, Ternate, Yogyakarta 3
Garuda Indonesia
operated by Explore Jet
Kupang, Labuan Bajo (Begins October 30, 2016),[39] Sibolga, Silangit, Tarakan (Begins October 30, 2016)[39] 3
Indonesia AirAsia Denpasar/Bali, Surabaya, Yogyakarta 2F
Indonesia AirAsia Bangkok–Don Mueang, Kuala Lumpur–International, Singapore, Penang (resumes October 30, 2016) 2E
Indonesia AirAsia X Denpasar, Surabaya 2F
Indonesia AirAsia X Bangkok–Don Mueang (ends October 29, 2016), Kuala Lumpur–International (resumes October 30, 2016), Penang (ends October 29, 2016) 2E
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Narita 2D
Jetstar Asia Airways Singapore 2D
Jordan Aviation Amman-Queen Alia 2D
Kal Star Aviation Pangkalan Bun, Sampit 1C
KLM Amsterdam, Kuala Lumpur–International 2E
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon 2E
Lion Air Jeddah, Kuala Lumpur–International, Singapore 2D
Lion Air Ambon, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Jayapura, Kendari, Kupang, Makassar, Manado, Palangkaraya, Palu, Pontianak, Semarang, Surabaya, Surakarta/Solo, Tarakan, Yogyakarta 1A
Lion Air Banda Aceh, Bandar Lampung, Batam, Bengkulu, Denpasar/Bali, Jambi, Mataram–Lombok, Medan, Padang, Palembang, Pangkal Pinang, Pekanbaru, Tanjung Pinang 1B
Lucky Air Kunming, Nanning 2D
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International 2D
Malindo Air Kuala Lumpur–International 2D
Mihin Lanka Colombo (end 29 October 2016)[40] 2D
Nam Air Bengkulu, Jambi, Lubuklinggau, Palembang, Pangkalpinang, Pontianak, Semarang, Surakarta/Solo, Surabaya, Sorong, Tanjung Pandan, Tanjung Pinang 2F
Oman Air Muscat 2D
Philippine Airlines Manila 2D
Qantas Sydney 2D
Qatar Airways Doha 2D
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan 2D
Royal Jordanian Amman-Queen Alia 2D
Saudia Jeddah, Medina, Riyadh 2E
Singapore Airlines Singapore, Sydney (begins 23 November 2016)[41] 2D
Sri Lankan Airlines Colombo (begins 30 October 2016)[42] 2D
Sriwijaya Air Balikpapan, Bandar Lampung, Batam, Denpasar/Bali,Jayapura, Makassar, Malang, Medan, Muara Bungo, Padang, Pangkalpinang, Pontianak, Semarang, Silangit, Surakarta/Solo, Surabaya, Tanjung Pandan, Ternate, Yogyakarta 2F
Sriwijaya Air Charter: Zhangjiajie[43] 2D
Shenzhen Airlines Fuzhou 2D
Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi 2D
Thai Lion Air Bangkok-Don Mueang 2D
Tigerair Singapore 2D
Trigana Air Service Pangkalan Bun 1C
Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk 2D
Vietnam Airlines Ho Chi Minh City 2E
XiamenAir Fuzhou, Xiamen 2E
XpressAir Sorong 1B
XpressAir Johor Bahru (begins November 28, 2016) 2E
Notes
  • ^1 : Citilink's charter flights to Jeddah are served via Medan-Kualanamu and Mumbai.
  • ^2 : Some Garuda Indonesia's flight from Jakarta to Amsterdam will make a stop at Singapore. However, all Garuda flights from Amsterdam to Jakarta will be non-stop.
  • ^3 : Garuda Indonesia's flight from Jakarta to London Heathrow will make a stop at Singapore. However, all Garuda flights from London Heathrow to Jakarta will be non-stop.
  • ^4 : Royal Jordanian's flight from Jakarta to Amman makes a stop in Kuala Lumpur–International. However, Royal Jordanian does not have fifth freedom rights to transport passengers solely from Jakarta to Kuala Lumpur.

Cargo[edit]

Airlines Destinations
ANA Cargo Tokyo–Narita[44]
Asialink Cargo Airlines Batam, Pangkal Pinang[45]
Cardig Air Balikpapan, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Padang, Pekanbaru, Medan, Seoul–Incheon, Singapore
Cathay Pacific Cargo Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Penang
China Airlines Cargo Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan
DHL Hong Kong
Emirates SkyCargo Sydney
EVA Air Cargo Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan
FedEx Express Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Singapore
Gading Sari Kuala Lumpur–International
Garuda Indonesia Cargo Batam, Osaka–Kansai, Singapore
K-Mile Air Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi
Korean Air Cargo Ho Chi Minh City, Penang, Seoul–Incheon
MASkargo Kuala Lumpur–International
Republic Express Airlines Balikpapan, Kuala Lumpur–International, Makassar, Singapore, Surabaya, Surakarta/Solo
Singapore Airlines Cargo Singapore
Transmile Air Services Kuala Lumpur–International
Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Batam, Kuala Lumpur–International, Singapore

Traffic and statistics[edit]

New traffic procedure[edit]

To ease congestion, the airport authority implemented a new traffic procedure, the 72 Improved Runway Capacity (IRC 72), to handle 72 planes per hour. This limited a plane to 30–45 minutes only for arrival and unloading of passengers, to allow other planes to use the parking space. Gradually it has been implemented and on June 26, 2014 IRC 72 has been implemented full for the period of 00:00am to 01:30am, 02:00am to 10:00am and 11:30pm to 00:00am with occupancy periods for aircraft are reduced from 110 seconds to 90 seconds of takeoff and from 65 seconds to 50 seconds for landing. The low time is from 04:00pm to 10:00pm with only maximum 32 flights/hour.[46] By 2015, IRC 72 will become IRC 86 with the opening of the new terminal.[47] As a comparison, London Heathrow Airport, which has 2 runways like SHIA, can handle 100 flights per hour, so the target for SHIA has been revised to 92 flights per hour by 2015.[48]

Busiest international routes[edit]

Busiest international passenger routes into and out of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (FY 2011[49])[50]
Rank Airport Airlines
1 Singapore
Singapore
Batik Air, Garuda Indonesia, Indonesia AirAsia, Jetstar Asia Airways, Lion Air, Singapore Airlines, Tigerair
2 Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur–International
AirAsia, Garuda Indonesia, Indonesia AirAsia, KLM, Kuwait Airways, Lion Air, Malaysia Airlines, Royal Jordanian, Yemenia
3 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Cathay Pacific, China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia
4 United Arab Emirates
Dubai
Emirates, Yemenia
5 Japan
Tokyo
All Nippon Airways, Garuda Indonesia, Japan Airlines
6 Korea
Seoul
Garuda Indonesia, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines
7 Saudi Arabia
Jeddah
Citilink, Garuda Indonesia, Lion Air, Saudia, Flynas, Indonesia AirAsia X
8 Thailand
Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
EgyptAir, Garuda Indonesia, Thai Airways International
9 United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi
Etihad Airways
10 Taiwan
Taipei
China Airlines, EVA Air
11 Qatar
Doha
Qatar Airways
12 China
Guangzhou
China Southern Airlines, Garuda Indonesia
13 Netherlands
Amsterdam
Garuda Indonesia, KLM
14 Australia
Sydney
Garuda Indonesia, Qantas
15 China
Shanghai–Pudong
Garuda Indonesia

Airport facilities[edit]

Terminal 1 and 2 was designed to resemble a traditional joglo Javanese construction. The approach has been emphasized by the inclusion of well-maintained gardens located near all boarding areas. Terminal 3 and other new airport buildings use an eco-friendly and modern design.

Aircraft maintenance[edit]

Maintenance facilities for aircraft in Soekarno–Hatta International Airport are supported by GMF AeroAsia (Garuda Maintenance Facility). They include 480,000 square metres (5,200,000 sq ft) of built-up structures, including three hangars, a spares warehouse, workshops, utility buildings, a ground support equipment building, chemical stores, an engine test cell, and management offices. In addition, GMF AeroAsia has an apron capable of handling up to 50 aircraft, taxiways, a run-up bay and a waste treatment area, taking up 1,150,000 square metres (12,400,000 sq ft).

Hangar 1 was built in 1991 and was designed for Boeing 747's. It has two full docks and is 22,000 square metres (240,000 sq ft). Hangar 2 is 23,000 square metres (250,000 sq ft) and has 3 aircraft bays. It can perform minor A and B checks. It can hold up to one narrow body and one wide body jet. Hangar 3 is also 23,000 square metres (250,000 sq ft). It normally holds up to 3 narrow body aircraft, but can be configured to hold up to one wide body and one narrow body. It has 7 bays with 4 full docks, 6 roof-mounted cranes and one bay designed for McDonnell Douglas MD-11's, McDonnell Douglas DC-10's, and wide body Airbus A330's aircraft.

Golf course[edit]

There is a golf course at the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport supported by the Cengkareng Golf Club. The golf course has been open since 1999. It is located on the left side of the airport main gate by the Sheraton Bandara Hotel. The Cengkareng Golf Club is in the 102-hectare (250-acre) Soewarna Business Park at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. In 2005 and 2008, this golf course was used for Indonesia Open, a part of the PGA European Tour. There are 18 holes in the golf course.

Airport hotel[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport has two hotels, the Sheraton Airport Hotel and the Jakarta Airport Hotel. The Sheraton Airport Hotel, which is located on the left side of the main exit road from the airport, has 4 floors with 220 guest rooms. The Jakarta Airport Hotel is located on the upper floor of Terminal 2 and provides useful standard accommodation for airport transit accommodation. The hotel entrance is located at the meeting point (midpoint) of terminal 2E. This hotel has 82 guest rooms. As of December 2013, the Jakarta Airport Hotel is closed with no date for reopening. The airport now have other and budget hotels such as Ibis styles and Amaris as an alternative.[citation needed]

Shopping area at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport

Lounges[edit]

There are four airport lounges in the departure area. The Jasa Angkasa Semesta (JAS) Lounge is available for first and business class passengers of Cathay Pacific, Qantas, EVA Air, Saudia, and Singapore Airlines. The Pura Indah Lounge is available for first and business class passengers of Singapore Airlines, KLM, Malaysia Airlines, Emirates Airline, Cathay Pacific, and China Airlines. The new Garuda Indonesia lounge is available for their business class passengers only, as well as GECC[clarification needed] cardholders. Other lounges are available outside of the departures area, operated by companies such as Indosat, PT Mandara Jasindo Sena, Telkomsel, and XL Axiata.

Shopping area[edit]

There are shopping areas available in all terminals at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. Duty-free shops, souvenir shops, restaurants and a cafeteria can be found there. There is a new "Shopping Arcade" located in terminal 1C. There are no shops in the arrival zones of the terminals.

Reading corners[edit]

21 reading corners are located in the waiting rooms of Terminal 2D, 2E and 2F.[51]

WiFi[edit]

3 WiFi networks are provided by Lintasarta, Internux (via YelloChat Free WiFi) and Telkom Indonesia at the airport. The three networks allow users to connect to another network if a specific one is operational

Since November 2013, Terminal 2 has free WiFi covering the whole terminal and free WiFi for Terminal 1 is servicing as of July 2014. Terminal 3 now has free WiFi covering since November 2014.

Smoking garden[edit]

To handle the overcrowding of smoking rooms being used, airport authorities has drawn up plans to build a smoking area in a garden near the rest area in Terminal 1A. It will be operated in January 2015 and it will be developed to other terminals, if necessary.[52]

Other facilities[edit]

The airport contains the head office of Garuda Indonesia, Garuda Indonesia Management Building, located within the Garuda Indonesia City Center.[53] Angkasa Pura II's head office is on the airport property.[54]

Ground transportation[edit]

There are several transportation options available for access to the airport: local airport terminal shuttles, buses, taxi services of various kinds, and cars.

Inter-terminal shuttle transportation[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport provides a free shuttle bus which connects Terminals 1, 2 and 3.

Inter-terminal rail transportation[edit]

In 2013, the Indonesian government announced that it will build a people mover to connect Terminals 1, 2, and 3. It will be an automated train. It will complete together with airport railway on early 2017.[55]

Buses[edit]

Several bus companies provide services to various destinations from the airport. Travel time to and from the center of Jakarta (at the Gambir railway station) takes around 70 minutes, depending on traffic. Buses to the airport leave from the various terminals in central Jakarta (Gambir) and surrounding areas. Airport shuttle bus can be found at arrival hall of Terminal 1A–1B–1C, on the eastern wing of arrival hall of Terminal 2F and in front of departure hall of Terminal 3.

Service Destination
Shuttle Airport Bus
Agramas Pusat Grosir Cililitan East Jakarta
Damri Bekasi Kayuringin Bus Terminal Bekasi
Damri Blok M Bus Terminal South Jakarta
Damri Botani Square Mall Bogor
Damri Cikarang Cikarang
Damri City Mall Cibinong Cibinong
Damri East Bekasi Bekasi
Damri Gambir Railway Station Central Jakarta
Damri Kampung Rambutan Bus Terminal East Jakarta
Damri Karawang Karawang
Damri Kemayoran Central Jakarta
Damri Kota Harapan Indah Bekasi
Damri Lebak Bulus Bus Terminal South Jakarta
Damri Lippo Karawaci Mall Tangerang
Damri Mangga Dua Square Mall North Jakarta
Damri Pasar Minggu Bus Terminal South Jakarta
Damri Pramuka City Central Jakarta
Damri Pulo Gebang East Jakarta
Damri Purwakarta Purwakarta
Damri Rawamangun Bus Terminal East Jakarta
Damri Serang–Cilegon-Merak Banten
Damri Summarecon Bekasi Bekasi
Damri Tanjung Priok Bus Terminal North Jakarta
Damri WTC Serpong South Tangerang
Primajasa Bandung Batununggal Bandung
Primajasa Bandung Caringin Bandung
Hiba Utama Depok Bus Terminal Depok
Sinar Jaya Cileungsi Bus Terminal Bogor Regency
XTrans Kartika Chandra Hotel South Jakarta
XTrans Serpong–Bintaro South Tangerang

Taxis and other services[edit]

Various taxi and shuttle services are provided by several operators.

Cars[edit]

The airport is connected to Jakarta's city center via the Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road. There is extensive car parking, including long-stay facilities, at the airport.

Rail[edit]

In July 2011, the government has assigned PT Kereta Api to establish a railway that connect the Manggarai Station to the Airport via Tangerang, which would cost Rp.2.25 trillion ($250 million). A 7-kilometre (4.3 mi) section of track will be built to connect the KRL Jabotabek station in Tangerang and the airport. The existing single-track commuter line between Manggarai and Tanah Tinggi will be dual-tracked. The commuter line will connect Manggarai station, Sudirman, Tanah Abang, Duri, Grogol, Bojong Indah, Kalideres, Tanah Tinggi and Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.[56]

The train will enter behind the airport through its M1 gate before entering the airport.[57] In early October 2014, M1 gate has been closed to commence the project.[58] The station will be located between Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 which both terminals and the station will be connected with a 7 story building with 20,000 parking spots as an Integrated Building.[59] Automated People Mover Systems is used to connect Terminal 3 with Integrated Building and Cargo Terminal.[60] The station has 7,200 square meters area and has capacity of 2,000 passengers in peron and 1,500 passengers in ticketing counter, public hall, tapping gate in, waiting lounge, and commercial area. The New Sudirman Station will be built in front of Shangrila Hotel with ample parking. The railway is due to begin operating in April 2017, with the commuter rail journey from Manggarai to the airport taking 57 minutes.[61][62]

The government is also planning a 33-kilometre (21 mi) express line between the Manggarai station and the airport via Angke and Pluit to be built by an investor as a public–private partnership.[63][64] To realize the demand from the Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, the route has been extended from Manggarai to Halim and the new route has been agreed upon by the Transportation Ministry Regulation. The express train will take 30 minutes to connect the airports.[65] In early 2015, government changed the fund from participation to not funding at all, so the contract for Rp 28 billion will be revised, including new rail express tariff. The construction of this line has been delay and completion is now projected to be in 2019 at the earliest.[66]

Accidents and Incidents[edit]

  • On October 28, 1997, a Trigana Air Service Fokker F-28 Fellowship 3000 passenger plane returned to land at Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta International Airport after the aircraft experienced technical problems two minutes after takeoff. Smoke and severe heat had entered cockpit and the passenger cabin. The airplane sustained damage due to the heat.[67]
  • On January 23, 2003, a Star Air Boeing 737 touched down 500 metres (1,600 ft) past the threshold of runway 25L, a little left of the centerline, at a time of heavy rainfall with associated heavy winds. It went off the side of the runway, causing substantial damage to the aircraft's undercarriage and belly.[68]
  • 2003 Soekarno-Hatta International Airport bombing - On 27 April 2003, a bomb exploded in terminal 2, departure hall of domestic terminal. The bomb was hidden under a table of a KFC stall and exploded during lunch hours. 10 people were injured in the blast, one 17 year old teenager identified as Yuli was seriously injured. Her legs had to be amputated. Emergency services were rushed to the scene and suspected that the motive of the bombing was due to the Free Aceh Movement, a separatist movement in Aceh. This was proved by the location of the blast, which was located on the domestic passenger hall rather than on the international passenger hall.[69][70][71][72]
  • On August 11, 2003, a Garuda Indonesia Fokker F-28 Fellowship 3000R suffered a left main gear collapse after a flight from Surabaya.[73]
  • On March 9, 2009, a Lion Air MD-90 overran runway 25L, due to an unstable approach 100 metres (330 ft) before the runway in rainfall and strong winds, in which the aircraft touched down to the left of the centerline. Although its thrust reversers were functioning, it veered to the right, resulting in the aircraft resting 90 degrees off the runway.[74]

Award[edit]

In 1995, the Landscaping of Soekarno-Hatta airport was awarded by Aga Khan Award for Architecture as one of the best example of integrating the terminal building pavilions, with lush tropical garden harmoniously.[75]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport was ranked fourth on the Skytrax World's Most Improved Airport 2014 list based on surveys of 12.85 million passengers from 110 countries.[76]

Picture gallery[edit]

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External links[edit]