Marcha Real

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Marcha Real
English: Royal March
La Marcha Granadera (1761).jpg
1761 sheet music

National anthem of  Spain
Also known as"La Marcha Granadera" (English: "The Grenadier March")
MusicManuel de Espinosa de los Monteros, 1761; 257 years ago (1761),[1] Bartolomé Pérez Casas (orchestration, 1908), Francisco Grau (harmonization, 1997)
Adopted1770; 248 years ago (1770)
Audio sample
"Marcha Real"

The "Marcha Real" (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmaɾtʃa reˈal], "Royal March") is the national anthem of Spain. It is one of only four national anthems in the world (along with those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and San Marino) that has no official lyrics[2] (although it had lyrics in the past, they are no longer used).

One of the oldest in the world, the Spanish national anthem was first printed in a document dated 1761 and entitled Libro de la Ordenanza de los Toques de Pífanos y Tambores que se tocan nuevamente en la Ynfantª Española (Book of the Ordenance of Newly Played Military Drum and Fife Calls by The Spanish Infantry), by Manuel de Espinosa. There, it is entitled "La Marcha Granadera" (English: "March of the Grenadiers"). According to the document, Manuel de Espinosa de los Monteros is the composer.

There is a misconception that its author was Frederick II of Prussia, a great lover of music. That started in 1861 when it appears for the first time published in La España militar (Military Spain). In 1864, the colonel Antonio Vallecillo published the story in the diary El Espíritu Público (The Public Spirit), claiming the supposed Prussian origin of Marcha Real popular. According to Vallecillo, the anthem was a gift from Frederick II to the soldier Juan Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor, who was serving in the Prussian Court to learn the military tactics developed by Frederick II's army, under orders of King Charles III. In 1868, the history is published in Los Sucesos, changing the destinatary of the gift with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. The myth was picked up in different publications of 1884 and 1903 until it was included in 1908 in the Enciclopedia Espasa.

According to the tradition in 1770, Charles III declared the "Marcha de Granaderos" as the official Honor March, and that formalized the habit of playing it in public and solemn acts. It became the official anthem during Isabel II's reign.

After the 1868 Revolution, General Prim convoked a national contest to create an official state anthem, but it was declared deserted, advising the jury that "Marcha de Granaderos" was considered as such. By Alfonso XIII's time, it was established by a Royal Circular Order (27 August 1908) that interpreted the harmonization of the march done by Bartolomé Pérez Casas, Major Music of the Royal Corps of Halberdier Guards. During the Second Republic, Himno de Riego was adopted as official anthem, but after the Spanish Civil War, "Marcha Real" returned to be used as anthem, sometimes sung with the verses written by the poet José María Pemán in 1928.

The actual symphonic version of the "Marcha Real" that replaces the Pérez Casas one belongs to maestro Francisco Grau and is the official one after the Royal Decree of 10 October 1997, when the Kingdom of Spain bought the author rights of the Marcha Real, then belonging to Pérez Casas's heirs. According to the Royal Decree 1560/1997, it should be in the key of B flat major and a tempo of 76 bpm (♩=76), with a form of AABB and a duration of 52 seconds.

Under the Trienio Liberal (1820–1823), the First Spanish Republic (1873–74) (when it enjoyed of a co-officiality) and the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), "El Himno de Riego" replaced "Marcha Real" as the national anthem of Spain. At the conclusion of the Spanish Civil War, however, Francisco Franco restored "Marcha Real" as the country's national anthem, under its old title of "Marcha Granadera".

Current version[edit]

The current official version of "Marcha Real", as described in Royal Decree 1560/1997,[3] is a sixteen-bar long phrase, divided in two sections, each one is made up of four repeated bars (AABB form). Tempo is set to ♩= 76 and key to B flat.

The long, complete version is the honors music for the King, while a shorter version without the repetitions is performed for the Princess of Asturias, the President of the Government of Spain, or during sporting events.

There are also three official arrangements: one for orchestra, another for military band, and a third for organ, written by Francisco Grau Vegara and requested by the Government of Spain. All in all, there are six different official adaptations, for each arrangement and length. They all were recorded by the Spanish National Orchestra and the Spanish Royal Guard Band as an official recording and released on compact disc for a limited period of time.[4]

Copyright issues[edit]

As the harmonisation of "Marcha Real" was written by Pérez Casas in the early 20th century, the copyright has not yet expired. The government bought it from Pérez Casas' estate in 1997 for 130 million pesetas (781,315.734 euros) to avoid future legal problems.[5] Until it expires, the copyright belongs to the Ministry of Culture and collecting societies charge copyright fees, which has led to criticism.[6]

As a result, many different harmonisations have been devised by performers to avoid paying. Nonetheless, the rights to the 1997 Francisco Grau revision were transferred to the government at no charge, but they were not placed in the public domain.[7]

Lyrics[edit]

Though the Marcha Real has no lyrics, words have been written and used for it in the past. One version was used during Alfonso XIII's reign and another during the Francoist State; however, none of them were ever made official. The national anthem has been played without words since 1978, when the lyrics that had been approved by General Francisco Franco were abandoned.[8]

Lyrics competition[edit]

After witnessing a rendition of "You'll Never Walk Alone" at Anfield in 2007, the President of the Spanish Olympic Committee (COE), Alejandro Blanco, said he felt inspired to seek lyrics to "La Marcha Real" ahead of Madrid's bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games.[9][10][11] That same year Telecinco, enticed by the COE, organized a National contest and posted 25 different lyrics on their website which they thought best matched COE's requirements. The winner was chosen after 40,000 people voted. The lyrics by Enrique Hernández-Luike, magazine publisher and poet, spoke of freedom, peace and the Constitution.[12] The winning lyrics were sang by the Ronda de Aranzueque choir in Pastrana, and filmed by German television.[13] However, the COE organized a new competition for the lyrics, which resulted in between 2,000 and 7,000 entries (depending on source). A private team of jurors chose the entry by Paulino Cubero, then unemployed.[14] The new lyrics received big criticism, resulting in them being pulled only five days later, and the idea was scrapped indefinitely.[15]

A number of the autonomous communities of Spain have their own regional anthems.

Former lyrics[edit]

Alfonso XIII lyrics[edit]

Lyrics by Eduardo Marquina (1879–1946)
Spanish lyrics English translation

La bandera de España (Coro)

Gloria, gloria, corona de la Patria,
soberana luz
que es oro en tu Pendón.
Vida, vida, futuro de la Patria,
que en tus ojos es
abierto corazón...!
Púrpura y oro: bandera inmortal;
en tus colores, juntas, carne y alma están.
Púrpura y oro: querer y lograr;
Tú eres, bandera, el signo del humano afán.
Gloria, gloria, corona de la Patria,
soberana luz
que es oro en tu Pendón.
Púrpura y oro: bandera inmortal;
en tus colores, juntas, carne y alma están.

España guiadora (Solo)

¡Pide, España! ¡Tu nombre llevaremos
donde quieras tú;
que honrarlo es nuestra ley!
¡Manda, España, y unidos lucharemos,
porque vivas tú,
sin tregua pueblo y rey!
Una bandera gloriosa nos das;
¡nadie, viviendo, España, nos la arrancará!
Para que, un día, nos pueda cubrir,
¡danos, España, el gozo de morir por ti!

¡Viva España!... (Coro)

¡Viva España! Del grito de la Patria,
la explosión triunfal
abrió camino al sol;
¡Viva España! repiten veinte pueblos
y al hablar dan fe
del ánimo español...
¡Marquen arado martillo y clarín
su noble ritmo al grito de la Patria fe!
¡Guíe la mente a la mano hasta el fin,
al "Viva España" asista toda España en pie!

Flag of Spain (Chorus)

Glory, glory, crown of the Fatherland
sovereign light
which in your standard is gold.
Life, life, future of the Fatherland,
in your eyes it is
an open heart
Purple and gold: immortal flag;
in your colors, together, flesh and soul are.
Purple and gold: to want and to achieve;
You are, flag, the sign of human effort.
Glory, glory, crown of the Fatherland
sovereign light
which in your standard is gold.
Purple and gold: immortal flag;
in your colors, together, flesh and soul are.


Spain guiding (Solo)

It asks, Spain! Your name take
anywhere you;
that honor is our law!
Manda, Spain, and united fight,
because you live,
relentlessly people and king!
Give us a glorious flag;
Nobody, he lives, Spain, us start!
For that, one day, we can cover,
Give us, Spain, the joy of dying for you!


Long live Spain! ... (Chorus)

Long live Spain! The cry of the Fatherland,
the triumphant explosion
He opened the way to the sun;
Long live Spain! repeated twenty peoples
and speaking attest
the Spanish mind ...
Mark plow hammer and bugle
his noble rhythm at the cry of the Fatherland faith!
Lead mind to hand to the end,
the "Long Live Spain" Spain attends all standing!
Other language translation
Basque language version Catalan Translation Galician Translation

La bandera de España (Coro)

Gora Espainia! Denok batera abes dezagun
ahots ezberdinez
bihotz bakarrez
Gora Espainia! Haran berdeetatik
itsaso zabaleraino
anaitasun ereserkia
Maita ezazu aberria
besarkada ematen dielako
zeru urdinaren pean
herri askeei
Justizia eta handitasuna
demokrazia eta bakea
Historiari ekartzen dioten
seme-alabei loria

Bandera d'Espanya (Coro)

Glòria, glòria, corona de la Pàtria
sobirana llum
que en el seu estàndard és d'or.
la vida la vida, el futur de la Pàtria,
en els teus ulls és
un cor obert
Bandera d'Espanya Porpra i or:
bandera immortal;
Ministeri d'Educació
en els teus colors, juntes, carn i ànima hi són.
Porpra i or: voler i aconseguir;
Tu ets, bandera, el signe de l'humà afany.
Glòria, glòria, corona de la Pàtria
sobirana llum
que en el seu estàndard és d'or.
Porpra i or: bandera immortal;
en els teus colors, juntes, carn i ànima hi són.

Bandeira de España (Coro)

Gloria, gloria, coroa da Patria
soberano
luz que no seu defecto é ouro.
Vida, vida, futuro da Patria,
nos seus ollos é
un corazón aberto
Bandeira de España Púrpura e ouro: bandeira inmortal;
en túas cores, xuntas, carne e alma están.
Púrpura e ouro: a querer e conseguir;
Está, a bandeira, o sinal do esforzo humano.
Gloria, gloria, coroa da Patria
soberano
luz que no seu defecto é ouro.
Púrpura e ouro: bandeira inmortal;
en túas cores, xuntas, carne e alma están.

Franco-era lyrics[edit]

Lyrics adapted from an earlier version on 1928 written by José María Pemán (1897–1981) during the reign of Alfonso XIII and the government of Miguel Primo de Rivera (Original text in Spanish). The changes intended to fit the symbols of the initially fascist ideology of Francisco Franco, referred to as National-Catholicism, which were the "salute with the extended right arm" and the "yoke and arrows" this last one used in the Middle Ages by Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon to represent the union of their dynasties and their kingdoms.
Spanish lyrics English translation

¡Viva España! Alzad los brazos, hijos
(original in J.M. Pemán: Viva España, alzad la frente, hijos)
del pueblo español, que vuelve a resurgir.

Gloria a la Patria que supo seguir,
sobre el azul del mar, el caminar del sol.

¡Triunfa España! Los yugos y las flechas
(original in J.M. Pemán: ¡Triunfa España! Los yunques y las ruedas)
cantan al compás del himno de la fe.

Juntos con ellos cantemos de pie
la vida nueva y fuerte del trabajo y paz.

¡Viva España! Alzad los brazos, hijos
(original in J.M. Pemán: Viva España, alzad la frente, hijos)
del pueblo español, que vuelve a resurgir.

Gloria a la Patria que supo seguir,
sobre el azul del mar, el caminar del sol.

Long live Spain! Raise your arms, sons
(original in J.M.ª Pemán: Long live Spain! Raise your foreheads, sons)
of the Spanish People, which rebirths anew.


Glory to the Fatherland that knew how to follow,
over the Ocean blue, the course of the setting sun.

Triumph, Spain! The yokes and the arrows (reference to the symbols of the totalitarian Spanish movement named National-Catholicism)
(original in J.M.ª Pemán: Triumph, Spain! The anvils and the wheels)
sing to the rhythm of the anthem of faith.

Let's stand and sing along with them
for the new and strong life of work and peace.

Long live Spain! Raise your arms, sons
(original in J.M.ª Pemán: Long live Spain! Raise your foreheads, sons)
of the Spanish People, which rebirths anew.


Glory to the Fatherland that knew how to follow,
over the Ocean blue, the course of the setting sun.

other language translation

Carlist lyrics[edit]

Viva España,
gloria de tradiciones,
con la sola ley
que puede prosperar.

Viva España,
que es madre de Naciones,
con Dios, Patria, Rey
con que supo imperar.

Guerra al perjuro
traidor y masón,
que con su aliento impuro
hunde la nación.

Es su bandera
la historia de su gloria;
por ella dará
su vida el español

Fe verdadera
que en rojo de amor
aprisiona briosa
un rayo de sol.

English language version

Long live Spain,
glory of traditions,
with the single law
that can thrive.

Long live Spain,
the mother of Nations,
with God, Fatherland, King
with which it knew how to reign

War on the perjured
traitor and Mason,
that with his impure breath
sinks the nation

It is its flag
the history of its glory;
for it will the Spaniard
give his life

True faith
which is red from love,
imprisons a lively
ray of sunshine.

Basque Translation

Gora Espainia,
tradizioak, aintza
lege bakar
daiteke aurrera.

Gora Espainia,
Nazio, ama
Dios, Patria, Rey
dituen. gailenduko zuen

Perjurer gerra
traidorea eta Hargin,
bere arnasa ezpuruetan
nazioaren lotzen zaio.

Zure bandera da
bere aintza istorioa;
izango begiratu
Espainiako bere bizitza

benetako fede
gorria maite duten
imprisons Chihiroren
a Eguzki-izpien.

Catalan Translation

Visca Espanya,
glòria de tradicions,
amb la sola llei
que pot prosperar.

Visca Espanya,
que és mare de Nacions,
amb Déu, Pàtria, Rei
amb que va saber imperar.

Guerra al perjur
traïdor i maçó,
que amb el seu alè impur
enfonsa la nació.

És la seva bandera
la història de la seva glòria;
per ella donarà
la seva vida l'espanyol

Fe veritable
que en vermell d'amor
empresona coratjosa
un raig de sol.

Galician Translation

Viva España,
gloria de tradicións,
coa única lei
pode prosperar.

Viva España,
a nai das Nacións,
Deus, Patria, Rei
que el prevalece.

Guerra en que cometeu perxurioer
traidor e Albanel,
co seu impuro hálito
mergulla a nación.

é a súa bandeira
a historia da súa gloria;
polo que vai manter
súa vida no Español

verdadeira fe
o amor que vermello
aprisiona espirituoso
un raio de sol.

Interpretation and etiquette[edit]

Military bands of the Spanish Armed Forces and the National Police Corps of Spain and civilian Marching bands and Concert bands play the B flat-major version of the anthem adapted for wind bands (as arranged by Francisco Grau), and playing the A Major version is optional.

The bugle call "To the Colors" in Spain is the version played by Bugle bands in Spanish churches in religious occasions and processions organized by civil groups and the parishes. Various versions adapted for the drum and the bugle are used, even though brass instruments play the anthem as well. But in some bugle bands, the A flat version of the anthem (the old official one, adapted for the bugle) is played. Only a bugle call is sounded when the B flat version is played.

Being the national anthem, and in honor of the King and the Queen of Spain, it is common for all to stand once it is played. Even though it is also played in church events, respect for the royal family is required by everyone in attendance. As it happens civilians stand at attention, and those in uniform salute when not in formation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.europeanasounds.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/partitura1-700x546.jpg
  2. ^ "Spain – Marcha Real". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
  3. ^ "Real Decreto 1560/1997, de 10 de octubre, por el que se regula el Himno Nacional". Boletín Oficial del Estado. 1997 (244). 11 October 1997.
  4. ^ Official anthem release album cover.
  5. ^ "Real Decreto 1543/1997, de 3 de octubre, sobre adquisición por el Estado de los derechos de explotación de determinadas obras musicales y encomienda de su administración al Ministerio de Educación y Cultura". Boletín Oficial del Estado. 1997 (243). 10 October 1997.
  6. ^ "El himno da aún mucho dinero". Crónica. #604. May 27, 2007.
    "Cuando el himno es de un particular". Periodista Digital. May 27, 2007.
  7. ^ "Real Decreto 2027/1998, de 18 de septiembre, de aceptación de la cesión gratuita efectuada por el maestro don Francisco Grau Vergara de los derechos de explotación por la revisión y orquestación del Himno Nacional y atribución de la administración de tales derechos al Ministerio de Educación y Cultura". Boletín Oficial del Estado. 1998 (233). 29 September 1998.
  8. ^ Elkington, Mark (January 16, 2008). "Divisive national anthem lyrics ditched". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-08-24.
  9. ^ Liverpool fans help inspire Spain to write words to anthem Archived 2008-10-11 at WebCite Reuters, 5 June 2007
  10. ^ Spain to add lyrics to wordless national anthem MSNBC, 26 June 2007
  11. ^ "Lost for Words", The Economist, Vol 384 Number 8539.
  12. ^ "El concurso para poner letra al Himno Nacional de la web de Telecinco ya tiene ganador" (in Spanish). Diario ABC. July 18, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  13. ^ "El concurso para poner letra al Himno Nacional de la web de Telecinco ya tiene ganador" (in Spanish). La Crónica de Guadalajara. September 20, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  14. ^ "'¡Viva España! Cantemos todos juntos con distinta voz y un solo corazón'" (in Spanish). Unidad Editorial. January 11, 2008. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
  15. ^ Garrido,Héctor M. (January 16, 2008). "El himno de España vuelve a quedarse sin letra" (in Spanish). Grupo PRISA. Retrieved 2018-05-10.

Sheet music[edit]

External links[edit]