Amhrán na bhFiann

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Amhrán na bhFiann
The Soldier's Song
Irish national anthem (1916).jpg

National anthem of  Ireland
Also known as"A Soldier's Song" (original)
LyricsEnglish: Peadar Kearney, 1907
Irish: Liam Ó Rinn, 1923
MusicPatrick Heeney, 1907
Adopted1926
Audio sample
"Amhrán na bhFiann" (instrumental)

"Amhrán na bhFiann" (Irish pronunciation: [ˈəuɾˠaːn̪ˠ n̪ˠə ˈvʲiːən̪ˠ]), called "The Soldier's Song" in English, is the Irish national anthem. The music was composed by Peadar Kearney and Patrick Heeney, the original English lyrics by Kearney, and the Irish-language translation, now usually heard, by Liam Ó Rinn. The song has three verses, but only the choral refrain has been officially designated the national anthem.

The Presidential Salute, played when the President of Ireland arrives at an official engagement, consists of the first four bars of the national anthem immediately followed by the last five.[1]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The song, as "A Soldier's Song", was composed "early in 1910 or late in 1909",[n 1] with words by Peadar Kearney, and music by his childhood friend and neighbour friend Patrick Heeney, who had collaborated on songs since 1903.[4] Kearney assisted Heeney in setting the refrain.[5][6][7] Seán Rogan, later of the Irish Citizen Army, may also have helped with the music, and first wrote it in musical notation.[6] Kearney wrote much of the text in the Swiss Café at the corner of O'Connell Street and North Earl Street.[2] The first draft of the text, handwritten on copybook paper, sold at auction in Dublin in 2006 for €760,000.[8] After being rejected by The United Irishman, Bulmer Hobson's magazine Irish Freedom published the text in 1912.[5][9] Whelan and Son of Ormond Quay, Dublin, published the lyrics for sale as a flysheet.[6][10] It was used as marching song by the Irish Volunteers and Seamus Hughes first sang it in public at a Volunteer fundraising concert.[11] It was sung by rebels in the General Post Office (GPO) during the Easter Rising of 1916.[5] Its popularity increased among rebels held in Frongoch internment camp after the Rising.[5][12]

The sheet music was first published in late 1916 by Whelan and Son, in an arrangement by Cathal Mac Dubhghaill (Cecil Grange MacDowell).[6][13][6][14] In December 1916 in New York City, Victor Herbert published his own piano and orchestral arrangements under the title "Soldiers of Erin, the Rallying Song of the Irish Volunteers", on the instigation of R. F. O'Reilly, an Irish priest.[15][6][16][17][18] O'Reilly arranged for proceeds to go to the Gaelic League, but paid royalties to Kearney and Heeney once he discovered they were the authors.[15][6][18] With later cheques from the US, Kearney earned "not much more than £100".[15]

By 1917, according to Séamus Robinson, the song was being parodied by British soldiers in Ireland.[19] The Irish Volunteers allied with Sinn Féin that year and evolved into the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the Irish War of Independence (1919–21). The song's popularity led to its being called the "Sinn Féin anthem". Victor Herbert's version was well known to Irish Americans by 1919, when Éamon de Valera arrived as President of Dáil Éireann of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic.[18] In the 1922–23 Civil War, the IRA split into the "National Army" of the nascent Irish Free State and the "Irregulars" loyal to the defunct Republic. Both sides continued to sing "The Soldier's Song".[20] After the war, it remained popular as an Army tune, and was played at many military functions.[5]

Official adoption[edit]

The Free State did not initially adopt any official anthem.[5] The delicate political state in the aftermath of the Civil War provoked a desire to avoid controversy.[21] Ex-unionists continued to regard "God Save the King" as the national anthem,[5] as it had been for the rest of the British Empire. The fact that "The Soldier's Song" described Irishmen fighting a foreign foe allowed it to overlook the painful memory of the Civil War.[20] W. T. Cosgrave, 1922–32 President of the Executive Council, avoided explicitly making it the national anthem for fear of exacerbating the antipathy for the Free State held by unionists in Northern Ireland.[22] As with the Irish tricolour, the government did not want to disassociate the state from the anthem for fear of leaving a potent symbol available for its republican opponents to claim.[23]

"The Soldier's Song" was widely if unofficially sung by nationalists.[24] Public perception that it was officially recognised sprang from a concert on 3 February 1924 at the Theatre Royal, Dublin by the Irish Army music school under its German-born director, Colonel Fritz Brasé. As an encore to the concert, Brasé conducted "Irish March, no.1", his medley of Irish patriotic airs, which ended with that of "The Soldier's Song". Most dignitaries present stood up at this point, including Governor-General Tim Healy, Cosgrave and most of the Executive Council, although Richard Mulcahy remained seated.[20] On 28 April 1924, Cosgrave expressed opposition to replacing "The Soldier's Song", which was provisionally used within the State.[21] Sean Lester, Publicist at the Department of External Affairs considered "The Soldier's Song" to be "hardly suitable in words or music"[24] and favoured the music, though not the words, of "Let Erin Remember".[24] This was used as the anthem for the state at the 1924 Olympics in Paris,[5][n 2] and other events abroad for the next two years.[24] The Dublin Evening Mail held contests in 1924 and 1925 to find verses for a new anthem; the first produced no sufficiently good entry, and the second's winning entry was soon forgotten.[5]

There was concern that the lack of an official anthem was giving unionists an opportunity to persist with "God Save the King".[24] Ewan Morris writes, "While some, perhaps many, nationalists undoubtedly disliked 'The soldier's song', few would have objected so strongly as to refuse to honour it as the national anthem. But for ex-unionists 'The soldier's song' remained anathema, and 'God save the king' continued to be the national anthem they honoured."[26] By 1926 foreign diplomats' protocol offices were requesting copies of the anthem's score.[27] On 12 July 1926, the Executive Council decided to adopt it as the National Anthem,[24] with Cosgrave the driving force in the decision.[24] He wrote to Lester, "there must be uniformity in regard to the national anthem and that for the present the 'Soldier’s song' is to be used for this purpose both at home and abroad".[27] The decision was not publicised.[5][28] On 20 June 1926, Osmond Esmonde asked President Cosgrave what the National Anthem was, but the Ceann Comhairle Michael Hayes ruled 'If the Deputy desires to investigate any problem in regard to the National Anthem, he cannot ask a question of the President. The President cannot be asked to define what is the National Anthem. It is not part of his functions.'[29] Esmonde instead asked Minister for Defence Peter Hughes what 'as far as the Army is concerned' was the National Anthem.[29] The draft response provided for Hughes stated that 'while no final decision has been come to', "The Soldier's Song" was 'at present accepted as the National Anthem',[30][31] However, this wording was vetoed by Cosgrave, and in the Dáil chamber Hughes responded simply 'The "Soldier's Song."'[5][31][29]

In 1928, the Army band established the practice of playing only the chorus of the song as the Anthem, because the longer version was discouraging audiences from singing along.[21] Also in 1928, Chief Justice Hugh Kennedy, returning from an official trip to North America, reported that an official arrangement of the music was "very badly needed" for circulation abroad.[21] This was produced in July 1929 by Colonel Fritz Brasé, director of the Army band.[5] This consisted only of the chorus, and was published under the title "The Soldier's Song" rather than "A Soldier's Song",[5] although variants such as the "Soldiers' Song" continued to occur in later official documentation.[32]

Copyright[edit]

The national anthem was played by Radio Éireann at closedown from its inception in 1926. Cinemas and theatres did so from 1932[5] until 1972.[33] Peadar Kearney, who had received royalties from sheet music publishers, issued legal proceedings for royalties from those now performing the anthem.[5] He was joined by Michael Heeney, brother of Patrick Heeney, who had died in 1911.[5] In 1934, the Department of Finance acquired the copyright of the song for the sum of £1,200 (£980 to the copyright holders plus £220 expenses[34]).[5][35][36] Copyright law changed in the 1950s,[n 3] such that the government had to reacquire copyright in 1965, for £2,500.[5][39] Ruth Sherry states that it is unclear whether the official anthem is the music alone or the text also;[5] however, the official 1934 Estimate of the amount required ... for the acquisition by the state of copyright in the national anthem includes the line item, 'Payment to the holders of copyright in the words and music of the "Soldier's Song"' [emphasis added].[34] While the state held the copyright, most requests for publication were accepted, "although several of a purely commercial nature, such as its use in advertisements, were refused".[40] As per EU copyright law, the English lyrics' copyright expired on 1 January 2013, following the 70th anniversary of Kearney's death.[41][42][n 4] In 2016, three Fianna Fáil senators introduced a private member's bill intended to restore the state's copyright in the anthem.[n 5] The ending of copyright also encourage the Seanad to announce a public consultation on the anthem.[46]

Governor-General[edit]

The Governor-General of the Irish Free State was the King's representative and, as such, unionists considered that the appropriate official salute to play was "God Save The King" rather than the Free State Anthem. At James McNeill's 1928 inauguration, the Army band played "The Soldier's Song", but that summer, at two events with unionist organisers, he was greeted by "God Save The King".[47] The Executive Council advised him that in future the Free State anthem must be played.[48] McNeill declined a June 1929 invitation to the Trinity College sports when the college insisted that the British anthem was its tradition.[49][5] Unionists and people in Great Britain took this as a snub, while for republican commentators it encapsulated the Free State's attempts to suppress the truth about its subservience to Britain.[50] A compromise adopted in 1931 was that "The Soldier's Song" would mark the Governor General's arrival and he would leave before the end of the sports, when "God Save The King" would be played.[51] In 1932, Éamon de Valera became President of the Executive Council; as part of his campaign to abolish the office of Governor-General, he forbade the Army band from playing "The Soldier's Song" in McNeill's presence.[5]

Irish version[edit]

The Irish translation was written by Liam Ó Rinn (1886–1943), later the Chief Translator of the Oireachtas,[5] who was involved in the Irish versions of both the 1922 Constitution and the 1937 Constitution. Although Sherry says the Irish version was first published in An tÓglach (the magazine of the Irish Defence Forces) on 3 November 1923,[5][52] an almost identical text was printed in the Freeman's Journal on 3 April 1923, under Ó Rinn's pen name "Coinneach".[53][54] It may have been written as early as 1917.[5][55] Ó Rinn's grandson Nial claims Liam started work on a translation while interned in Frongoch after the 1916 Rising.[3] Several other translations had been made by 1923, which Ó Rinn criticised as unreadable.[53] These were in literary Classical Irish, whereas Ó Rinn favoured the living vernacular spoken in Gaeltacht areas.[53] "Rosc Catha na nÓglach", T. F. O'Rahilly's translation,[56] was used by Conradh na Gaeilge in the early 1920s;[57] in 1924, Padraig de Burca said it "deserves more favour than it has received".[58] Other translations included one sung by Claisceadal in University College Galway in December 1931,[59] and others by Pádraig Mac Carthaigh, Sean Dubhthaigh, Seamus Mac Grianna, and Ernest Blythe.[60] From the 1930s, the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) encouraged singing the anthem in Irish at its matches.[5] The text of the Ó Rinn version was printed in 1933 in An Camán,[n 6][5] and in the programs of GAA matches at Croke Park, where the crowd was led via the public address system by singers from St Patrick's College of Education and Conradh na Gaeilge.[62]

Both the English and Irish texts appeared in various editions of Facts about Ireland, published by the Department of Foreign Affairs,[5][63][64] and on the official website of the Department of the Taoiseach.[1] However, no Irish version has been officially adopted,[5] the state does not hold the copyright to any Irish version,[41] and Ó Rinn, unlike Kearney and Heeney's estate, never received royalties.[5] A memorandum in the Department of the Taoiseach on 5 April 1958 discussed five distinct Irish translations, noting that Ó Rinn's was the best known; it suggested that, if it were to be officially endorsed, the spelling and grammar should be standardised and the words "Fianna Fáil" changed to "laochra Fáil" to avoid association with the Fianna Fáil political party.[55] The 2018 Seanad report on the anthem recommended no change to the wording, and pointed out that the law would not prevent a new political party adopting revised words like "Laochra Fáil" as its name.[65][n 7]

Modern use[edit]

The English version has been almost totally eclipsed, and many are unaware that the Irish lyrics are a translation.[5][67] It is sung at home matches of Celtic F.C., a Glasgow Irish-Scots football club.[68] It was sung in Canada during a state visit by President Mary McAleese in 1998,[69] and at the 2004 Ryder Cup in the United States. The latter prompted objections from Fáilte Ireland,[70] and what Gaeltacht Minister Éamon Ó Cuív called "an outcry" from viewers in Ireland.[71][72] The 2018 Seanad report suggested that "For those not familiar with the Irish language, it may be appropriate to produce a phonetic version of the National Anthem".[73] Some foreign-born Irish international sportspeople have learned the Irish words via ad-hoc phonetic versions, including Mick McCarthy of the association football team[74] and C. J. Stander of the rugby union team.[75]

In 1987, the anthem was recommended, but not required, to be taught as part of the civics syllabus in national schools.[76] Fianna Fáil's manifesto in the 2007 general election promised to "[i]nclude the national anthem in the primary school curriculum".[77][78] As of 2017 the primary school Social Personal and Health Education curriculum includes being "aware" of the anthem in third/fourth class, and "respecting" it in fifth/sixth class.[79] Richard Bruton, the Minister for Education stated that it was "not Departmental policy to impose regulations on schools regarding national expression", but that it had supported several initiatives which included the national anthem.[80] A 2017 opinion poll found 82% supported teaching the anthem in school; 40% claimed to know all the words and 40% "some" of them.[81] The 2018 Seanad report said the anthem was "indeed currently on the curriculum at primary school level. However, once it has been taught at primary school level there are little [sic] opportunities for students to use the National Anthem within the school environment".[82] It said suggestions to sing the anthem at school every day "may not be possible",[82] but school children could be encouraged to sing it on the eve[n 8] of Saint Patrick's Day.[82]

Although only the chorus forms the official national anthem, the music of both verse and chorus has often been played at sports events outside Ireland.[83] The text of the first verse appears as well as the chorus in early (1960s) editions of the Department of External Affairs's book Facts About Ireland.[63] Later editions include only the chorus.[64]

The song is used by many Irish nationalists as an anthem for the entire island of Ireland. As such it is played at all GAA matches, including those in Northern Ireland and overseas. The 2018 Seanad report on the anthem recommended awareness of the anthem among "Irish citizens at home and abroad, as well as new citizens of Ireland".[73]

There is no protocol specified for the anthem; the 2018 Seanad report on the anthem recommended adopting one and provided a draft.[84] The flag protocol issued by the Department of the Taoiseach states that when the anthem is played in the presence of the national flag, all present should face the flag and stand to attention, and Defence Forces personnel should salute the flag, "until the last note of the music".[85] History professor Caoimhín De Barra comments, "I don't think I have ever seen anyone salute the flag during Amhrán na bhFiann. Certainly, nobody is standing to attention until the last note of music, given that we have effectively replaced the last line of the song with collective freestyle screaming and roaring."[86]

In 2017, the Seanad Public Consultation Committee invited comments on "the most appropriate way the State should treat the National Anthem".[46] Its chair, Mark Daly, said, "The debate around this issue includes aspects of copyright law, cultural tolerance, respect for national symbols, public opinion, free speech and a range of other factors."[46] The committee heard public submissions from selected commenters on 5 December 2017.[3][87] Michael W. D'Arcy said the government favoured guidelines rather than legislation, and that penalties for misuse might prove counterproductive.[3][88] The committee's report was published in July 2018; it recommended producing an official translation into Irish Sign Language (ISL).[89] A deaf choir performed an ISL version of the anthem in Leinster House at the report's official launch.[90]

Criticism[edit]

In the 1933 Dáil debate on the state's acquisition of the song's copyright, there was discussion of its merits or lack thereof. Frank MacDermot said, 'Leaving out sentiment, I must confess, from both a literary and a musical point of view, I would regard the "Soldier's Song" as, shall we say, a jaunty little piece of vulgarity, and I think we could have done a lot better.'[91] Thomas F. O'Higgins responded, "National Anthems come about, not because of the suitability of the particular words or notes, but because they are adopted generally by the nation. That is exactly how the "Soldier's Song" became a National Anthem in this country. It happened to be the Anthem on the lips of the people when they came into their own and when the outsiders evacuated the country and left the insiders here to make the best or the worst of the country. It was adopted by the people here before ever it was adopted by the Executive Council".[91] The Irish Independent in 2016 found it "difficult to understand ... how Peadar Kearney, who was ... a splendid poet, could have written such a lacklustre piece."[92]

The Irish version is a free translation of the English; in particular, "Sinne Fianna Fáil" is not a literal translation of "Soldiers are we". Fianna Fáil, variously translated as "Soldiers of Destiny", "Warriors of Destiny" or "Soldiers of Ireland",[n 9] is from the Irish Fianna ("band of warriors") of Fál (a coronation stone, and metonymically "Ireland"). As an Irish name for the Irish Volunteers, it was an alternative to Óglaigh na hÉireann. The initials "FF" appeared on the Volunteer badge, and subsequently on that of the Irish Army[94] (as they do to this day). On 2 April 1926, "Fianna Fáil" was chosen as the name of Éamon de Valera's new political party. Since the Irish version of the anthem became popular in the 1930s, there has been intermittent resentment of the party name's occurring in it.[5][95] Publishers Browne & Nolan printed a version in 1938 substituting "Sinne laochra Fáil" for "Sinne Fianna Fáil" (laochra = "heroes", "warriors"), which is occasionally heard instead.[5] TD Maureen O'Sullivan likewise favoured changing to "laochra Fáil".[96] In the Dáil in 2011 and 2012, she asked the Minister for Finance Michael Noonan whether "Sinne Fianna Fáil" was "appropriate and correct" or had "party political connotations"; Noonan stated it was appropriate and had no such connotations, given that the translation predated the party's founding.[41][97] The 2018 Seanad report on the anthem took the same view.[65]

Ulster unionists regard the anthem as specific to the Republic of Ireland, not symbolic of the whole island of Ireland, and deprecate its use with United Ireland symbolism as irredentism.[98][99] (The symbolism of flags in Northern Ireland raises similar issues.) In 1933, the unionist government invoked its Special Powers Act to ban public display of the tricolour when "representing the Irish Republican Army ... an Irish Republic ... or... any ... unlawful association"; the order was interpreted as a ban in all circumstances unless flown explicitly to represent the Free State. Similar orders specifically banning "The Soldier's Song" were drafted before the 1935 Westminster and 1938 Stormont elections, but the government felt they were too controversial to implement; a general order against music "likely to lead to a breach of the peace" was often invoked when "The Soldier's Song" was played.[100] After the Northern Ireland peace process, when unionists and Conservatives began attending GAA matches in their official capacity, they arrived after the playing of "Amhrán na bhFiann", including sports minister Edwin Poots in 2008,[99] First Minister Peter Robinson in 2012,[101] and Northern Ireland Secretary James Brokenshire in 2017.[101] Robinson's successor Arlene Foster stood for the anthem at the 2018 Ulster Football Final, which was played in the Republic.[102]

F. Gunther Eyck's survey of national anthems classifies "Amhrán na bhFiann" under "resistance anthems", alongside "La Marseillaise", "A Portuguesa", and "Poland Is Not Yet Lost".[103] The lyrics been criticised by some commentators for alleged outdatedness, militarism, and anti-British sentiment.[104][105][106][107][108][109] Others deny such faults or attribute them to national anthems generally.[109][110] Kevin Myers described calls for it to be amended or replaced as "seasonal as spring".[105] Questions in the Dáil have been asked by Frank MacDermot in 1932;[111] Trevor Sargent in 1993;[112] Derek McDowell in 1995;[113] and John Browne in 2000.[114] Commentators on the 1929 Trinity College incident suggested "The Soldier's Song" would be an impediment to closer ties between the Free State and Northern Ireland.[115] In 1995, during the Northern Ireland peace process, the Forum for Peace and Reconciliation drafted an unpublished report on "obstacles to reconciliation in the Republic"; 1998 newspaper articles summarising the draft claimed it suggested "the government could commission alternative anthems for sporting and other non-official occasions"[116] which were not "excessively militaristic".[117] Fergus Finlay in 2007 suggested "retiring [the anthem] with honour".[118] A 2017 opinion poll found 84% supported retaining the anthem, while 10% favoured replacing it.[81] Historian Fearghal McGarry suggests the fact that the lyrics are no longer sung in English dampens demand for change: "public unfamiliarity with Peadar Kearney's original words has almost certainly extended his song's shelf life as the national anthem".[119]

In a debate during the 2011 presidential election, candidates were asked whether the anthem was "fit for purpose". Most acknowledged strong public attachment to it. Martin McGuinness and Dana Rosemary Scallon opposed any change. Mary Davis said people "shouldn’t consider changing it lightly". Michael D. Higgins suggested the Constitutional Convention could discuss the matter. Seán Gallagher had "mixed views" and was "open to explore revising it". David Norris said other anthems were more "blood-thirsty".[110] The 2018 Seanad report on the anthem recommended no change to the wording.[65]

Alternatives[edit]

The previous anthem used by Irish nationalists was "God Save Ireland", with words written by Timothy Daniel Sullivan in 1867 to the tune of "Tramp! Tramp! Tramp!", an American Civil War song written in 1864 by George Frederick Root. "God Save Ireland" commemorated the Manchester Martyrs, executed in 1867 for felony murder for their part in an Irish Republican Brotherhood ambush, and it quickly replaced the previous unofficial anthem, "A Nation Once Again", written in 1845 by Thomas Davis of the Young Ireland movement. "God Save Ireland" was associated with the Irish Parliamentary Party and its eclipse by "The Soldier's Song" after 1916 mirrored the party's eclipse by Sinn Féin.[120]

The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) and Ireland national rugby union team are all-island bodies with many unionist supporters; although "Amhrán na bhFiann" is played at Ireland matches in the Republic, it is not played elsewhere, and unionist players are not expected to sing it.[121] During the Troubles, no anthem was played at matches outside Ireland.[122] In Paris, "The Last Rose of Summer" was played in 1929, and before the 1931 match the Department of External Affairs advised ambassador Gerald O'Kelly de Gallagh that, if the organisers refused to allow "The Soldier's Song", then "appropriate Irish airs would be 'St. Patrick's Day', 'The Last Rose of Summer' or 'Let Erin Remember'".[123] At the inaugural Rugby World Cup, captain Donal Lenihan objected that all other teams would have an anthem. At the last minute before the side's opening match in Athletic Park, Wellington, a James Last cassette recording of "The Rose of Tralee" was borrowed from Phil Orr; the music and poor recording quality attracted much criticism and no anthem was played for later matches.[124] At the 1991 World Cup, there was no anthem away to Scotland, Ireland's only game outside Dublin.[125]

For the 1995 World Cup in South Africa, the IRFU decided to commission a song from Phil Coulter.[126][127] His composition, "Ireland's Call", has since been played alongside "Amhrán na bhFiann" at matches within the Republic, and on its own elsewhere, including in Northern Ireland.[127][128] Other all-island teams have adopted "Ireland's Call" for similar reasons to the IRFU's. The men's and women's hockey teams adopted it in 2000, having previously used the "Londonderry Air",[129] except that in the 2016 Olympic tournament, the Olympic Council of Ireland standard "Amhrán na bhFiann" was used.[130] Some sports use no anthem, including badminton and bowls.[98] Criticism that "Ireland's Call" was uninspiring prompted The Irish Times to commission a jocular "alternanthem" from The Duckworth Lewis Method for Saint Patrick's Day 2010.[131]

A recording of "O'Donnell Abú" was played for the Irish showjumping team at a 1937 competition in Paris; ambassador Art O'Brien threatened a diplomatic incident since the other teams' anthems had been played by a military band.[132] The organisers had been unable to locate a copy of the score, and the Irish embassy had only a piano arrangement.[132] The same air was chosen by the women's hockey team for a 1951 away match against the Netherlands.[133]

Arrangement[edit]

"Amhrán na bhFiann" is usually sung or played in march time. Different tempos may be used, however, and the verse and chorus are occasionally played. Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ), the Irish national broadcasting company, played an orchestral version in a slow tempo at the close of transmission from 1962 onwards.[134][135] This was produced by Gerard Victory and arranged by Brian Boydell on the advice of a Canadian consultant who said, "I wan’ it BIG! I envisage the kind of music that will stir the hearts of the Irish people".[135][134] Boydell disliked the tune.[134] A special arrangement incorporating traditional Irish instruments was played instead during Easter Week 1966, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rising.[136] At the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, when Michelle Smith won three gold medals in swimming, the verse and chorus were played in a lively tempo.

Lyrics[edit]

The lyrics are those of an Irish rebel song, exhorting all Irish people to participate in the struggle to end the hegemony ("despot" over "slave") of the English ("Saxon foe") in Ireland ("Inisfail"). There are allusions to earlier Irish rebellions, and to support from Irish Americans ("from a land beyond the wave").[137]

Slight variations exist in published versions; in the following texts, the chorus is from the 2018 Seanad report;[138] and the verses are based on National Anthems of the World (6th edition) with Irish spellings modernised to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil.[139]

Chorus[edit]

The chorus is the established National Anthem.

Irish version
"Amhrán na bhFiann"
English version
"Soldier's Song"
Chorus
Sinne Fianna Fáil,[fn 1] Soldiers are we,
atá faoi[fn 2] gheall ag Éireann, whose lives are pledged to Ireland,
Buíon dár slua Some have come
thar toinn do ráinig chugainn, from a land beyond the wave,
Faoi mhóid bheith saor Sworn to be free,
Seantír ár sinsear feasta, no more our ancient sireland,
Ní fhágfar faoin tíorán ná faoin tráill. Shall shelter the despot or the slave.
Anocht a théam sa bhearna bhaoil, Tonight we man the maw of danger,[fn 3]
Le gean ar Ghaeil, chun báis nó saoil,[fn 4] In Erin's cause, come woe or weal,
Le gunna-scréach faoi lámhach na bpiléar, 'Mid cannons' roar and rifles' peal,
Seo libh canaig'[fn 5] amhrán na bhFiann. We'll chant a soldier's song.
  1. ^ Literal translation: "We are the Warriors of Destiny"
  2. ^ faoi and faoin may be written and fén, respectively
  3. ^ Kearney's original, otherwise English, text, includes bearna baoil, Irish for "gap of danger".[140]
  4. ^ Literal translation: "For love of the Gael, towards death or life"
  5. ^ canaig' or canaidh is an archaic variant of canaigí

Original verses[edit]

The anthem consists only of the chorus of the song. The original has three verses, set to a slightly different tune, with the following lyrics:

Irish version English version
First verse
Seo dhíbh, a chairde, duan Ógláigh We'll sing a song, a soldier's song
Caithréimeach bríomhar ceolmhar With cheering rousing chorus
Ár dtinte cnámh go buacach táid As round our blazing fires we throng
'S an spéir go mín réaltógach The starry heavens o'er us
Is fonnmhar faobhrach sinn chun gleo Impatient for the coming fight
'S go tiúnmhar glé roimh thíocht don ló And as we await the morning's light
Fé chiúnas chaomh na hoíche ar seol Here in the silence of the night
Seo libh, canaídh Amhrán na bhFiann We'll chant a soldier's song
(Chorus)
Second verse
Cois bánta réidhe, ar ardaibh sléibhe In valley green, on towering crag
Ba bhuadhach ár sinsir romhainn Our fathers fought before us
Ag lámhach go tréan fén sárbhrat séin And conquered 'neath the same old flag
'Tá thuas sa ghaoth go seolta That's proudly floating o'er us
Ba dhúchas riamh dár gcine cháidh We're children of a fighting race
Gan iompáil siar ó imirt áir That never yet has known disgrace
'S ag siúl mar iad i gcoinne námhad And as we march, the foe to face
Seo libh, canaídh Amhrán na bhFiann We'll chant a soldier's song
(Chorus)
Third verse
A bhuíon nach fann d'fhuil Ghaeil is Gall Sons of the Gael! Men of the Pale!
Sin breacadh lae na saoirse The long-watched day is breaking
Tá sceimhle 's scanradh i gcroíthe námhad The serried ranks of Inisfail
Roimh ranna laochra ár dtíre Shall set the tyrant quaking
Ár dtinte is tréith gan spréach anois Our camp fires now are burning low
Sin luisne ghlé sa spéir anoir See in the east a silv'ry glow
'S an bíobha i raon na bpiléar agaibh Out yonder waits the Saxon foe
Seo libh, canaídh Amhrán na bhFiann So chant a soldier's song
(Chorus)

Extra verse[edit]

In the summer of 1937, probably motivated by the enactment of the Constitution of Ireland and its inclusion of Northern Ireland within the "national territory", Kearney wrote an extra verse "in answer to a request that the Irish of the Six North-Eastern Counties [i.e. Northern Ireland] could register a protest against the British-planned Partition of Ulster".[141] It was published in The Irish Press in 1938.[142] As of 1998, no recorded version included the extra verse,[141] which runs:[141][n 10]

And here where Eire's glories bide,
Clann London fain would flourish;
But Ulster-wide, whate'er betide,
No pirate blood[n 10] shall nourish;
While flames the faith of Con and Owen,
While Cave Hill guards the fame of Tone,
From Gullion's Slopes to Inishowen
We'll chant a Soldier's Song.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ While Sherry and de Burca[2] give 1907 as the date of composition, Peadar Kearney in an August 1926 affidavit gives the later date.[3]
  2. ^ The state did not win any medals, but "Let Erin Remember" was played before the football team's matches.[25]
  3. ^ The year 1959 is given by Sherry, citing minister Seán Ryan when introducing the 1965 change. However, Eoin O'Dell surmises that the change referred to was section 9 of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1957.[37][38]
  4. ^ The copyright in the Irish translation has also expired: either on 1 January 2014, being 70 years after Ó Rinn's death, or on 1 January 1974, being 50 years from its publication; the latter applies if Ó Rinn translated it in his capacity as a public servant.[43]
  5. ^ Originally Bill 19 of 2016;[44] reintroduced after that year's general election[43] as Bill 62 of 2016.[45]
  6. ^ An Camán was the joint official magazine of the GAA and Conradh na Gaeilge, an Irish-language organisation.[61]
  7. ^ The relevant law is section 25(5) of the Electoral Act 1992, as substituted by section 11 of the Electoral (Amendment) Act, 2001.[66]
  8. ^ Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in Ireland on which schools are closed.
  9. ^ Éamon de Valera regarded the phrase's untranslatability as a virtue.[93]
  10. ^ a b The version quoted in McGarry 2015 p.228 has slight differences of spelling; including "pirate brood" instead of "pirate blood".

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "National Anthem". Department of the Taoiseach "Youth Zone" web page. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  2. ^ a b de Burca 1957 p.52
  3. ^ a b c d Seanad Public Consultation Committee (5 December 2017). "Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem". Oireachtas Joint and Select Committees. KildareStreet.com. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  4. ^ de Burca 1957 pp.50–51
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Sherry, Ruth (Spring 1996). "The Story of the National Anthem". History Ireland. Dublin. 4 (1): 39–43.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Connell, Joseph E.A. (March–April 2013). "Countdown to 2016 : A Soldier's Song/ Amhrán na bhFiann". History Ireland. 21 (2).
  7. ^ de Burca 1957 pp.52–53
  8. ^ Gartland, Fiona (13 April 2006). "First draft of national anthem sells for €760,000". The Irish Times. p. 7. Retrieved 14 March 2009.; "LOT:342 : IRELAND'S NATIONAL ANTHEM Amhran na bhFiann". Auction: INDEPENDENCE 12 April 2006. Dublin: Adams. 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  9. ^ de Burca 1957 p.53
  10. ^ "EPH A213 : The soldier's song". Holdings. National Library of Ireland. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  11. ^ de Burca 1957 p.54
  12. ^ O'Connor, Batt (1929). With Michael Collins in The Fight for Irish Independence. Mill Street: Aubane Historical Society. pp. 68–70.
  13. ^ "MU-sb-1420: The soldier's song". Holdings. National Library of Ireland. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  14. ^ "'The Doctor, the Countess and the Organist' – 1916 tales from St John's Sandymount". United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2017. Cecil Grange MacDowell, who had been organist at St John’s, who changed his name to Cathal Mac Dubhghaill, forsook his unionist background, joined the rebellion and wrote the first arrangement of the National Anthem.
  15. ^ a b c de Burca 1957 pp.55–56
  16. ^ "The Musical Worlds of Victor Herbert". Online Exhibitions. Library of Congress. Arrangement of Irish Folk Tune. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  17. ^ "Soldiers Of Erin". Irish Fest Collection. irishsheetmusicarchives.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  18. ^ a b c Casey, Marion R. (January–February 2017). "Was Victor Herbert Irish?". History Ireland. 25 (1).
  19. ^ Robinson, Séamus. "Witness Stattement 1721" (PDF). Bureau of Military History. p. 66. Retrieved 5 February 2018. The Volunteers there were just wild because the Rebellion had come and gone and nothing had happened in proud Tipperary. What goaded the Volunteers more than anything else was the parody on "The Soldier's Song" which the British soldier elements used sing on the least provocation — "Soldiers are we, who nearly fought for Ireland".
  20. ^ a b c Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.32
  21. ^ a b c d Allen, Gregory (13 October 1984). "The National Anthem". The Irish Times. p. 19.
  22. ^ Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.417
  23. ^ Morris 1998 pp.76, 83
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Dudley Edwards, Owen (21 April 1976). "Choosing of the Irish Flag and Anthem". The Irish Times. p. 13.
  25. ^ Carey, Tadhg (July–August 2012). "Ireland's footballers at the Paris Olympics, 1924". History Ireland. 20 (4).
  26. ^ Morris 1998 p.77
  27. ^ a b Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.33
  28. ^ Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.35
  29. ^ a b c "Ceisteannea—Questions. Oral answers. – Saorstát National Anthem". Dáil Éireann – Volume 16. 20 July 1926. Retrieved 17 Nov 2017.
  30. ^ Morris 1998 p.76
  31. ^ a b Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.34
  32. ^ Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.31 fn.83
  33. ^ Ceisteanna—Questions. Oral Answers. – Playing of National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dáil Éireann – Volume 258 – 27 January 1972
  34. ^ a b Department of Finance (November 1933). Estimate of the amount required in the year ending 31st March, 1934, for the acquisition by the state of copyright in the national anthem (PDF). Official publications. P.1116. Stationery Office.
  35. ^ "Appropriation Act, 1934, Schedule 2". Irish Statute Book. 19 July 1934. No.75. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  36. ^ Written Answers. – National Anthem. Dáil Éireann – Volume 609 – 8 November 2005
  37. ^ O'Dell, Eoin (11 July 2016). "Copyright and the National Anthem; unravelling a tangled past, avoiding a gap of danger – I – The Soldier's Song". cearta.ie. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  38. ^ "Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1957, Section 9". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  39. ^ Committee on Finance. – Vote 18—Miscellaneous Expenses. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dáil Éireann – Volume 214 – 2 March 1965
  40. ^ Seanad Public Consultation Committee (6 October 2017). "Consultation on the Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem" (PDF). Oireachtas. p. 2. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  41. ^ a b c Dáil debates 3 May 2011 p.83
  42. ^ Bohan, Christine (27 January 2013). "It's official: copyright on the National Anthem has ended". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  43. ^ a b O’Dell,, Eoin (12 July 2016). "Copyright and the National Anthem; unravelling a tangled past, avoiding a gap of danger – II – Amhrán na bhFiann". cearta.ie. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  44. ^ "National Anthem (Protection of Copyright and Related Rights) (Amendment) Bill 2016 [Seanad] [PMB] (Number 19 of 2016)". Bills. Oireachtas. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  45. ^ "National Anthem Protection of Copyright and Related Rights (Amendment) (No. 2) Bill 2016 [Seanad] [PMB". Bills. Oireachtas. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  46. ^ a b c "Seanad Public Consultation Committee is seeking your views on the Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem". Oireachtas. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  47. ^ Morris 1998 pp.78–79
  48. ^ Morris 1998 p.79
  49. ^ Morris 1998 pp.79–80
  50. ^ Morris 1998 pp.85–86
  51. ^ Morris 1998 p.89
  52. ^ Ó Rinn, Liam (3 November 1923). "Aḃrán na ḃFian" (PDF). An t-Óglaċ (in Irish). Dublin. 1 NS (17): 13.
  53. ^ a b c "Coinneach" (3 April 1923). "Roinnt Versaiochta". Freeman's Journal (in Irish). p. 2.
  54. ^ "Aistritheoir". Bibliography (in Irish). Royal Irish Academy. Retrieved 14 March 2009.[dead link]
  55. ^ a b de Bréadún, Deaglán (27 February 1991). "Tuarascáil: Téacs 'Amhrán na bhFiann' in amhras fós". The Irish Times (in Irish). p. 13.
  56. ^ "Irish translation of "The soldiers' song.": Rosc catha na nÓglaoc [sic]". Catalogue. Dublin: Trinity College Library. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  57. ^ Ó Seireadáin, Cuan (17 July 2018). "Receipt No. 39" (PDF). Consultation on The Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem. pp. 82–83. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  58. ^ de Burca, Padraic (1924). "The soldier's song". In W. G. Fitzgerald. The voice of Ireland/Glór na hÉireann: a survey of the race and nation from all angles by the foremost leaders at home and abroad. Dublin, Manchester, London and Blackburn. pp. 151–153.
  59. ^ "Amhran na bhFiann". Connacht Sentinel (in Irish). 29 December 1931. p. 2.
  60. ^ Sherry 1998 p.39
  61. ^ O'Leary, Philip (1 July 2010). Gaelic Prose in the Irish Free State: 1922-1939. Penn State Press. p. 47. ISBN 9780271030104. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  62. ^ Ó Síochán, Seán (1 September 1984). "Individualistic style has disappeared". The Irish Times. p. 39.
  63. ^ a b
    • Facts about Ireland (1st ed.). Dublin: Department of External Affairs. 1963. p. 9. OCLC 560119029.
    • Facts about Ireland (2nd ed.). Dublin: Department of External Affairs. 1969. p. 13. OCLC 891463821.
  64. ^ a b
    • Facts about Ireland (4th ed.). Dublin: Department of Foreign Affairs. 1978. pp. 52–53. ISBN 9780906404003.
    • Facts about Ireland (5th ed.). Dublin: Department of Foreign Affairs. 1981. pp. 52–53. ISBN 9780906404102.
  65. ^ a b c Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018 p.18
  66. ^ "Electoral (Amendment) Act, 2001 s.11". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General of Ireland. 24 October 2001. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  67. ^ McGarry 2015 p.350
  68. ^ McDonnell, Gerry (15 January 2004). "[Letters to the Editor] ...and so is 'Off the Ball' column". Irish Independent. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  69. ^ Buckley, Geoffrey (23 October 1998). "The National Anthem". The Irish Times. p. 15.
  70. ^ Reid, Philip; John O'Sullivan (18 September 2004). "Oakland Hills Diary: Striking right note". The Irish Times. p. 31. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
  71. ^ Ó Cuív, Éamon (31 October 2004). "World heritage lost if Irish dies". Sunday Independent. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
  72. ^ Priority Questions. – Irish Language. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dáil Éireann – Volume 592 – 9 November 2004
  73. ^ a b Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018 p.27
  74. ^ Holmes, Michael; Storey, David (2011). "Transferring national allegiance: cultural affinity or flag of convenience?". Sport in Society. 14 (2): 253–271. doi:10.1080/17430437.2011.546550. ISSN 1743-0437.; Mulhall, James (24 September 2015). "A cheat's guide to learning to sing the Irish National Anthem". The Irish Post. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  75. ^ Purewal, Nick (29 January 2016). "'I learned the Irish National Anthem from Youtube clips' - CJ Stander excited to be part of Six Nations squad". Irish Independent. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  76. ^ Written Answers. – National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dáil Éireann – Volume 374 – 3 November 1987
  77. ^ Fianna Fáil (May 2007). "The Next Steps Forward to a Future that is Healthier, Fairer and More Inclusive; Education" (PDF). Now, The Next Steps. michaelpidgeon.com. p. 124. Retrieved 20 November 2017. Include the national anthem in the primary school curriculum, teach school children about the role and significance of our national flag, and instil in them respect for the place of other nations’ anthems and flags
  78. ^ "Scanlon reveals anthem for schools plan". The Sligo Champion. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  79. ^ National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (1999). "Social, personal and health education" (PDF). Primary School Curriculum. Dublin: Stationery Office. pp. 50, 55. ISBN 9780707663326. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  80. ^ "Written answers: Schools Administration". Dáil proceedings. KildareStreet.com. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  81. ^ a b O'Brien, Stephen (15 Oct 2017). "Fewer than half know Amhran na bhFiann". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  82. ^ a b c Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018 p.24
  83. ^ Dwyer, Ryle (26 March 2013). "A national anthem but how many could sing it?". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  84. ^ Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018 pp.24–25, 32–34
  85. ^ "The National Flag" (PDF). Department of the Taoiseach. 2016. p. 26, §§11.2, 12. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  86. ^ De Barra, Caoimhín (23 October 2017). "Opinion: 'Our indifference to our flag and anthem is actually healthy'". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  87. ^ "Seanad Public Consultation Committee to hold hearings on the National Anthem on Tuesday 5 December" (Press release). Oireachtas. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.; "Meeting of the Seanad Public Consultation Committee — Webcast Recording". Committee Debates. Oireachtas. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  88. ^ "Call for national anthem to be legally protected". RTÉ.ie. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  89. ^ Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018 p.19; "Protocols in relation to the use of the National Anthem should be introduced- Seanad Public Consultation Committee report" (Press release). Oireachtas. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  90. ^ McMorrow, Conor (17 July 2018). "Sign language version of National Anthem debuts". RTE.ie. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  91. ^ a b In Committee on Finance. – Vote 75—National Anthem. Dáil Éireann – Volume 50 – 22 November 1933
  92. ^ "Poetry: The splendid poet behind lacklustre Amhrán na bhFiann". Irish Independent. 10 April 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  93. ^ Garvin, Tom (2005-09-13). The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics: Irish Parties and Irish Politics from the 18th Century to Modern Times. Gill & Macmillan. p. 127. ISBN 9780717163892. Retrieved 1 November 2014. A final point in favour of the name was its very untranslatability, as de Valera remarked later with a smile, 'there was some virtue in that also.'
  94. ^ The Earl of Longford; Thomas P. O'Neill (1970). "Chapter 21". Éamon de Valera. Dublin. ISBN 978-0-09-104660-6.
  95. ^ Mulcahy, Richard (2 December 1958). "Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill, 1958—Second Stage (resumed)". Dáil Éireann – Volume 171. p. col.1316. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2009. Fianna Fáil, stemming from those years which we must regard as very unfortunate, slipping its hand into the "Soldier's Song", which became the National Anthem, and taking its name out of it so that school children and people who wanted to honour the country in the National Anthem, and wanted to cement the country's institutions, would be expected to sing "Sinne Fianna Fáil".
  96. ^ Cullen, Paul (5 May 2011). "Is it swansong for national anthem when copyright dies?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  97. ^ Dáil debates 11 May 2011 p.46, 31 January 2012 p.101
  98. ^ a b Sugden, John; Harvie, Scott (1995). "Chapter 3 : The Organisational Politics of Sport in Northern Ireland". Sport and Community Relations in Northern Ireland. Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict, University of Ulster. ISBN 1 85923 091 1.
  99. ^ a b "DUP minister seeks end to Irish anthem at GAA matches". Independent.ie. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  100. ^ Donohue, Laura K. (December 1998). "Regulating Northern Ireland: The Special Powers Acts, 1922-1972". The Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press. 41 (4): 1089–1120. JSTOR 3020863.
  101. ^ a b Moriarty, Gerry (30 January 2017). "NI secretary accused of snubbing Irish national anthem". The Irish Times. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  102. ^ "DUP leader attends Ulster GAA final". BBC News. 24 June 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  103. ^ Eyck, F. Gunther (1995). The Voice of Nations: European National Anthems and Their Authors. Contributions to the study of music and dance. 34. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313293207. ISSN 0193-9041.
  104. ^ Libraries Development. "Learning Zone > Secondary Students > CSPE > Irish National Anthem". AskAboutIreland. Local Government Management Agency. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  105. ^ a b Myers, Kevin. "We do not have a settled identity for our anthem". Irish Independent. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  106. ^ Kinealy, Christine (April–May 2016). "Time to Say Goodbye to the Irish National Anthem?". Irish America. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  107. ^ Smyth, Gerry (7 October 2012). "What's the point of our national anthem today?". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  108. ^ Logue, Paddy (2000). Being Irish: personal reflections on Irish identity today. Oak Tree Press. p. 186. ISBN 9781860762017.
  109. ^ a b Kenny, John (14 March 2009). "A Tale of Cloister and Heart. [Review of The Love of Sisters, by Eugene McCabe]" (PDF). The Irish Times. Weekend p.10. Retrieved 14 September 2014. McCabe himself occasionally falters – ... the sentiment of Amhrán na bhFiann hardly constitutes "Anglophobia" exactly.
  110. ^ a b
  111. ^ Oral Answers. – The National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dáil Éireann – Volume 44 – 16 November 1932
  112. ^ Written Answers. – National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dáil Éireann – Volume 429 – 8 April 1993
  113. ^ Written Answers. – National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dáil Éireann – Volume 457 – 17 October 1995
  114. ^ Ceisteanna–Questions. – Northern Ireland Issues. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dáil Éireann – Volume 526 – 22 November 2000
  115. ^ Morris 1998 p.88
  116. ^ Dowling, Brian (11 August 1998). "Threatening to sound death knell for the Angelus bell". Irish Independent. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  117. ^ Dowling, Brian (11 August 1998). "Drop the Angelus and axe anthem". Irish Independent. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  118. ^ Finlay, Fergus (20 February 2007). "God Save the Queen not nearly as bloodthirsty as our outdated anthem". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  119. ^ McGarry 2015 pp.350–351
  120. ^ Alter, Peter (1974). "Symbols of Irish Nationalism". Studia Hibernica. Liverpool University Press (14): 104–123 : 109–111, 118–119. JSTOR 20496051.
  121. ^ Lenihan 2016 p.70
  122. ^ Lenihan 2016 p.82; Cronin, Mike (7 May 2007). "Rugby globalisation and Irish identity". In Maguire, Joseph. Power and Global Sport: Zones of Prestige, Emulation and Resistance. Routledge. pp. 122–124. ISBN 9781134527274. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  123. ^ "France-Ireland rugby match : from Sean Murphy to Count Gerald O'Kelly de Gallagh". Documents on Irish Foreign Policy. Royal Irish Academy. 16 December 1930. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  124. ^ Lenihan 2016 pp.82–86; Glennon, Jim (4 September 2011). "It's a different world since it all began in 1987". Sunday Independent. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  125. ^ Lenihan 2016 p.86
  126. ^ Rouse, Paul (2015-10-08). Sport and Ireland: A History. OUP Oxford. p. 360. ISBN 9780191063039. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  127. ^ a b "Should the Irish players be singing Amhrán na bhFiann at the World Cup in New Zealand?". Irish Examiner. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  128. ^ "Rugby international sparks anthem row at Ravenhill". The News Letter. Belfast. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  129. ^ Clerkin, Malachy (31 January 2015). "Ireland's Call: standing tall for 20 years". The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  130. ^ Doherty, Conan (6 August 2016). "Serious confusion over Ireland's national anthem for Rio hockey opener". SportsJOE.ie. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  131. ^ Carroll, Jim (16 March 2010). ""Ireland, Ireland!" – a new national anthem". The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  132. ^ a b "National Anthem from Art O'Brien to Joseph P. Walshe". Documents on Irish Foreign Policy. Royal Irish Academy. 14 May 1937. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  133. ^ Moore, Cormac (2017). "Partition in Irish Sport during the 1950s". In Dolan, Paddy; Connolly, John. Sport and National Identities: Globalization and Conflict. Routledge. ISBN 9781315519111. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  134. ^ a b c Mawe, Shane. "The Soldier's Song". Changed Utterly: Ireland and the Easter Rising. Dublin: Trinity College Library. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  135. ^ a b "National Anthem New Year's Eve". RTÉ Archives. RTÉ.ie. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  136. ^ "War and Conflict : Amhrán na bhFiann". RTÉ Archives. RTÉ.ie. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  137. ^ Williams, W. H. A. (1996). 'Twas only an Irishman's dream: the image of Ireland and the Irish in American popular song lyrics, 1800–1920. University of Illinois Press. p. 187. ISBN 0-252-06551-4.
  138. ^ Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018 p.29
  139. ^ Reed, W.L.; Bristow, M.J., eds. (1985). National Anthems of the World (6th ed.). Poole: Blandford Press. pp. 234–237. ISBN 0713715251.
  140. ^ Victor Meally, ed. (1968). Encyclopaedia of Ireland. A. Figgis. p. 172.
  141. ^ a b c de Burca 1957 p.246; Sherry 1998 p.49
  142. ^ McGarry 2015 p.367: Chapter 15, fn.48

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]