Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Pete Docter|
|Produced by||Darla K. Anderson|
|Screenplay by||Andrew Stanton
|Story by||Pete Docter
|Music by||Randy Newman|
|Edited by||Robert Grahamjones
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Pictures|
|Box office||$577.4 million|
Monsters, Inc. is a 2001 American computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Featuring the voices of John Goodman, Billy Crystal, Steve Buscemi, James Coburn and Jennifer Tilly, the film was directed by Pete Docter at his directorial debut, co-directed by Lee Unkrich and David Silverman, and executive produced by John Lasseter and Andrew Stanton.
The film centers on two monsters employed at the titular Monsters, Inc.: top scarer James P. "Sulley" Sullivan (John Goodman) and his one-eyed partner and best friend Mike Wazowski (Billy Crystal). Monsters, Inc. employees generate their city's power by targeting and scaring children, but they are themselves afraid that the children may contaminate them; when one child enters Monstropolis, Mike and Sulley must return her.
Docter began developing the film in 1996 and wrote the story with Jill Culton, Jeff Pidgeon, and Ralph Eggleston. Fellow Pixar director Andrew Stanton wrote the screenplay with screenwriter Daniel Gerson. The characters went through many incarnations over the film's five-year production process. The technical team and animators found new ways to render fur and cloth realistically for the film. Randy Newman, who composed the music for Pixar's three prior films, returned to compose its fourth.
Monsters, Inc. was praised by critics and proved to be a major box office success from its release on November 2, 2001, generating over $577 million worldwide. Monsters, Inc. saw a 3D re-release in theaters on December 19, 2012. Twelve years later, a prequel, Monsters University, directed by Dan Scanlon, was released on June 21, 2013.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Voice cast
- 3 Production
- 4 Release
- 5 Reception
- 6 Music
- 7 Lawsuits
- 8 Prequel
- 9 Other media
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
The parallel city of Monstropolis is inhabited entirely by monsters and is powered by electricity which is generated from the screams of human children. At the Monsters, Inc. factory, skilled individuals called "scarers" access the human world through closet doors in children's bedrooms, to scare the children, and harvest their screams. It is considered dangerous work, as human children are believed to be "toxic" to monsters. Energy production is falling because children are becoming more difficult to scare, and company chairman, Henry J. Waternoose, is determined to find a solution. James P. "Sulley" Sullivan is the organization's top scarer, but is engaged in a fierce rivalry with the chameleon-like monster, Randall Boggs.
One day, Sulley discovers that Randall left a door activated on the scare floor, and a small girl has entered the factory. After desperate failed attempts to put her back, Sulley takes her home. His best friend, Mike Wazowski, is on a date with his girlfriend, Celia, and chaos erupts when the child is discovered. Sulley and Mike escape the Child Detection Agency (CDA) and discover that the little girl is actually not toxic. Sulley grows attached to her and names her "Boo". They smuggle her into the factory in an attempt to send her home. Randall, discovering Boo, tries to kidnap her, but instead kidnaps Mike. Randall reveals that he has built a large machine named "The Scream Extractor" in an attempt to extract all possible screams out of captured human children to help avert the company's production problems. Randall straps Mike to the machine, but Sulley unplugs it and reports Randall to Waternoose. However, Waternoose is secretly in league with Randall and instead exiles Mike and Sulley to the Himalayas. The two are taken in by a Yeti, who tells them about a nearby village which can enable them to return to the factory. Sulley heads out, but a frustrated Mike refuses to follow. Meanwhile, Randall straps Boo to the Scream Extractor, but Sulley saves her by destroying the machine. Waternoose sends Randall to capture Sulley. As Mike returns to reconcile, Sulley temporarily incapacitates Randall and flees with Mike and Boo.
Randall pursues them as they speed through the factory, riding on the doors that are heading into a giant vault where millions of doors are stored. Boo's laughter activates the doors, which allows the pursuit to pass in and out of the human world. Randall attempts to kill Sulley, but Boo attacks him. Sulley and Mike exile Randall into the human world, where two residents at a trailer park beat him with a shovel. Sulley and Mike find Boo's door, but Waternoose sends it back to the Scarefloor. While Mike distracts the CDA, Sulley confronts Waternoose, who reveals that he is working with Randall to kidnap kids and use the Scream Extractor to keep the company from going out of business and to stop its failing energy production. The CDA arrests him after discovering the recorded confession. The CDA's leader is revealed to be Roz, who has worked undercover for two-and-a-half years, trying to expose Waternoose's plot. Sulley and Mike say goodbye to Boo and return her home as her door is subsequently shredded to prevent any more escapes.
With the factory shut down, Sulley is named as the new CEO of Monsters, Inc. He subsequently ends the company's energy crisis by making the monsters enter children's bedrooms to make them laugh, as laughter is ten times more powerful than screams. Mike takes Sulley aside, revealing he has rebuilt Boo's door, and only needs one more piece, which Sulley took as a memento. Sulley enters and happily reunites with Boo.
- John Goodman as James P. "Sulley" Sullivan, a large, furry blue monster with horns and purple spots. Even though Sulley excels at scaring children, he is kindhearted and thoughtful by nature. At the film's beginning, Sulley has been the "Best Scarer" at Monsters, Inc. for several months running.
- Billy Crystal as Michael "Mike" Wazowski, a short, round green monster with a single big eyeball and skinny limbs. Mike is Sulley's station runner and coach on the scare floor, and the two are close friends and roommates. Mike is charming and generally the more organized of the two, but is prone to neurotics and his ego sometimes leads him astray. He is dating Celia Mae, who calls him "Googly-Bear". He makes cameo appearances in Finding Nemo, Cars, WALL-E, and Toy Story 3.
- Mary Gibbs as Mary "Boo", a three-year-old human girl who is unafraid of any monster except Randall, the scarer assigned to her door. She believes Sulley is a large cat and refers to him as "Kitty". The book based on the film gives Boo's "real" name as Mary Gibbs, the name of her voice actress. In the film, one of Boo's drawings is covered with the name "Mary".
- Steve Buscemi as Randall Boggs, a purple eight-legged lizard monster with a chameleon-like ability to change skin color and blend in completely with his surroundings. He is a snide and preening character who makes himself a rival to Mike and Sulley in scream collection.
- James Coburn as Henry J. Waternoose, an arthropodic monster with a crab-like lower body. Waternoose is the CEO of Monsters, Inc., a job passed down through his family for three generations. He acts as a mentor to Sulley, holding great faith in him as a scarer.
- Jennifer Tilly as Celia Mae, a gorgon-like monster with one eye and tentacle-like legs. Celia is the receptionist for Monsters, Inc. and Mike's girlfriend.
- Bob Peterson as Roz, a slug-like monster with a raspy voice reminiscent of Selma Diamond's who administrates for Scarefloor F where Sulley, Mike, and Randall work. At the end of the movie, it is revealed that Roz is the "number 1" agent of the CDA, and has worked undercover at Monsters, Inc. for about 2 years.
- John Ratzenberger as Yeti aka. The Abominable Snowman, a furry white monster who was banished to the Himalayas. He was inspired by the Abominable Snowman from the 1964 Rankin/Bass animated special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.
- Frank Oz as Jeff Fungus, Randall's red-skinned, three-eyed assistant. He is generally incompetent and is often bullied by Randall.
- Dan Gerson as Smitty and Needleman, two goofy adolescent monsters with cracking voices who work as janitors and operate the Door Shredder when required. The pair of them idolize Sulley and are generally seen as a nuisance by Mike.
- Steve Susskind as Jerry Slugworth, a red seven-fingered monster who manages Scare Floor F and is a good friend of Waternoose.
- Bonnie Hunt as Ms. Flint, a female monster who trains new monsters to scare children.
- Jeff Pidgeon as Thaddeus "Phlegm" Bile, a trainee scarer for Monsters, Inc.
- Samuel Lord Black as George Sanderson, a chubby, oranged-furred monster with a sole horn on top of his head. A running gag throughout the film involves George repeatedly making contact with artifacts of human clothing (socks and the like cling to his fur via static), which prompts his scare coach to trigger "23–19" incidents with the CDA resulting in him mobbed and shaved bald.
- Phil Proctor as Charlie, George's assistant with sea-green skin and tendrils for limbs. He is friends with George, Mike, and Sulley but is quick to call the CDA on his scarer at the drop of a hat.
- Joe Ranft as Pete "Claws" Ward, a blue monster with razor-sharp claws and horrifying breath.
The idea for Monsters, Inc. was conceived in a lunch in 1994 attended by John Lasseter, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton and Joe Ranft during the production of Toy Story. One of the ideas that came out of the brainstorming session was a film about monsters. "When we were making Toy Story", Docter said, "everybody came up to me and said 'Hey, I totally believed that my toys came to life when I left the room.' So when Disney asked us to do some more films, I wanted to tap into a childlike notion that was similar to that. I knew monsters were coming out of my closet when I was a kid. So I said, 'Hey, let's do a film about monsters.'"
Docter began work on the film that would become Monsters, Inc. in 1996 while others focused on A Bug's Life (1998) and Toy Story 2 (1999). Its code name was Hidden City, named for Docter's favorite restaurant in Point Richmond. By early-February 1997, Docter had drafted a treatment together with Harley Jessup, Jill Culton, and Jeff Pidgeon that bore some resemblance to the final film. Docter pitched the story to Disney with some initial artwork on February 4 that year. He and his story team left with some suggestions in hand and returned to pitch a refined version of the story on May 30. At this pitch meeting, longtime Disney animator Joe Grant – whose work stretched back to Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) – suggested the title Monsters, Inc., a play on the title of a gangster film Murder, Inc., which stuck.
Docter's initial concept for the film went through many changes, but he found the notion of monsters living in their own world to be an appealing and workable one. His original idea featured a 30-year-old man dealing with monsters that he drew in a book as a child coming back to bother him as an adult. Each monster represented a fear he had, and conquering those fears caused the monsters eventually to disappear.
After Docter scrapped the initial concept of a 30-year-old terrified of monsters, he decided on a buddy story between a monster and a child titled simply Monsters, in which the monster character of Sulley (known at this stage as Johnson) was an up-and-comer at his workplace, where the company's purpose was to scare children. Sulley's eventual sidekick, Mike Wazowski, had not yet been added.
Between 1996 and 2000, the lead monster and child went through radical changes as the story evolved. As the story continued to develop, the child varied in age and gender. Ultimately, the story team decided that a girl would be the best counterpart for a furry, 8 feet (96 in) tall co-star. After a girl was settled upon, the character continued to undergo changes, at one point being from Ireland and at another time being an African-American character. Originally the character of the little girl, known as Mary, became a fearless seven-year-old who has been toughened by years of teasing and pranks from four older brothers. In stark contrast, Johnson is nervous about the possibility of losing his job after the boss at Monsters, Inc. announces a downsizing is on the way. He feels envious because another scarer, Ned (who later became Randall), is the company's top performer. Through various drafts, Johnson's occupation went back-and-forth from being a scarer and from working in another area of the company such as a janitor or a refinery worker, until his final incarnation as the best scarer at Monsters, Inc. Johnson was originally planned to have tentacles for feet; however, this caused many problems in early animation tests. The idea was later largely rejected, as it was thought that audiences would be distracted by the tentacles. Mary's age also differed from draft to draft until the writers settled on the age of 3. "We found that the younger she was, the more dependent she was on Sulley", Docter said.
Eventually Johnson was renamed Sullivan. The name was suggested by an animator who had attended Texas A&M University, inspired by one of Texas A&M's historic icons, Lawrence Sullivan Ross, nicknamed "Sulley" by students. Sullivan was also planned to wear glasses throughout the film. However, the creators found it a dangerous idea because the eyes were a perfectly readable and clear way of expressing a character's personality; thus, the idea was rejected.
The idea of a monster buddy for the lead monster emerged at an April 6, 1998 "story summit" in Burbank with employees from Disney and Pixar. A term coined by Lasseter, a "story summit" was a crash exercise that would yield a finished story in only two days. Such a character, the group agreed, would give the lead monster someone to talk to about his predicament. Development artist Ricky Nierva drew a concept sketch of a rounded, one-eyed monster as a concept for the character, and everyone was generally receptive to it. Docter named the character Mike for the father of his friend Frank Oz, a director and Muppet performer. Jeff Pidgeon and Jason Katz story-boarded a test in which Mike helps Sulley choose a tie for work, and Mike Wazowski soon became a vital character in the film. Originally, Mike had no arms and had to use his legs as appendages; however, due to some technical difficulties, arms were soon added to him.
Screenwriter Dan Gerson joined Pixar in 1999 and worked on the film with the filmmakers on a daily basis for almost two years. He considered it his first experience in writing a feature film. He explained, "I would sit with Pete [Docter] and David Silverman and we would talk about a scene and they would tell me what they were looking for. I would make some suggestions and then go off and write the sequence. We'd get together again and review it and then hand it off to a story artist. Here's where the collaborative process really kicked in. The board artist was not beholden to my work and could take liberties here and there. Sometimes, I would suggest an idea about making the joke work better visually. Once the scene moved on to animation, the animators would plus the material even further."
Bill Murray was considered for the voice role of James P. "Sulley" Sullivan. He screen tested for the role and was interested, but when Pete Docter was unable to make contact with him, he took it as a "no". The voice role of Sulley went to John Goodman, the longtime co-star of the comedy series Roseanne and a regular in the films of the Coen brothers. Goodman interpreted the character to himself as the monster equivalent of a National Football League player. "He's like a seasoned lineman in the tenth year of his career," he said at the time. "He is totally dedicated and a total pro." Billy Crystal, having regretted turning down the part of Buzz Lightyear years prior, accepted that of Mike Wazowski, Sulley's one-eyed best friend and scare assistant. The casting of Steve Buscemi as Randall, Sulley's rival, saw a reunion between himself and John Goodman; they had previously worked together on The Big Lebowski and Barton Fink.
In November 2000, early in the production of Monsters, Inc., Pixar packed up and moved for the second time since its Lucasfilm years. The company's approximately 500 employees had become spread among three buildings, separated by a busy highway. The company moved from Point Richmond to a much bigger campus, co-designed by Lasseter and Steve Jobs, in Emeryville.
In production, Monsters Inc. differed from earlier Pixar features in that each main character had its own lead animator — John Kahrs on Sulley, Andrew Gordon on Mike, and Dave DeVan on Boo. Kahrs found that the "bearlike quality" of Goodman's voice provided an exceptionally good fit with the character. He faced a difficult challenge, however, in dealing with Sulley's sheer mass; traditionally, animators conveyed a figure's heaviness by giving it a slower, more belabored movement, but Kahrs was concerned that such an approach to a central character would give the film a sluggish feel. Like Goodman, Kahrs came to think of Sulley as a football player, one whose athleticism enabled him to move quickly in spite of his size. To help the animators with Sulley and other large monsters, Pixar arranged for Rodger Kram, a University of California, Berkeley expert on the locomotion of heavy mammals, to lecture on the subject.
Adding to Sulley's lifelike appearance was an intense effort by the technical team to refine the rendering of fur. Other production houses had tackled realistic fur, most notably Rhythm & Hues in its 1993 polar bear commercials for Coca-Cola and in its talking animals' faces in Babe (1995). Monsters, Inc., however, required fur on a far larger scale. From the standpoint of Pixar's engineers, the quest for fur posed several significant challenges. One was figuring out how to animate the huge numbers of hairs – 2,320,413 on Sulley – in a reasonably efficient way. Another was making sure the hairs cast shadows on other hairs. Without self-shadowing, fur or hair takes on an unrealistic flat-colored look. (The hair on Andy's toddler sister, as seen in the opening sequence of Toy Story, is an example of hair without self-shadowing.)
The first fur test had Sullivan run an obstacle course. Results were not satisfactory, as objects would catch the fur and stretch it out because of the extreme amount of motion. Another similar test was also unsuccessful, with the fur going through the objects.
Eventually, Pixar set up a Simulation department and created a new fur simulation program called Fizt (short for "physics tool"). After a shot with Sulley had been animated, the Simulation department took the data for the shot and added his fur. Fizt allowed the fur to react in a natural way. When Sulley moved, the fur would automatically react to his movements, taking into account the effects of wind and gravity as well. The Fizt program also controlled movement on Boo's clothing, which provided another breakthrough. The deceptively simple-sounding task of animating cloth was also a challenge to animate because of the hundreds of creases and wrinkles that automatically occurred in the clothing when the wearer moved. It also meant solving the complex problem of how to keep cloth untangled – that is, how to keep it from passing through itself when parts of it intersect. Fizt applied the same system to Boo's clothes as to Sulley's fur. Boo would first be animated shirtless; the Simulation department then used Fizt to apply the shirt over Boo's body, and when she moved, her clothes would react to her movements in a natural manner.
To solve the problem of cloth-to-cloth collisions, Michael Kass, Pixar's senior scientist, was joined on Monsters, Inc. by David Baraff and Andrew Witkin and developed an algorithm they called "global intersection analysis" to handle the problem. The complexity of the shots in Monsters, Inc. – including elaborate sets such as the door vault – required more computing power to render than any of Pixar's earlier efforts combined. The render farm in place for Monsters, Inc. was made up of 3500 Sun Microsystems processors, compared with 1400 for Toy Story 2 and only 200 for Toy Story.
The film premiered on October 28, 2001 at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California. It was theatrically released on November 2, 2001 in the United States, in Australia on December 26, 2001, and in the United Kingdom on February 8, 2002. The theatrical release was accompanied with the Pixar short animated film For the Birds. As in A Bug's Life and Toy Story 2, a montage of "outtakes" and a performance of the company play were made and included in the end credits of the film sometime later. After the success of the 3D re-release of The Lion King, Disney and Pixar re-released Monsters, Inc. in 3D on December 19, 2012.
Monsters, Inc. ranked number 1 at the box office on its opening weekend, grossing $62,577,067 in North America alone. The film had a small drop-off of 27.2% over its second weekend, earning another $45,551,028. In its third weekend, the film experienced a larger decline of 50.1%, placing itself in the second position just after Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. In its fourth weekend, however, there was an increase of 5.9%, making $24,055,001 that weekend for a combined total of over $525 million. As of May 2013, it is the eighth-biggest fourth weekend ever for a film.
The film made $289,916,256 in North America, and $287,509,478 in other territories, for a worldwide total of $577,425,734. The film is Pixar's ninth highest-grossing film worldwide and sixth in North America. For a time, the film surpassed Toy Story 2 as the second highest-grossing animated film of all time, only behind 1994's The Lion King.
In the U.K., Ireland, and Malta, it earned £37,264,502 ($53,335,579) in total, marking the sixth highest-grossing animated film of all time in the country and the thirty-second highest-grossing film of all time. In Japan, although earning $4,471,902 during its opening and ranking second behind The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring for the weekend, it moved to first place on subsequent weekends due to exceptionally small decreases or even increases and dominated for six weeks at the box office. It finally reached $74,437,612, standing as 2001's third highest-grossing film and the third largest U.S. animated feature of all time in the country behind Toy Story 3 and Finding Nemo.
Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 96% based on 192 reviews, with an average score of 8/10. The critical consensus was: "Clever, funny, and delightful to look at, Monsters, Inc. delivers another resounding example of how Pixar elevated the bar for modern all-ages animation." Another review aggregator, Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 top reviews from mainstream critics, calculated a score of 78 based on 34 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews."
Charles Taylor from Salon.com stated: "It's agreeable and often funny, and adults who take their kids to see it might be surprised to find themselves having a pretty good time." Elvis Mitchell from The New York Times gave a positive review, praising the film's use of "creative energy": "There hasn't been a film in years to use creative energy as efficiently as Monsters, Inc." Although Mike Clark from USA Today thought the comedy was sometimes "more frenetic than inspired and viewer emotions are rarely touched to any notable degree," he thought the film to be as "visually inventive as its Pixar predecessors."
ReelViews film critic James Berardinelli, who gave the film 31⁄2 stars out of 4, wrote that Monsters, Inc. was "one of those rare family films that parents can enjoy (rather than endure) along with their kids." Roger Ebert, film critic from Chicago Sun-Times, who gave the film 3 out of 4 stars, called the film "cheerful, high-energy fun, and like the other Pixar movies, has a running supply of gags and references aimed at grownups." Lisa Schwarzbaum, a film critic for Entertainment Weekly, giving the film a B, praised the film's animation, stating "Everything from Pixar Animation Studios, the snazzy, cutting-edge computer animation outfit, looks really, really terrific, and unspools with a liberated, heppest-moms-and-dads-on-the-block iconoclasm."
Monsters, Inc. won the Academy Award for Best Original Song (Randy Newman, after fifteen previous nominations, for If I Didn't Have You). It was one of the first animated films to be nominated for Best Animated Feature (lost to Shrek). It was also nominated for Best Original Score (lost to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring) and Best Sound Editing (lost to Pearl Harbor). At the Kid's Choice Awards in 2002, it was nominated for "Favorite Voice in an Animated Movie" for Billy Crystal (who lost to Eddie Murphy in Shrek).
|Soundtrack album by Randy Newman|
|Released||October 23, 2001|
|Randy Newman chronology|
|Pixar soundtrack chronology|
The album was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Score and a Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media. The score lost both these awards to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, but after sixteen nominations, the song "If I Didn't Have You" finally won Newman his first Academy Award for Best Original Song. It also won a Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media.
All tracks written by Randy Newman.
|1.||"If I Didn't Have You" (performed by Billy Crystal and John Goodman)||3:41|
|4.||"Walk to Work"||3:29|
|5.||"Sulley and Mike"||1:57|
|7.||"Enter the Heroes"||1:03|
|8.||"The Scare Floor"||2:41|
|10.||"Boo's Adventures in Monstropolis"||6:23|
|12.||"Putting Boo Back"||2:22|
|15.||"Boo Is a Cube"||2:19|
|16.||"Mike's in Trouble"||2:19|
|17.||"The Scream Extractor"||2:12|
|18.||"Sulley Scares Boo"||1:10|
|21.||"The Ride of the Doors"||5:08|
|22.||"Waternoose is Waiting"||3:14|
|23.||"Boo's Going Home"||3:34|
|25.||"If I Didn't Have You" (performed by Newman)||3:38|
|US Top Soundtracks (Billboard)||25|
Shortly before the film's release, Pixar was sued by children's songwriter Lori Madrid of Wyoming, stating that the company had stolen her ideas from her 1997 poem "There's a Boy in My Closet."
Madrid mailed her poem to six publishers in October 1999, notably Chronicle Books, before turning it into a local stage musical in August 2001. After seeing the trailer for Monsters, Inc., Madrid concluded that Chronicle Books had passed her work to Pixar and that the film was based on her work. In October 2001, she filed the suit against Chronicle Books, Pixar, and Disney in a federal court in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Her lawyer asked the court to issue a preliminary injunction, that would forbid Pixar and Disney from releasing the film while the suit was pending.
In a hearing on November 1, 2001 – the day before the film's scheduled release on 5,800 screens in 3,200 theaters across the country – the judge refused to issue the injunction. On June 26, 2002, he ruled that the film had nothing in common with the poem.
In November 2002, Stanley Mouse filed a lawsuit, in which he alleged that the characters of Mike and Sulley were based on drawings of Excuse My Dust, a film that he had tried to sell to Hollywood in 1998. The lawsuit also stated that a story artist from Pixar visited Mouse in 2000, and discussed Mouse's work with him. A Disney spokeswoman responded, by saying that the characters in Monsters, Inc. were "developed independently by the Pixar and Walt Disney Pictures creative teams, and do not infringe on anyone's copyrights". The case was ultimately settled under undisclosed terms.
A prequel, titled Monsters University, was released on June 21, 2013. John Goodman, Billy Crystal, and Steve Buscemi reprised their roles of Sulley, Mike, and Randall, while Dan Scanlon directed the film. The prequel's plot focuses on Sulley and Mike's studies at Monsters University, where they start off as rivals but soon become best friends.
An animated short, Mike's New Car, was made by Pixar in 2002 in which the two main characters have assorted misadventures with a car Mike has just bought. This film was not screened in theaters, but is included with all home video releases of Monsters, Inc., and on Pixar's Dedicated Shorts DVD. In August 2002, a manga version of Monsters, Inc. was made by Hiromi Yamafuji and distributed in Kodansha's Comic Bon Bon magazine in Japan; the manga was published in English by Tokyopop until it went out of print. A series of video games, including a multi-platform video game were created based on the film. The video games included Monsters, Inc., Monsters, Inc. Scream Team and Monsters, Inc. Scream Arena. A game titled Monsters, Inc. Run was released on the App Store for iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad on December 13, 2012.
Feld Entertainment toured a Monsters, Inc. edition of their Walt Disney's World on Ice skating tour from 2003 to 2007. Monsters, Inc. has inspired three attractions at Disney theme parks around the world. In 2006 Monsters, Inc. Mike & Sulley to the Rescue! opened at Disneyland Resort's Disney California Adventure in Anaheim, California. In 2007, Monsters, Inc. Laugh Floor opened at Walt Disney World Resort's Magic Kingdom in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, replacing The Timekeeper. The show is improvisational in nature, and features the opportunity for Guests to interact with the monster comedians and submit jokes of their own via text message. In 2009 Monsters, Inc. Ride & Go Seek opened at Tokyo Disney Resort's Tokyo Disneyland in Chiba, Japan.
In 2009, Boom! Studios produced a Monsters Inc. comic book mini-series that ran for four issues. The storyline takes place after the movie and focuses on Sulley and Mike's daily struggles to operate Monsters Inc. on its new laughter-focused company policy. At the same time, their work is impeded by the revenge schemes of Randall and Waternoose, as well as a human child (indirectly revealed to be Sid Phillips from the Toy Story franchise) who has hijacked the company's closet door technology to commit a string of toy thefts throughout the human world.
- "Detail view of Movies Page". afi.com.
- "Monsters, Inc. (2001) – Box Office Mojo".
- Corliss, Richard (June 13, 2013). "Pixar's Monsters University: When Hairy Met Scary". Time. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Veltman, Chloe (December 31, 2001). "Fun factory". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on September 27, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Cohen, Karl (October 26, 2001). "Monsters, Inc.: The Secret Behind Why Pixar Is So Good". Animated World Network. Archived from the original on September 15, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- "Monsters, Inc. (2001)". British Film Institute. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Nusair, David. "Top 5 John Ratzenberger Roles in Pixar Films". About.com. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
Abominable. Can you believe that? Do I look abominable to you? Why can't they call me the Adorable Snowman, or the Agreeable Snowman, for crying out loud? I'm a nice guy.
- Brown, Scott (November 9, 2001). "The moments you missed in Monsters, Inc.". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 27, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Price, p. 157
- Monsters Inc., 2002 DVD, commentary
- Price, p. 195
- Ziebarth, Christian (July 1, 2005). "Joe Grant Life Celebration". Animation World Network. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- Price, p. 197
- "Monsters Inc: Production Notes". Culture.com. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
- Davis, Erik (November 13, 2009). "The Original Pitch for 'Monsters, Inc.'". Cinematical. Archived from the original on August 8, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- Price, p. 196
- Early Tests. Commentary by Thomas Porter, Steve May and Michael Fong, Monsters Inc. 2002 DVD.
- Price, p. 180
- Farr, John (September 19, 2014). "Bill Murray and the Roles That Got Away". Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Evans, Bradford (February 17, 2011). "The Lost Roles of Bill Murray". Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Price, p. 198
- Fischer, Paul. "Billy Crystal – Cranky Critic StarTalk". Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- Pearlman, Cindy (October 28, 2001). "Crystal clear on 'Monsters'" (Fee required). Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
- Price, p. 199
- Price, p. 200
- 2002, Monsters Inc, DVD-Behind the Scenes
- Price, p. 201
- "World Premiere of Disney/Pixar's MONSTERS, INC.". The Free Library. October 28, 2001. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Monsters, Inc. | UK Cinema Release Date". Filmdates.co.uk. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Linder, Brian (February 13, 2002). "Oscar Spotlight: Animated Short Film". IGN. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- Smith, Grady (October 4, 2011). "'Beauty and the Beast,' 'The Little Mermaid,' 'Finding Nemo,' 'Monsters, Inc.' get 3-D re-releases". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Disney Moves Up 'Monsters Inc 3D' To December". Deadline. July 24, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "The Most Anticipated Monster Movie Hit Comes to DVD and VHS". Pixar. March 1, 2002. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- McCutcheon, David (August 10, 2009). "Monsters, Inc. Founded". IGN. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Monsters, Inc. - 3D: Ultimate Collector's Edition". High-Def Digest. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- "Monsters, Inc. – Weekend Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "Top Weekends: 2nd – 12th – Weekend Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "Pixar Movies at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "United Kingdom and Ireland and Malta Box Office Index". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
- "Japan Yearly Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
- "Monsters, Inc. Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- "Monsters, Inc. reviews at Metacritic.com". Metacritic. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Taylor, Charles (November 2, 2001). "Monsters, Inc: The new animated feature from Pixar has too much Disney pap and not enough Gothic.". Salon. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Mitchell, Elvis (November 2, 2001). "Monsters of Childhood With Feelings and Agendas". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Clark, Mike (November 5, 2001). "'Monsters, Inc.' yields dividends". USA Today. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Berardinelli, James. "Monsters, Inc. – A movie review by James Berardinelli". Reelviews.net. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Ebert, Roger (November 2, 2001). "Monsters, Inc.". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Lisa Schwarzbaum (November 9, 2001). "Monsters, Inc.". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- "Monsters-Inc- - Cast, Crew, Director and Awards". The New York Times. October 20, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Phares, Heather.Monsters, Inc. (An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack). AllMusic.
- Freer, Ian. Monsters, Inc. Soundtrack review. Empire.
- Monsters, Inc. (Randy Newman). Filmtracks.com. October 30, 2001.
- Southall, James (2002). Monsters, Inc.. Movie Wave.
- Goldwasser, Dan (October 21, 2001). Monsters, Inc. (2001) Soundtrack. Soundtrack.net.
- Monsters, Inc. (An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack) - Randy Newman Awards. AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Alicia Gaura, Maria (November 9, 2002). "Sonoma artist claims 'Monsters, Inc.' a rip-off". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- Price. 2008. pp. 187-188.
- Price. 2008. p. 189-193.
- Shiels, Maggie (November 14, 2002). "Monsters Inc faces 'copying' lawsuit". BBC News. Archived from the original on September 1, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- S.M. Oliva (January 22, 2009). "Animation is Built On Plagiarism...". Archive.mises.org. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "Mike's New Car - Pixar Short: Pete Docter, Roger Gould, Gale Gortney: Amazon Video". Amazon.com. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- Tokyopop licensed Monsters Inc. Manga August 20, 2002 by Anime News Network. Retrieved January 2013
- "Monsters, Inc. - Used for PlayStation 2". GameStop. January 16, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "'Monsters Inc. Run' by Disney Mobile Now Available for Apple iDevices". Stitch Kingdom. December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Paul de Barros (October 29, 2004). "Entertainment & the Arts | Fur and flips: "Monsters, Inc." on ice | Seattle Times Newspaper". Community.seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Monsters, Inc: Mike and Sulley to the Rescue at Disney's California Adventure". Themeparkinsider.com. June 9, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Monsters, Inc. Laugh Floor | Walt Disney World Resort". Disney. March 28, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Monsters, Inc. Ride & Go Seek! | Tokyo Disneyland". Tokyodisneyresort.co.jp. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Monsters, Inc.: Laugh Factory (Volume)". Comicvine.com. January 1, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Monsters, Inc..|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Monsters, Inc.|
- Official website
- Pixar website
- Monsters, Inc. at AllMovie
- Monsters, Inc. (manga) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
- Monsters, Inc. at The Big Cartoon DataBase
- Monsters, Inc. at the Internet Movie Database
- Monsters, Inc. at the TCM Movie Database
- Monsters, Inc. at Rotten Tomatoes
- Monsters, Inc. at Metacritic
- Monsters, Inc. at Box Office Mojo