Deobandi

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Deobandi
Darul Uloom Deoband Logo.svg
Religions
Sunni Islam
Scriptures
Quran, Hadith
Darul Uloom Deoband

Deobandi (Hindi: देवबन्दी; Pashto and Persian: دیوبندی‎; Urdu: دیوبندی‎; Arabic: الديوبندية‎; Bengali: দেওবন্দি ;Odia: ଦେଓବନ୍ଦି) is an Islamic revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam[1][2] that formed around the Darul Uloom Islamic seminary in the town of Deoband, India, where the name derives from, during the late 19th century.[3][4][5] The seminary was founded by Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, and several other figures in 1866,[4] eight years after the Indian Rebellion of 1857-58.[3][5][6][7] The Deobandi school engaged in interfaith debates with Christian and Hindu scholars,[3] and during the initial phase of its establishment the operating expenses are said to have been partially borne by Hindus, who made up the majority of the population in Deoband.[3]

The Deobandi movement spread, and is now is centered mainly in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh; has spread to the United Kingdom;[8] and has a presence in South Africa.[9] The Pakistani branches and the original Indian seminaries have had much less contact since the Partition of India, for political reasons related to the India-Pakistan border.[3]

The Deobandi movement seeks to return to the basics of Islam as practised in the time of the Prophet, wishing to purify it from amoral and materialistic Westernizing influences.[10] It has been described as Salafist[10] or as non-Salafist, but influenced by Salafism in Afghanistan and Pakistan.[3] Founders of the Deobandi school, namely Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, drew inspiration from the religio-political doctrine of the Islamic scholar and mujaddid Shah Waliullah,[4] and were also influenced by the Wahhabi ideology.[4] From the early 1980s to the early 2000s some Deobandis were heavily funded by Saudi Arabia.[11] The Pakistani government deliberately cultivated Deobandi militancy to fight the Soviet Union and India (in Kashmir). The money and guns supplied later fuelled civil conflict.[12] More recently, Pakistani establishments like the Defence Housing Authority have been accused of favoring the appointment of Deobandi Imams over Imams of other sects at mosques in their public housing complexes.[13][14]

Followers of the Deobandi movement are extremely diverse; some advocate for non-violence and some are militant,[15] such as the TTP. Deobandi militants such as the TTP, SSP, LeJ, etc.[16] have attacked and destroyed Sufi sites holy to Sunni Muslims of the Barelvi movement, such as Data Darbar in Lahore, Abdullah Shah Ghazi's tomb in Karachi, Khal Magasi in Balochistan, and Rahman Baba's tomb in Peshawar.[16] The murders of various Barelvi leaders have also been committed by Deobandi militants.[16] Some Deobandi leaders have ties to anti-Shia and militant groups as well, and recruit militants; other Deobandis resent such activities as an intrusion of Pakistani politics into their religion.[12][17] The Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the civil actions of the Taliban,[18] but repeatedly condemned terrorism in the 2000s, issuing a fatwa against it in 2008.[3]

History[edit]

The Deobandi movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism in India,[3] which was seen by a group of Indian scholars— consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi, Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fadhl al-Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi— to be corrupting Islam. The group founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Deoband,[3][4][19] where the Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop.[20] In time, the Darul Uloom Deoband became the second largest focal point of Islamic teaching and research after the Al-Azhar University, Cairo. Towards the time of the Indian independence movement and afterward in post-colonial India, the Deobandis advocated a notion of composite nationalism by which Hindus and Muslims were seen as one nation who were asked to be united in the struggle against the British rule.[21]

In 1919, a large group of Deobandi scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and opposed the partition of India.[21] Deobandi scholar Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani helped to spread these ideas through his text Muttahida Qaumiyat Aur Islam.[21] A minority group later dissented from this position and joined Muhammad Ali Jinnah's Muslim League, forming the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam in 1945.[22]

Through the organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat, the Deobandi movement began to spread. From the early 1970s to the 2000s, Deobandi seminaries in Pakistan and Afghanistan were heavily influenced by Salafism and Wahhabism,[3] due to fundings by Saudi Arabia.[23][24] Graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband in India from countries such as Saudi Arabia, South Africa, China, and Malaysia opened thousands of madaaris throughout the world.[18]

Presence[edit]

In India[edit]

The Deobandi Movement in India is controlled by the Darul Uloom Deoband and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind. Only about 17% of Indian Muslims identify as Deobandi.[25][unreliable source?] Even though a minority, the Deobandis form the dominant group among Indian Muslims due to their access to state resources and representation in Muslim bodies. The Deobandis are referred to as 'Wahhabis' by their opponents — the Barelvis and the Shias. In reality, they are not Wahhabis, even though they share many of their beliefs. The true Wahhabis among Indian Muslims are said to be fewer than 5 percent.[26][27][28][29]

In Pakistan[edit]

An estimated 15-25 percent of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims consider themselves Deobandi.[30][31] According to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries (Madrasah) in Pakistan are run by Deobandis, whereas 25% are run by Barelvis, 6% by Ahl-i Hadith and 3% by various Shia organizations. The Deobandi movement in Pakistan was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereafter this funding was diverted to the rival Ahl al-Hadith movement.[11] Having seen Deoband as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith.[11] Many Deobandi schools in Pakistan teach Wahhabi principles.[32]

In the United Kingdom[edit]

In the 1970s, Deobandis opened the first British-based Muslim religious seminaries (Darul-Ulooms), educating Imams and religious scholars.[33] Deobandis "have been quietly meeting the religious and spiritual needs of a significant proportion of British Muslims, and are perhaps the most influential British Muslim group."[33] In 2015 Ofsted highlighted the Deobandi seminary in Holcombe as a good example of a school "promoting British values, preventing radicalisation and protecting children".[34] The journalist, Andrew Norfolk, did not agree with this assessment.[35]

According to a 2007 report by Andrew Norfolk, published in The Times, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques were under the control of "a hardline sect", whose leading preacher loathed Western values, called on Muslims to "shed blood" for Allah and preached contempt for Jews, Christians and Hindus. The same investigative report further said that 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow the ultra-conservative Deobandi teachings which The Times said had given birth to the Taliban. According to The Times almost 80% of all domestically trained Ulema were being trained in these hardline seminaries.[36] An opinion column in The Guardian described this report as "a toxic mixture of fact, exaggeration and outright nonsense."[37]

In 2014 it was reported that 45 per cent of Britain's mosques and nearly all the UK-based training of Islamic scholars are controlled by the Deobandi, the largest single Islamic group.[38]

Most Muslim prison chaplaincies in Britain are Deobandi, and in 2016 Michael Spurr (chief executive of the National Offender Management Service) wrote to Britain's prison governors bringing to their attention that Ofsted had said that "the UK’s most influential Deobandi seminary promotes 'fundamental British values such as democracy, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance for those of different faiths'."[35] Andrew Norfolk did not agree with this assessment.[35]

Beliefs[edit]

The Deobandi movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition. It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703-1762).

Theology[edit]

In tenets of faith, the Deobandis follow the Maturidi school of Islamic theology.[39][40][41] Their schools teach a short text on beliefs by the Maturidi scholar Najm al-Din 'Umar al-Nasafi.[42]

Fiqh (Islamic law)[edit]

Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of Taqlid. In other words, they believe that a Deobandi must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs) of Sunni Islamic Law and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism.[43] They themselves claims the followers of the Hanafi school.[39][44] Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi movement study the classic books of Hanafi Law such as Nur al-Idah, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, Sharh al-Wiqayah, and Kanz al-Daqa’iq, culminating their study of the madhhab with the Hidayah of al-Marghinani.[45]

With regard to views on Taqlid, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i-Hadith, also known as the Ghair Muqallid, the nonconformists, because they eschewed taqlid in favor of the direct use of Quran and Hadith.[46] They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation, and frequently demand scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling.[47] Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in an attempt to defend their adherence to a madhhab in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi madhhab is in complete accordance with the Quran and Hadith.[48]

In response to this need to defend their madhhab in the light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the Daura-e Hadis, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of the Sunni Hadith (the Sihah Sittah) are reviewed.[49] In a Deobandi madrasa, the position of Shaykh al-Hadith, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari, is held in much reverence.

Sufism and Wahhabism[edit]

Deobandis oppose traditional Sufi practices such as celebrating the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and seeking help from him, the celebration of Urs, pilgrimage to the shrines of Sufi saints, practice of Sema, and loud dhikr.[50][51][52][53] Some Deobandi leaders incorporate elements of Sufism into their practices. Deoband's curriculum combined the study of Islamic holy scriptures (Quran, Hadith and Law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order. Its Sufism however, was closely integrated with Hadith scholarship and the legal practice of Islam, as understood by scholars of the Deobandi movement.[19]

Arshad Madani, an influential Deobandi scholar and leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, on the other hand rejected Sufism and said, "Sufism is no sect of Islam. It is not found in the Quran or Hadith. .... So what is Sufism in itself? This is a thing for those who don't know Quran and Hadith." Madani also said "Sufism is nothing."[54]

Founders of the Deobandi school, Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, were inspired by the religio-political doctrine of Shah Waliullah and also by Wahhabi ideology,[4] amongst other sources of inspiration. A founder of the Deobandi movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi studied under the Sufi shaykh, Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, although he differed with his views in many ways.[55] Rashid Ahmad Gangohi's Fatawa-yi Rashidiyya opposed traditional Sufi practices such as loud dhikr, visiting the tombs of Sufi saints, celebrating Urs, visualizing a Sufi leader (tasawwuf-i shaykh), reciting the Fatihah on special occasions, and engaging in Sema.[52]

Darul Uloom Deoband's conservatism and fundamentalist theology has latterly led to a de facto fusion of its teachings with Wahhabism in Pakistan, which "has all but shattered the mystical Sufi presence" there.[18] Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi, noted hadith scholar and Sufi Shaykh of Deobandis, says that,

The reality of "tasawwuf" is merely correction of intention. It begins with "actions are only according to intentions" and ends with "that you worship Him (Allah) as if you see Him."[56]

Positions[edit]

According to Brannon D. Ingram, Deobandis differ from Barelvis on three theological positions.[57]

  • A founder of the Deobandi movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi stated that God has the ability to lie.[58] This doctrine is called Imkan-i Kizb.[57][58] According to this doctrine, because God is omnipotent, God is capable of lying.[57] Gangohi however clarified God would not lie, though having power to do.
  • Rashid Ahmad Gangohi supported the doctrine that God has the ability to make additional prophets after Muhammad (Imkan-i Nazir) and other prophets equal to Muhammad.[57][58] Gangohi clarifies that although God has the ability to make prophets on "par" with Muhammad, he "would never do so."[57]
  • Deobandi scholars like Rashid Ahmad Gangohi have opposed the Sufi doctrine that Muhammad has knowledge of the unseen (ilm e ghaib).[58][57] This belief of the Deobandis conflicts with traditional Sufi views of Muhammad having unparalled and unequal knowledge that encompasses the unseen realm.[58][57]

Other positions of the Deobandis, include:

  • Rashid Ahmad Gangohi issued multiple fatwa's against the Mawlid and stated it is an innovation (bidah).[59]
  • Rashid Ahmad Gangohi opposed the practice of standing up in honour of Muhammad during Mawlid.[59]

Deobandi organizations[edit]

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind[edit]

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind is one of the leading Deobandi organizations in India. It was founded in British India in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi and the most importantly Kifayatullah Dehlawi who was elected the first president of Jamiat and remained in this post for 20 years.[60] The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India represents this contract.[61]

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam[edit]

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) is a Deobandi organization, part of the Deobandi movement.[62] The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League's lobby for a separate Pakistan.[63] The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani.

Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam[edit]

Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (Urdu: مجلس احرارلأسلام‎), also known in short as Ahrar, was a conservative Deobandi political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj (prior to the independence of Pakistan) founded December 29, 1929 at Lahore. Chaudhry Afzal Haq, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, Mazhar Ali Azhar, Zafar Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founders of the party.[64] The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement, which cleaved closer to the Congress Party.[65][page needed] The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and against establishment of an independent Pakistan as well as criticism of the Ahmadiyya movement.[66] After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam is working for the sake of Muhammad[vague], nifaaz Hakomat-e-illahiyya and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore and in India it is based in Ludhiana.

Tablighi Jamaat[edit]

Tablighi Jamaat, a non political Deobandi missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement.[67] Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Deobandi Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement with followers in over 200 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi movement, it has now established an independent identity though it still maintains close ties with Deobandi ulema in many countries with large South Asian Muslim populations such as the UK.[68]

Associated political organizations[edit]

Associated militant organizations[edit]

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi[edit]

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) (Army of Jhangvi) was a Deobandi militant organization. Formed in 1996, it operated in Pakistan as an offshoot of Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP). Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors.[69] The group, now practically defunct since the successful Operation Zarb-e-Azab, is considered a terrorist group by Pakistan and the United States,[70] It was involved in attacks on civilians and protectors of them.[71][72] Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is predominantly Punjabi.[73] The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan as a major security threat.[74]

Taliban[edit]

The Taliban ("students"), alternative spelling Taleban,[75] is an Islamic fundamentalist political and militant movement in Afghanistan. It spread into Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia law.[76] While many leading Muslims and Islamic scholars have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law,[77] the Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the Taliban in Afghanistan, including their 2001 destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan,[18] and the majority of the Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism.[17] Pashtunwali, the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in the Taliban's legislation.[78] The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women.[79][80]

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan[edit]

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (the TTP), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.[81][82] Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan.[81][82][83]

The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi interpretation of Islam and are predominantly Pashtun.[83][84]

Sipah-e-Sahaba[edit]

Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) is a banned Pakistani militant organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party. Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by the militant leader Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, its stated goal is primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.[85][86] The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 as being a terrorist group under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997.[85][86] In October 2000 Masood Azhar, another militant leader, and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e-Muhammad in Jehad."[87] A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi organization."[88]

Notable institutions[edit]

Right after Darul Uloom Deoband, the main center of Deobandism throughout the world, Mazahir Uloom, Saharanpur is the second known Deobandi madrassa in India, which produced the scholars like Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi. Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi's established Madrasa Shahi, Moradabad, the alma of scholars like Mufti Mahmud and Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi has its position. Darul Uloom Karachi, founded by Mufti Shafi Usmani, Jamia Binoria and Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia in Pakistani are top Deobandi institutions there. Darul Uloom Bury, Holcombe, established by Yusuf Motala during 1970s is the first Deobandi madrasssa of the West[89] In South Africa, Darul Ulum Newcastle, was founded in 1971 by Cassim Mohammed Sema [90] and Dar al-Ulum Zakariyya in Lenasia [91][92][93], Madrasah In'aamiyyah, Camperdown is known for its Dar al-Iftaa (Department of Fatwa Research and Training) which runs the popular online fatwa service, Askimam.org.[94] Al-Rashid Islamic Institute, Ontario, Canada, Darul Uloom Al-Madania in Buffalo, New York, Jamiah Darul Uloom Zahedan in Iran and Darul Uloom Raheemiyyah are some top Deobandi institutions.

Scholars[edit]

Contemporary Deobandis[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-0-85773-135-7. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  2. ^ Ingram, Brannon D. (2018). Revival from Below: The Deoband Movement and Global Islam. Oakland: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520298002. LCCN 2018014045. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Puri, Luv (3 November 2009). "The Past and Future of Deobandi Islam". CTC Sentinel. West Point, New York: Combating Terrorism Center. 2 (11): 19–22. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Syed, Jawad; Pio, Edwina; Kamran, Tahir; Zaidi, Abbas, eds. (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 139. doi:10.1057/978-1-349-94966-3. ISBN 978-1-349-94965-6. LCCN 2016951736. Retrieved 8 September 2020. Some prominent founders of the Darul Uloom Deoband, such as Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, drew further inspiration from the religiopoliticial concept of Shah Waliullah, as well as from Wahhabi ideology, and they set up an Islamic madrassa at Deoband in UP on 30 May 1866.
  5. ^ a b Asthana, N. C.; Nirmal, Anjali (2009). Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Jaipur: Shashi Jain for Pointer Publishers. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-7132-598-6. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  6. ^ Ingram, Brannon D. (June 2009). "Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (d. 1905) and the Deobandi Critique of Sufism". Muslim World. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. 99 (3): 478–501. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2009.01281.x. Retrieved 8 September 2020 – via Academia.edu.
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  8. ^ Timol, Riyaz (14 October 2019). "Structures of Organisation and Loci of Authority in a Glocal Islamic Movement: The Tablighi Jama'at in Britain". Religions. MDPI. 10 (10): 573. doi:10.3390/rel10100573. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  9. ^ Reetz, Dietrich (2011). "The Tablīghī Madrassas in Lenasia and Azaadville: Local Players in the Global 'Islamic Field'". In Tayob, Abdulkader; Niehaus, Inga; Weisse, Wolfram (eds.). Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa. Münster: Waxmann Verlag. pp. 85–88. ISBN 978-3-8309-7554-0. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  10. ^ a b Pike, John (5 July 2011). "Barelvi Islam". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2003. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  11. ^ a b c Sareen, Sushant (2005). The Jihad Factory: Pakistan's Islamic Revolution in the Making. New Delhi: Har Anand Publications. p. 282. ISBN 9788124110751.
  12. ^ a b Bennett Jones, Owen. "The Deobandis". www.bbc.co.uk., Bennett Jones, Owen. "The Deobandis: India". www.bbc.co.uk., Bennett Jones, Owen. "The Deobandis: Pakistan"., Bennett Jones, Owen. "The Deobandis: Britain".
  13. ^ Rana Tanveer, Barelvis demand share of mosques in DHA, The Express Tribune
  14. ^ Barelvi leader alleges pro-Deobandi bias in Defence Housing Authority, The Express Tribune, In a letter to the corps commander, who is vice chairman of the DHA, the secretary general of the Milade Mustafa Welfare Society in DHA Lahore said that the Religious Affairs Department was interfering in the Human Resources Department’s responsibilities to ensure that Deobandi scholars are appointed to positions in mosques in DHA. “Because of Deobandi khateebs in DHA mosques, Barelvi people have ... opted not to go to DHA mosques,” he added.
  15. ^ Templin, James D. (June 2015). "Religious Education of Pakistan's Deobandi Madaris and Radicalisation". Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore: International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research. 7 (5): 15–21. JSTOR 26351354.
  16. ^ a b c Syed, Jawad; Pio, Edwina; Kamran, Tahir; Zaidi, Abbas, eds. (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 371. doi:10.1057/978-1-349-94966-3. ISBN 978-1-349-94965-6. LCCN 2016951736. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  17. ^ a b Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8.
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  19. ^ a b Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, p 626. ISBN 0521779332
  20. ^ The Six Great Ones at Darul Uloom Deoband
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  22. ^ A History of Pakistan and Its Origins By Christophe Jaffrelot page 224
  23. ^ Lloyd RidgeonSufis and Salafis in the Contemporary Age Bloomsbury Publishing, 23.04.2015 ISBN 9781472532237 p. 191.
  24. ^ Youssef Aboul-Enein Militant Islamist Ideology: Understanding the Global Threat Naval Institute Press, 15.01.2011 ISBN 9781612510156 p. 223.
  25. ^ US Mission in India (2 February 2010), Indian Islam: Deobandi-Barelvi tension changing mainstream Islam in India, Wikileaks
    This says that "Over 85 percent of Indian Muslims are Sunni" and that "Deobandis... make up approximately 20 percent of India's Sunni population". This is about 17%.
  26. ^ M. J. Gohari (2000). The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-19-579560-1.
  27. ^ Sharma, Sudhindra (2006). "Lived Islam in Nepal". In Ahmad, Imtiaz; Reifeld, Helmut (eds.). Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict. Berghahn Books. p. 114. ISBN 81-87358-15-7.
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  29. ^ Alam, Arshad (2015), "Islam and religious pluralism in India", in Sonia Sikka (ed.), Living with Religious Diversity, Routledge, pp. 51–52, ISBN 978-1-317-37099-4
  30. ^ Pike, John (5 July 2011). "Barelvi Islam". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2003. Retrieved 25 September 2020. By one estimate, in Pakistan, the Shias are 18%, Ismailis 2%, Ahmediyas 2%, Barelvis 50%, Deobandis 20%, Ahle Hadith 4%, and other minorities 4%. [...] By another estimate some 15% of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims would consider themselves Deobandi, and some 60% are in the Barelvi tradition based mostly in the province of Punjab. But some 64% of the total seminaries are run by Deobandis, 25% by the Barelvis, 6% by the Ahle Hadith and 3% by various Shiite organisations.
  31. ^ Bedi, Rohan (April 2006), Have Pakistanis Forgotten Their Sufi Traditions? (PDF), Singapore: International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research at Nanyang Technological University, p. 3, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2013.
    This estimates that 15% of Pakistani Muslims are Deobandi and 20% Shia, which equates to about 19% of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims being Deobandi.
  32. ^ Valentine, Simon (9 January 2015). Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. Oxford University Press. p. 248. ISBN 9781849046152. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  33. ^ a b Ahmed, Abdul-Azim (12 August 2016), "Who are Britain's Muslims?", On Religion magazine
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  90. ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India.
  91. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi schools worldwide.
  92. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia.
  93. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world.
  94. ^ a b Schleifer, Prof. S. Abdallah; Al-Meheid, Dr Minwer; Al-Rawadieh, Dr AlMahdi; Ahmed, Dr Aftab; Asfour, Zeinab, eds. (2012). 2012 Edition (PDF). Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. The 500 Most Influential Muslims. Jordan: Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding. p. 110. ISBN 978-9957-428-37-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
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  96. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37. He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement.
  97. ^ Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإِسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (in Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-Basha'ir al-Islamiyyah. p. 15. وكان أكبرُ كبارِها وشيخُ شيوخِها الشيخَ محمود حَسَن الدِّيْوْبَنْدي الملقَّبَ بشيخ العالَم، والمعروفَ بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريفِ مُسنِدَ الوقتِ ورُحلةَ الأقطار الهندية. (Trans. And the greatest of its [Dar al-Ulum Deoband's] great ones, and the shaykh of its shaykhs was Shaykh Mahmud Hasan al-Deobandi, who is entitled (al-mulaqqab) Shaykh al-'Aalam, and popularly known (al-ma'ruf bi) as Shaykh al-Hind. In regards to the noble Hadith, he was the authority of his time (musnid al-waqt), whom students traveled from all parts of India [to study with].
  98. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216. After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith during his period.
  99. ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-520-08093-9. The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (1864-1943), a leader of the Deobandi reform movement that crystallized in north India in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform.
  100. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70. This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge.
  101. ^ Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". Oriente Moderno. 84 (1): 295–305. doi:10.1163/22138617-08401018. In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad Ilyas (1885-1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
  102. ^ Bashir, Aamir (2013). Shari'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf (PDF). Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117. Muhammad Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi characteristics.
  103. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170. He completed his formal education [from Deoband] in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan and assisted Muhammad Ali Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri.
  104. ^ Usmani, Muhammad Taqi (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi': The Grand Mufti Of Pakistan". Deoband.org. Translated by Rahman, Zameelur. Retrieved 6 November 2013. The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘ (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading ‘ulama of India and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-‘Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-‘Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh [Muhammad Shafi‘] compiled in the Urdu language in 8 large volumes.
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  119. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134. He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities.
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