National Intelligence Agency (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
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The Agence Nationale de Renseignements (ANR) is a government intelligence agency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The role of the agency is to ensure "internal security and external security" of the state. The agency was strongly criticized for the disrespect of human rights by several organisations. Inzun Kakiak has led the agency since 2019.
In 1993 the administrative director of the Service national d'identification et de protection (SNIP) was Admiral Mavua Mudima, who became defence minister in the 1996-1997 Kengo wa Dondo government. In November 1993 Admiral Mavua was replaced by his assistant, Goga wa Dondo, a half-brother of prime minister Kengo wa Dondo. Goga wa Dondo was replaced in November 1995 by his assistant, Atundu.
On Tuesday, February 13, 1996, Zaire handed to the Rwandan government rusting artillery pieces, troop carriers, arms and ammunition seized from fleeing Hutu former Rwandan government troops at the end of Rwanda's 1994 genocide. Zairean Defence Minister Admiral Mavua Mudima handed over the weapons in a ceremony near the northwestern Rwandan border with Zaire. The weapons included two 105mm howitzers, one without its barrel, four anti-aircraft guns and six dusty French-made armoured personnel carriers with flat tyres and smashed windows.
Historically, the intelligence organisation in the DRCongo or Zaire from 1960–97 was named:
- Surêté Nationale (SN) (National security)-1960-1970
- Centre National de Documentation (CND) (National Documentation Center) - 1970-November 1985
- Agence Nationale de Documentation (AND) (National Documentation Agency) - November 1985-August 1990
- Service National d'Intelligence et de Protection (SNIP) (National Service for Intelligence and Protection) - August 1990 - 1996
- Direction Générale de la Surêté Nationale (DGSN)- 1996 - May 1997
Formation & early years
The ANR was created in the beginning of 1997 as intelligence service of the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL). In May 1997, the agency integrated the premises of the former Service national d'intelligence et de protection (SNIP), which had been renamed Direction générale de la sûreté nationale (DGSN) in 1996. On 16 April 1997 Mudima accompanied by General Baramoto Kpama fled the collapsing Mobutu regime, flying to South Africa aboard Baramoto's private jet.
On 13 December 1997, three former senior Mobutu officers (Admiral Mavua Mudima accompanied by Baramoto Kpama, and Nzimbi Nzale) were briefly detained in South Africa after returning from Kahemba, an area still controlled by UNITA forces and awash with ex-FAZ and Hutu militiamen. Their arrest may have pre-empted a coup attempt.
In October 2002, Georges Leta Mangasa, the chairman of ANR, was sentenced to death with other persons in the course of Laurent-Désiré Kabila's assassination. Before this, in 2001, the interim president, Joseph Kabila, appointed Kazadi Nyembwe for the chair of the ANR.
Human Rights Violations Accusations
The agency has come under criticism under the tenure of Kalev Mutond (Mutondo). Human Rights Watch has accused it of being "instrument of political repression against opposition leaders and human rights and pro-democracy activists during the country’s protracted political crisis." Specifically they accuse Mutondo of using the organization to repress political dissent in 2016 around the time that then president Joseph Kabila was remaining in office beyond his constitutional limit. Accusations include those of harassment and torture.
Management of The National Intelligence Agency
The National Intelligence Agency is headed by a General Manager (AG) French tarduction for Administrateur Général, which directly depends on the president. He is assisted in his task by a deputy general manager and senior administrators. He was also under the chairmanship of Laurent Kabila, right member of the State Security Committee.
The General Manager (AG) coordinates all the activities of the National Information Agency in accordance with laws and regulations. As such, it:
- ensures the management of the National Intelligence Agency;
- coordinates and controls the activities of all branches of the National Intelligence Agency;
- give impetus to departments, directorates, divisions, offices and stations by way of instructions, inspections and controls;
- manages the staff, financial resources and the personal and real estate of the National Intelligence Agency;
- ensures compliance with laws and regulations, ethics and discipline within the National Intelligence Agency;
- has the fullness of the disciplinary authority over the entire National Intelligence Agency;
- coordinates cooperation with partner services;
- prepares the budget and manages the accounts of the National Intelligence Agency;
- may reserve the treatment of certain files considered sensitive, important or urgent;
- represents and engages the National Intelligence Agency in its relations with the institutions, services, public and private agencies and third parties.
It shall act by decision. The General Manager (AG) has a cabinet.
The Deputy General Manager assists the General Manager in coordinating all activities of the National Intelligence Agency, in accordance with laws and regulations. He assumes the interim in case of absence or incapacity of the managing director.
The National Intelligence Agency is organize as following:
- The General Manager;
- The Deputy General Manager;
- The departments;
- The central and provincial Directorates;
- The stations.
The central and provincial directorates are divided into divisions, offices, branches and territorial posts as appropriate. The management and the station are run by a part of the National Intelligence Agency coated at least the deputy administrator grade, and named and, if necessary, removed from office by the President of the Republic, on a proposal from the deputy head. Divisions and offices are headed respectively by heads of division and bureau chiefs, appointed and, if necessary, removed from office by the President of the Republic on the proposal of the chief executive. The organic part of the National Intelligence Agency including the deputy head of cabinet is fixed by decree of the President of the Republic.
Structure of the ANR
The ANR has 11,931 employees and is organized into three departments, sub-divided into directorates, divisions, sections and offices. Each department has at its head, a Principal Administrator (PA). It has a budget of 31,684,000,512 Franc Congolais ~ US $34,252,973 in 2015.
The Department for External Security (ANR / DSE) is responsible for foreign intelligence:
- Directorate of Operations and Planning
- Directorate of Actions
- Directorate of Research and Studies
- Technical directorate
The Department of Homeland Security (ANR / DSI) is responsible for internal intelligence and state security and is working with the relevant prosecution services and the national police; the department is organized in provincial directorates and specialized departments, like the Special Branch Investigations and Research (DSIR), unit suspected of involvement in the arrests of journalists and opposition politiques:
- Directorate of General Intelligence
- Directorate of Operations
- Directorate of Counterintelligence
- Directorate of Studies and Research
- Directorate of Identification
- Technical directorate
- Directorate of Investigations
The Support Department (ANR / DA) is the general services of the ANR and is mainly responsible for logistics support services "devolved" in the provinces:
- Directorate of General Services
- Medical directorate
- Academy of Information and Security
- Telecommunications, Informatics and Documentation Center.
List of general managers
2. Colonel Alexandre singa Boyende Mosambayi (1965-1969) Surêté Nationale
3. Lieutenant-colonel Pierre Efomi Akomi (1969) Surêté Nationale
4. Colonel Albert Tuzu (1970) CND
5. Colonel Raymond Omba Mpe (1971-1973) CND/DDI - Eduard Mokolo wa Mpombo (1971-1976) CND/DDE
6. Jean Seti Yale (1973-1976) CND/DDI (1976-1979) CND/DDI-DDE
7. Eduard Mokolo wa Mpombo  (1979-1985) CND
8. Honoré Ngbanda Nzambo Ko Atumba (1985-1990) AND
9. Général Likulia Bolongo (1990-1992) SNIP
10. Admiral Mavua Mudima (1992-1993) SNIP
11. Goda Wa Dondo (1993-1995) SNIP
12. Jacques Tshimbombo Mukuna (1996-1997) DGSN
13. Paul Kabongo Misasa (1997) ANR
14. Clément Kibinda (1997) ANR
15. Séverin Kabwe  (1997-2001) ANR
16. Didier Kazadi Nyembwe  (2001-2003) ANR
17. Lando Lurhakumbirwa (2003-2006) ANR
18. Mira Ndjoku Manyanga (2006-2007) ANR
21. Inzun Kakiak (2019 - present)
Notes and references
- Responses to information requests: Democratic Republic of the Congo (RDC38748.FE) Archived 2007-05-20 at Archive.today, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 25 March 2002.
- Avenue, Human Rights Watch | 350 Fifth; York, 34th Floor | New; t 1.212.290.4700, NY 10118-3299 USA | (2019-03-22). "DR Congo: Investigate Ex-Intelligence Officials". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
- Lardner, Richard (2016-08-04). "American accuses Congo officials of unlawful arrest, torture". AP NEWS. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
- Macdonald, Fleur. "As DRC election nears, 'tortured' dissidents in exile speak out". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
- "RDC : Inzun Kakiak nouveau patron de l'ANR". 2019-03-21. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
- "Refworld - Zaire: Information on the Service national d'identification et de protection (SNIP) from 1993 to present, including its activities, the type of personnel recruited". Refworld.org. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Prunier, From Genocide to Continental War, 136.
- Southern Africa Report, May 1998. Mudima was only formally retired from the FARDC in July 2013.
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- "Une messe du souvenir sous le signe de l'intimité à Rabat, quinze ans après la mort de Mobutu". JeuneAfrique.com. 9 September 2012.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-26. Retrieved 2016-07-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Refworld - Zaire: Information on the Service national d'identification et de protection (SNIP) from 1993 to present, including its activities, the type of personnel recruited". Refworld.org.
- "Hebdomadaire d'informations generales". Congoindependant.com. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld - République démocratique du Congo (RDC) : information indiquant si Mbuyu, directeur général de l'Agence nationale des renseignements (ANR) et de la sécurité extérieure, a été, en mars 2000, remplacé par Ismael Panieto". Refworld.org.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-07-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Didier Kazadi Nyembwe: "Personne n'a mieux géré les services de renseignement comme je l'ai fait"". Radiookapi.net. 20 June 2011.
- [dead link]
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- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2016-07-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Intelligence économique en Afrique". Africadiligence.com.
- Baudouin Amba Wetshi. "A quoi sert l'Agence nationale de renseignements ? [What is the purpose of the National Intelligence Agency?]". Congoindependent.com. Retrieved 10 August 2018.