Plug-in electric vehicles in Norway

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Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in Norway by year between 2004 and 2016.[1][2][3][4]

The fleet of plug-in electric vehicles in Norway is the largest per capita in the world, with Oslo recognized as the EV capital of the world.[5][6][7] As of July 2016, the market concentration was 21.5 registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people, 14.2 times higher than the U.S., then the world's largest country market.[8][9] Norway's fleet of electric cars is one of the cleanest in the world because 98% of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower.[10][11] In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over one in every 100 passenger cars on the road was a plug-in electric;[12] the segment's market penetration passed 3% in December 2015,[13][14] and ended 2016 with 5% of all passenger cars on Norwegian roads being a plug-in.[15]

The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway totaled more than 135,000 units at the end of December 2016, making the country the one with the largest European stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles, and the fourth largest in the world after China, the U.S. and Japan.[16] As of December 2016, the Norwegian light-duty plug-in electric fleet consisted of over 101,000 all-electric passenger cars and vans, and about 34,400 plug-in hybrids.[17] The total stock includes more than 15,000 used imported electric cars from neighboring countries.[18][19][20] The Norwegian plug-in electric vehicle market share of new car sales has been the highest in the world for several years, achieving 29.1% in 2016, up from 22.4% in 2015, and 13.8% in 2014.[21][22][23]

The highest-ever monthly market share for the plug-in electric passenger segment was achieved in January 2017 with 37.5% of new car sales.[24] Also in January 2017, the electrified passenger car segment, consisting of plug-in hybrids, all-electric cars and conventional hybrids, for the first time ever surpassed combined sales of cars with a conventional diesel or gasoline engine, with a market share of 51.4% of new car sales that month.[25][26] Registrations of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Norway passed the 100,000 unit milestone in April 2016,[27][28] and 100,000 all-electric vehicles in December 2016.[29]

Also, Norway was the first country in the world to have all-electric cars topping the new car sales monthly ranking. From September 2013 to November 2016, nine times a plug-in electric car has topped the country's monthly ranking, four times the Tesla Model S, twice the Nissan Leaf, once the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, once the Tesla Model X, and once the BMW i3.[18][30][31][32] In March 2014, the Tesla Model S also broke the 28-year-old record for monthly sales of a single model regardless of its power source.[33][34] As of 30 November 2016, the Leaf ranked as the all-time best selling plug-in electric car in the country with 27,115 Leafs on Norwegian roads at the end of November 2016, followed by the Volkswagen e-Golf with 15,991 units, and the Tesla Model S with 11,615 units. These figures include used imports. These three models account for more than half of the registered stock of all-electric vehicles registered in the country.[35] Norway is the largest European market for both the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S.[18][36]

Among the existing government incentives, all-electric cars and vans are exempt in Norway from all non-recurring vehicle fees, including purchase taxes, and 25% VAT on purchase, together making electric car purchase price competitive with conventional cars.[6] Also, the government approved a tax reduction for plug-in hybrids in effect starting in July 2013.[37][38] The government's initial goal of 50,000 pure electric vehicles on Norwegian roads was reached by late April 2015.[39][40] In May 2015, the Government decided to keep the existing incentives through 2017, and the Parliament agreed to reduced and phase out some of the incentives beginning in January 2018. Also local authorities were granted the right to decide whether electric cars can park for free and use public transport lanes.[41][42] In February 2016, the government opened for public discussion its proposed National Transport Plan 2018-2029 (NTP). Among others, the NTP sets the goal that all new cars, buses and light commercial vehicles in 2025 should be zero emission vehicles, this is, all-electric and hydrogen vehicles.[43][44][45]

As a result of the successful policies implemented to promote EV adoption, the number of electric vehicles on the Norwegian roads increased rapidly, resulting in several unintended consequences and raising several complaints and criticism. Complaints regarding the incentives include: high public subsidies as compared to the value of the reduced carbon footprint of electric vehicles; the possibility of traffic congestion in some of Oslo's bus lanes due to the increasing number of electric cars; the loss of revenue for some ferry operators due to the large number of electric cars exempted from payment; and the shortage of parking spaces for owners of conventional cars due to preference to electric cars (although this was actually the intended policy).[11][46][47][48][49]

Government goals and incentives[edit]

Existing incentives[edit]

Several electric cars at a free parking and charging station in Oslo, Norway, circa 2010. From farthest to closest, a Th!nk City, a REVAi, and a Tesla Roadster.

The Parliament of Norway set the goal to reach 50,000 zero emission vehicles by 2018. Among the existing incentives, all-electric cars and utility vans are exempt in Norway from all non-recurring vehicle fees, including purchase taxes, which are extremely high for ordinary cars, and 25% VAT on purchase, together making electric car purchase price competitive with conventional cars.[6] As an example, by early 2013 the price of the top selling Nissan Leaf is 240,690 kroner (around US$42,500) while the purchase price of the 1.3-lt Volkswagen Golf is 238,000 kroner (about US$42,000).[11] Electric vehicles are also exempt from the annual road tax, all public parking fees, and toll payments, as well as being able to use bus lanes.[6][50] These incentives are in effect until the end of 2017 or until the 50,000 EV target is achieved.[6]

Timeline of government incentives
and zero-emission vehicle milestones[51]
Date Milestone
1990 Temporary exemption from import tax
1996 Import tax exemption made permanent
Reduced annual registration tax
1997 Exemption from road tolls
1998 International launch of Th!nk in Brussels
1999 Special "EL" series plates introduced
Free parking in public spaces
The Danish company Kewet becomes Norwegian
2000 Reduced company car tax
2001 VAT reduced to zero percent
2003 Access to bus lanes in the Oslo region
2005 Access to bus lanes made permanent
and extended nationwide
2008 Oslo launched municipal
EV charging infrastructure program
2009 Free access to road ferries
2011 Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Nissan Leaf launched in Norway
2012 Norwegian Parliament extends electric car incentives
until 2018, or when the 50,000 EV target is reached[6]
10,000th electric car registered
Jul 2013 Weight tax deduction for plug-in hybrids introduced
Aug 2013 Tesla Model S launched in Norway[52]
Set 2013 First country in the world to have electric a car topping
the new car sales monthly ranking (Tesla Model S)[53][54]
Mar 2014 1% of cars on the road are electric[12]
Apr 2015 50,000th all-electric car registered[39][40]
May 2015 Decision to keep existing incentives through 2017[41][42]
Parliament agreed to reduced EV tax incentives
gradually beginning in January 2018[41][42]
Local authorities granted right to decide about
EV use public of bus lanes and free parking[41][42]
Aug 2015 "EK" second special series plates introduced
for the next 90,000 EVs. "EV" reserved.[55]
Dec 2015 3% of cars on the road are plug-in electric.[13][14]
Apr 2016 100,000th plug-in electric vehicle registered.[27][28]
Jul 2016 First EVs with the "EK" prefix series plates on the road.[56]
About 90,000 pure electric vehicles have been registered
by the end of August 2016. "EL" prefix plates depleted.[57]
Dec 2016 100,000th all-electric car registered.[29]
5% of passenger cars on Norwegian roads are
plug-in electrics[15]

Sales of plug-in hybrids have had a much smaller market penetration than pure electric car sales. Plug-in hybrids are not eligible for the same tax exemptions and other government incentives enacted for electric cars. Because the Norwegian tax system levies higher taxes to heavier vehicles, plug-in hybrids are more expensive than equivalent gasoline and diesel-powered cars due to the extra weight of the battery pack and its additional electric components.[37] Beginning on 1 July 2013, the existing weight deduction for conventional hybrids and plug-in hybrids of 10% was increased to 15% for PHEVs.[38] The weight deduction was increased to 26% effective since January 2015.[58] This fiscal incentive combined with a broader range of models available in the market resulted in record sales of plug-in hybrids in 2015, with almost 8,000 new units registered, up from about 1,700 in 2014. The plug-in hybrid market share rose to 5.2%, up from just over 1% in 2014,[59] and from 4.2% in September 2015 to 13.9% in September 2016.[3][18]

The government set identifying letters, "EL", for use on license plates of electric vehicles in order to simplify any control of whether the vehicle fulfills the conditions for user incentives such a free parking, free passage through toll booths etc. Correspondingly, hydrogen vehicles have "HY" as identifying letters. There is no equivalent for plug-in hybrids. Also being able to see passing vehicles with either "EL" or "HY" can have an informative effect on the general public about zero emission vehicles.[60]

The Norwegian license plates of all-electric vehicles have a prefix "EL" or "EK" to enforce the privileges EVs are entitled to. Shown a BMW i3.

As the number of registered electric cars and vans reached 60,000 units by July 2015, and the "EL" prefix is set to end at "EL 99999" (most vehicles in the country have five-digit registration numbers between 10000 and 99999), the Norwegian Public Roads agency opted for the prefix "EK" in the second series of plates, to signify "elektrisk kjøretøy", Norwegian for electric vehicle. And because the sale of electric vehicles is expected to continue at a rapid pace, meaning that the second phase of license plates is likely to run out as well, the "EV" prefix has been set aside for future electric cars.[55] In July 2016, as the stock of "EL" prefix plates was almost depleted, the first electric vehicles registered with the new "EK" series were on the road.[56][61]

In September 2013, the Norwegian Parliament approved, as part of the revised 2014 budget, an exemption from the 25% VAT for leasing electric vehicles effective on 1 January 2014.[62] However, as of September 2014, the exemption had not gone into effect because the Minister of Finance decided to deferred the measure, pending a formal consultation with the EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) to ensure that the VAT exemption for leasing was not in violation of the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement. The government's loss of revenue due to the still not implemented leasing exemption is estimated at about 47 million kroner (around US$7.3 million) per year.[63][64] One Member of Parliament has criticized the government for the delay. He argued that the initial VAT exemption for all electric vehicles was never approved in ESA. In addition, an ESA spokesman confirmed that the Government has not sent any request as of September 2014, nor has the agency received any complaints about Norway's original EV tax exemption. The MP said he would demand that the decision be implemented when Parliament meets in October 2014.[64] The consultation was presented to ESA in November 2014, and the authority ruled in April 2015 that the implementation of the VAT exemption on leasing of electric vehicles and electric vehicle batteries is in line the EEA Agreement, since the goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The approval from ESA initially applies until the end of 2017, but the government can apply for an extension if the zero rate for VAT is kept.[65] The exemption for leasing of electric vehicles went into effect in July 2015.[66]

The government's initial goal of 50,000 electric cars on Norwegian roads was reached on 20 April 2015. The plate "EL 60000" was granted to the 50,000th electric car registered.[39]

The target of 50,000 electric cars on Norwegian roads was reached on 20 April 2015, more than two years earlier than expected. The milestone was commemorated by the Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association in Drammen where the 50,000th electric car registered, a Tesla Model S, was granted the license plate "EL 60000." The special electric vehicle series began with "EL 10000." By reaching a stock of 50,000 electric cars, the market penetration of pure electric vehicles reached 2% of all passenger cars registered in Norway.[39][40] The milestone of 100,000 light-duty battery electric vehicles was achieved in December 2016, representing about 10% of all pure electric cars that have been sold worldwide.[29][67] According to the Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association, if the country wants to reach the ambitious climate goals set by the Parliament, the next goal is to have 400,000 battery electric vehicles by 2020.[29]

Phase out of incentives[edit]

As one of the criteria to end the incentives was achieved, as of April 2014, no decision had been made by the authorities about the introduction of the 25% VAT on purchase of electric vehicles. Among the options being considered by the government is to introduce the tax in a step-wise fashion, 8% VAT beginning in 2016, to be increased to 12% in 2017 and 16% in 2018. Prime Minister Erna Solberg has assure the government will not make any changes about the electric car benefits in the 2015 budget.[68]

In early March 2015, negotiations began among parties represented in the Parliament to define the future of all motor vehicles and fuel taxes. The Liberal Party wanted all the benefits to continue beyond the established quota. The Ministry of Finance also made a comprehensive review of all motor vehicle taxes. The two purchase tax exemptions cost the government about 3 billion kroner (around US$480 million) in lost revenue just in 2014, and up to 4 billion kroner (around US$640 million) if all the other benefits are accounted for.[69] Despite passing the established cap of 50,000 electric cars, the tax benefits were expected to continue until the end of 2016.[70][71]

In May 2015, the Government decided to keep the existing incentives through 2017, and the political parties in Parliament agreed to reduced and phase out some of the incentives. Beginning in January 2018, electric car owners will be required to pay half of the yearly road license fee and the full rate as of 2020. The value-added tax (VAT) exemption for electric cars will end in 2018, but replaced by a new scheme, which may be subjected to a ceiling that could be reduced as technology develops. The agreement also gave local authorities the right to decide whether electric cars can park for free and use public transport lanes.[41][42]

In March 2016, the Ministry of Transport issued new regulations for parking in locations with access to the general public. The new parking regulations, that go into effect on January 1, 2017, terminated the free parking for zero-emission vehicles, but established that Municipalities can introduce payment exemption for electric and hydrogen powered motor vehicles on municipal parking locations.[72] As of September 2016, the city councils of Trondheim and Tønsberg decided to introduce full payment for EVs from 2017; the cities of Bodø and Tromsø will introduce payment for parking in downton but exempted parking outside the city's center; and the cities of Oslo, Mandal and Drammen decided to keep free parking for zero-emission vehicles.[73][74][75]

In the 2017 National Budget, the Government is proposing to extend the VAT exemption for zero-emission vehicles until 2020. In addition, is proposing a national rule to keep a maximum tax rate of zero-emission vehicles equal to half the value charged to conventional cars. The budget proposal also includes an adjustment to exempt plug-in hybrids from the higher taxes levied to heavier vehicles, and instead, to charge taxes based on their fuel economy under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Until 2016, all plug-in hybrids have a weight allowance of 26% regardless of their all-electric range or fuel efficiency.[76][77]

Goals for 2018-2029[edit]

In February 2016, the government opened for public discussion until 1 July 2016 the proposed National Transport Plan 2018-2029 (NTP). The plan explains that the transportation sector accounts for emissions of about 16.5 million tons of CO2, which is about one third of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced domestically in Norway. And road traffic, including both private cars and heavy vehicles, account for about 10 million tons of CO2. The NTP set policies and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from private cars, trucks, ships, aircraft and construction equipment by about one half until 2030.[43][44]

In order to achieve this objective, among others, the NTP sets the goal that all new cars, buses and light commercial vehicles in 2025 should be zero emission vehicles, this is, all-electric and hydrogen vehicles. By 2030, heavy-duty vans, 75% of new long-distance buses, and 50% of new trucks must be zero emission vehicles. Also, by 2030, 40% of all ships in short sea shipping should be using biofuels or be low- or zero-emission ships. The proposed strategy states that until zero-emission vehicles take over, all internal combustion engine cars sold be plug-in hybrids, and wherever possible, biofuels must be used. Also, government agencies should as far as possible make use of biofuels, low- and zero-emission technologies in private and hired vehicles and vessels. The plan also calls to support the deployment of zero emission vehicles, but also for the reduction of the existing incentives, and proposes to invest more in public transport, walking and cycling.[43][44][45]

Criticism of the incentives[edit]

Tesla Roadster providing taxi cab service in Oslo.

Since 2013 several complaints and criticism have arisen due to the rapid increase in the number of electric vehicles on the roads as a result of the existing incentives to promote EV adoption, and particularly about the non-fiscal incentives. These include high public subsidies as compared to the value of the reduced carbon footprint of electric vehicles; the travel mode shift by people who buy an electric vehicle as a second car instead of taking buses and trains; the potential traffic congestion in Oslo's bus lanes due to the increasing number of electric cars; the loss of revenue for some ferry operators due to the large number of electric cars exempted from payment; and shortage of parking spaces for owners of conventional cars due to preference to electric cars and lack of a cap on parking time.

Excessive subsidies[edit]

According to the results of a study published by Reuters in March 2013, prepared by Bjart Holtsmark, an analyst of Statistics Norway, the tax exemptions on the purchase of an electric car are worth almost US$11,000 in comparison to the fully taxed price of a regular internal combustion engine car, which is equivalent to US$1,400 a year over a car's lifetime (8 years). The value of the toll exemption for driving into Oslo are worth US$1,400 per year, the free parking is worth US$5,000per year, and electric cars avoid other charges worth US$400 a year. Without adding value to the benefit of driving in bus lanes, the annual benefit of owning an electric car in Oslo is estimated at US$8,200 per car, per year. The analysis used a Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid as the benchmark vehicle. Mr. Holtsmark also pointed out that "by encouraging people who can afford it to buy a second car instead of taking buses and trains, the electric car scheme may ironically be aggravating environmental problems and causing traffic jams."[11][78]

The Norwegian project Grønn bil (Green Car) disputed these figures because they consider the analysis is based on unrealistic assumptions. The group argues that the analysis used a very short total vehicle lifespan of 7.8 years, while Norway's' average is closer to 18 years; it is very unlikely that a vehicle can be parked in Oslo between 1,875 hours and 3,000 hours per year to save the estimated US$5.000 considering the existing time limits for parking; and the typical EV owner drives around 15,000 km (9,300 mi) per year, not the 6,500 km (4,000 mi) implicit in the analysis. Using what they consider more realistic assumptions, Grønn bil estimates that the annual benefit of owning an electric car in Oslo is estimated at US$3,336 per car, per year, 40% of Holtsmark's estimation. They also found that the cost per tonne of CO2 emissions reduced is US$2,499, not the US$13,600 estimated by Holtsmark.[78]

Bus lane congestion[edit]

In December 2013 the newspaper Budstikka conducted an informal test to measure the difference in travel time between an electric car and a gasoline-powered car during the morning rush hour on a stretch of road between the suburban municipality of Asker in Akershus, and Skøyen, a neighborhood of Oslo. The electric car completed the trip in 19 minutes using the bus lane while it took 51 minutes for the conventional car traveling in the normal lanes. Around noon, the same trip took the electric car just 13 minutes.[79]

All-electric cars have access to bus lanes in Norway. Shown a Nissan Leaf, the top selling plug-in electric car for three years running (2012-2014).

Budstikka also did a count of the number of vehicles traveling in the bus lane during the rush hour on December 3, 2013. The newspaper found that a total of 829 vehicles used the bus lane between 7:30 and 8:30 a.m., of which, 618 vehicles were electric cars (74.5%). Buses accounted for only 7.5% of the traffic in the bus lane, and taxis, two-wheelers and mini-buses made up the rest. The Deputy Director of the Institute of Transport Economics (TØI) explained that the normal capacity of a highway lane is between 1,800 and 2,000 vehicles per hour, but because of the ramp entrances and exits, and the buses maneuvering in and out the bus lane to do their stops, the traffic flow starts to become troublesome when the number of vehicles in the bus lane is about 1,000 vehicles per hour. Although by December 2013 the traffic is approaching this limit, TØI's Deputy Director did not want to predict when this critical situation will occur. The Manager of the green car advocate group Grønn Bil warned that "if the only reason people bought an electric car is to drive in the bus lane, they will probably be disappointed sooner or later."[80][81]

By mid-2014, bus drivers in some parts of Oslo begun complaining about the delays caused by the ever-increasing number of electric cars. An interviewed bus driver expressed his concern that the electric cars "can create a vicious circle - tired of being stuck in traffic, bus users could be tempted to buy an electric car themselves, worsening the congestion problem."[46] According to the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, as of August 2014, electric cars represent 85% of traffic in the bus lanes during rush hours. As of late August 2014, Norwegian ministers are under increasing pressure to reduce the non-financial incentives and tax breaks for electric cars in order to reduce a rising congestion problem, but no decision has been made by the central government authorities. The success of electric car adoption was unexpected, as the authorities planned to keep the incentives in place until the end of 2017, or until they reach 50,000 units.[46][82] At the pace of sales reached during 2014, the target of 50,000 EVs registered could be met by April or May 2015.[83]

According to local authorities from the city of Oslo, the negative effects on the bus lanes occur only at certain places and in certain times of the day, particularly at the Norwegian National Road E18, west of Oslo. The problems are concentrated at the exit and entry ramps that in the long term might have serious consequences for bus accessibility. All the involved agencies are monitoring the situation and Oslo's authorities consider that restrictions for EVs to access the bus lanes should be considered only when it becomes a major problem for the buses.[48]

Burden on ferry operators[edit]

Electric cars are exempted from payment of ferryboat fees.

As part of the incentives to promote EV adoption, plug-in electric vehicles are exempted from payment of ferryboat fees, but only the car crosses for free, the driver and each passenger pay the ordinary fare. The accelerated growth of electric cars on some ferry routes has caused complaints from ferryboat operators due to the increasing loss on their farebox revenues. According to FosenNamsos Sea AS, an operator with four ferry lines servicing Hordaland county, during the first seven months of 2014 the number of electric vehicles riding the service Krokeidet-Hufthamar from Hordaland increased by 215% compared to the same period last year, for a total of 9,226 electric cars not paying the ferry fee though the end of July. The company argues that "no one could foresee the tremendous growth of electric cars we see on some ferry routes, but the Austevoll satellite connection involves a significant loss of revenue for us."[47]

On 1 June 2014, the company's home county of Sør-Trøndelag repealed the payment exemption for electric vehicles on the county ferries. The company has also requested to Transport of Hordaland a similar end of the exemption or some form of the income loss compensation. FosenNamsos Sea AS has argued that the financial burden should be on the government not the ferry operators. As of 1 September 2014, the county of Hordaland had 5,016 registered electric cars, the second largest in Norway after Oslo. Hordaland transport authorities are studying the request but already have stated that the agency must follow state regulations for ferry rates and the regulations established for electric cars.[47]

Unfairness of free parking[edit]

Electric cars are exempted from public parking fees.

As an incentive to promote EV adoption, plug-in electric vehicles are exempted from public parking fees. Politicians in Trondheim, in Sør-Trøndelag county are complaining about the lack of parking spaces for owners of conventional cars due to preference to electric cars. The city has a five-hour time limit for electric cars to use street parking for free, but electric car owners who use their car to commute keep moving their cars during the day, and end up having free parking all day while they are at work. A City Council member noted that in many streets there are large numbers of plug-in electric vehicles parked all day, and sometimes there are more electric cars than regular cars. This situation makes it difficult to find parking for those who come to the city to shop. In addition, the municipality of Trondheim is losing revenue. The City Counselor wants to end the incentives electric car owners have to park downtown Trondheim all day long for free.[49]

Charging infrastructure[edit]

As of March 2016, there are in the country 7,632 electric recharge points. The county with the most stations is Oslo with 1,996 points, followed by Akershus with 1,117, and Hordaland with 932. The Norwegian charging infrastructure includes 293 CHAdeMO quick charging points and 194 fast charging points at Tesla supercharger stations.[84]

Usage patterns and attitudes[edit]

2013 survey[edit]

In June 2013, the Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association (Norsk Elbilforening) conducted a survey among all-electric car owners, with a total of 1,858 respondents, representing over 15% of all the electric car owners in Norway. The study found that the typical electric car owner is a middle-aged family father with higher education and income, and he owns a Nissan Leaf as one of two cars. A total of 85% of the respondents had two or more cars in their household because they need a second car for longer journeys given the limited range current electric cars can provide. However, for everyday needs, the study found that one electric car is sufficient. Norwegians travel 42 km on average every day, mostly by car. Based on the survey, the study found that 15% of the electric car owners do their daily travel with just their one electric car. These users opt for public transport or car rental/sharing for longer trips, because high taxation on traditional cars in Norway makes it expensive to own a car.[85]

The study also found that about half of the respondents to the 2013 survey own a Nissan Leaf the best-selling electric car in Norway and among the top five at the general model ranking. About 5% of the respondents had more than one electric car, as some owners kept their old electric car (such as Th!nk and Buddy) when they bought a new one. The survey showed that in most cases electric cars replaced a traditional car (87%), but also use of public transport (10%), and walking and bicycling (1%). Regarding everyday use of electric cars, the study found that owners use the electric car mostly for commuting to work (89.6%), shopping (88.4%) and driving to after work activities (77.0%). Other uses include delivery of children to school or kindergarten (40.9%) and for business purposes (40.2%). On the other hand, use of the electric car for holiday travel is very limited (11.7%).[85]

As for the charging patterns, the 2013 survey found that 85% of the respondents could charge in their own garage or parking lot, and 10% had access to charging in the shared apartment building where they live. This means that 95% of the respondents were able to charge their electric cars at home during the night. The survey showed that 59% of the respondents had access to charging where they work, and 48% at public charging stations in the area they normally use the electric car.[85]

2016 survey[edit]

The Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics conducted in March 2016 a survey among over 8,000 vehicle owners in Norway. The study's aim was to identified how the plug-in vehicles are used, why they are bought and how the technology is rated compared to owners of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. The sample consisted of 3,111 all-electric vehicles (BEV) owners, 2,065 private plug-in hybrid (PHEV) owners, and 3,080 ICE vehicle owners.[10] The study found that buyers of BEVs and PHEVs have different transport needs but both are motivated by economy of use and environment, whereas all-electric vehicle owners are also motivated by the free toll road incentive. The survey showed that normally diesel and gasoline vehicles are replaced with the purchase of a plug-in vehicle, but a larger share of battery electric vehicles become extra vehicles in households. BEV owners are younger, have more children, travel a longer distance to work and own more vehicles than other vehicle owners.[10]

Electric vehicle festival in Geiranger.

Most BEV owners (71%) also own an ICEV, 4% a PHEV, and 4% more than one BEV. The remaining 21% only have one BEV. 46% of PHEV owners and 48% of ICEV owners belong to single vehicle household. The most multipurpose BEV, Tesla Model S, is twice as common in single BEV households as in households also owning ICEVs, and four times as common in households owning several BEVs.[10] Based on the survey, the researchers found that plug-in hybrid owners in Norway drive on average 55% of their annual distance in charge-depleting or all-electric mode (EV mode), and the share goes up to about 63% for work trips. The share of electric travel is higher for trips to work and in the summer, and lower in the winter. The average plug-in hybrid user in the survey drives 60% of the total distance in EV mode in the summer and 53% in winter. The estimate for work trips is higher at 70% in the summer and 59% in winter. On the other hand, the study found that battery electric vehicles are driven more in total and in everyday traffic.[10]

According to the survey results, plug-in vehicles are mainly charged at home, whether in their garage or at an outdoor parking on the owner property, with 59% of BEV owners and 74% of PHEV owners charging this way. Only 6% of BEV owners and 5% of PHEV owners never charge at home. Charging at work is relatively common among BEV owners, 28% do it more than twice a week, 38% weekly. About 21% of PHEV owners do it at least weekly. Charging elsewhere is rare, but BEVs owners more frequently recharged at public charging stations and shopping centers than PHEV owners. Fast charging is used for irregular trips where users plan to use fast chargers to accomplish the trip or to solve a problem on the go. Most battery electric vehicle owners manage everyday life well and are satisfied with the vehicle which in combination with attractive local incentives not available to plug-in hybrid owners and other vehicle users.[10]

Peer-to-peer influences is particularly important to diffusion of battery electric vehicles being the biggest source of information leading to the purchase. Plug-in hybrid buyers received most information leading to the purchase from dealers and advertising material. The four reasons most frequently mentioned by the 89% of BEV owners who say they will buy a BEV again are economy of use, environmental performance, future proof technology, and the free usage of toll roads without paying. Less than 1% will not buy a BEV again. The reasons not to buy again are range and charging issues. The three main reasons why 80% of PHEV owners say they will buy one again are economy of use, environmental performance and that the technology is future proof. Only 2% will not buy a PHEV again. The main reasons not to buy again are the short range in all-electric mode and inability to use EV mode when it is cold.[10]

Sales[edit]

Cumulative light-duty plug-in electric vehicle sales in Norway compared to the world's top-selling countries and regional markets. As of December 2016, Norway is the European country with the largest stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles.[16]

The government's initial goal of 50,000 pure electric vehicles on Norwegian roads was achieved by late April 2015.[39][40] The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway passed the 100,000 unit milestone in April 2016,[27][28] and registrations of light-duty all-electric vehicles achieved the 100,000 unit milestone in December 2016.[29][35] As of August 2016, there were 34 models of highway capable plug-in vehicles available in the Norwegian market, 19 plug-in hybrids and 15 all-electric cars and utility vans.[56]

As of December 2016, a total of 135,276 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Norway, allowing the country to have the largest European stock of plug-in cars and vans, and the fourth largest in the world after China, the U.S. and Japan.[16] Of these, 50,834 plug-ins were registered in 2016 (37.6%), including 5,281 used imports.[21] Norway was the top selling plug-in country market in Europe in 2016 with 45,492 new plug-in cars and vans registered, surpassing the Netherlands, Europe’s top market in 2015.[15]

As of December 2016, and accounting for both new and used imports registrations, the Norwegian light-duty plug-in electric fleet consisted of 101,126 all-electric passenger cars and vans, and 34,383 plug-in hybrids.[17] The registered plug-in stock includes over 2,500 all-electric vans and more than 15,000 used imported electric cars from neighboring countries.[18][19][20]

The Buddy was among the best-selling electric cars in Norway until 2011.

As of 30 September 2013, the total plug-in electric registered stock included over 2,500 heavy quadricycles, such as the Kewet/Buddy (1,087), Th!nk City (1,120), and the REVAi (299). These city cars are entitled to the special "EL" licensed plate reserved for Norwegian electric vehicles.[86]

As of August 2014, plug-in electric car registrations were concentrated in six counties, Akershus with 7,576 units, Oslo with 7,110, Hordaland with 5,205, Rogaland with 3,372, Sør-Trøndelag with 2,900, and Buskerud with 1,888.[87] According to research report published by Navigant Research in April 2014, the fleet of light duty plug-in electric vehicles in use in Greater Oslo Region in 2023 is expected to represent 10.7% of the city's total registered light-duty vehicle stock.[88]

Used imports

Sales of used imports in Norway are significant, and as of December 2015, over 11,500 used plug-in vehicles imported from neighboring countries had been registered, mainly pure electric cars. Registrations of used all-electric cars totaled 2,086 units in 2013, 3,063 in 2014 and 5,122 in 2015.[2][3][89] In addition, about 1,300 used electric cars were imported into Norway before 2013. By September 2014 most imports came from France, particularly the Nissan Leaf model.[89] Just in 2015, Norwegians imported a total of 21,756 used cars in 2015, of which highly sought plug-in electric models topped the list of imported cars, the Nissan Leaf with 2,088 and the Kia Soul EV with 2,044.[90] A total of 5,281 used imported electric cars were registered in 2016, up 3.1% from 2015, with registrations led by two popular plug-in models, the Kia Soul (2,494) and the Nissan Leaf (2,112).[91]

Market penetration

In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over one in every 100 registered passenger cars is plug-in electric, out of a fleet of over 2.52 million passenger cars.[12][92] All-electric vehicles reached a market penetration of 1.02% of the total registered passenger fleet, and for the entire plug-in electric segment the market penetration increases to 1.07% when plug-in hybrids are accounted for.[93] In March 2015, the plug-in segment market penetration passed 2%,[94] and the all-electric segment alone reached 2% of the country's 2.5 million registered passenger cars by late April 2015.[71] The market penetration of the country's plug-in electric car segment passed 3% in December 2015.[13][14] The all-electric segment achieved a market penetration of 3.5% in September 2016.[95] As of 31 December 2016, plug-in cars represented 5% of the 2,639,308 passenger cars on Norwegians roads.[15][96]

Comparison of Norway's concentration of registered PEVs per 1,000 people with other top selling plug-in electric cars (PEV) countries or markets.[8]
Plug-in concentration

Also, due to its population size, Norway is the country with the largest EV ownership per capita in the world,[5][6] In 2013 the EV concentration reached four plug-in electric vehicles per 1,000 people in 2013, nine times higher than the U.S., the world's largest plug-in electric car market at the time.[97] By July 2016, the market concentration had increased to 21.5 registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people, 3.6 times higher California's, the leading American market, and 14.2 times higher than the U.S. average concentration, then the world's largest country market.[8][9]

Market share

The Norwegian plug-in electric car market share of new car sales is the highest in the world. The segment's market share rose from 1.6% in 2011, to 3.1% in 2012,[98] and reached 5.6% in 2013.[1] Only the Netherlands, with 5.34% in 2013, achieved a similar market share.[97] In 2014 the overall plug-in car take rate climbed to 13.8%,[23] and reached 22.4% in 2015.[22] With a plug-in market share of 9.7% in 2015, the Netherlands had the world's second largest market share after Norway.[22]

A record plug-in market share of 29.1% of new car sales was achieved in 2016.[15] The all-electric segment register a market share of 15.7%, down from 17.1% in 2015, while the market share of plug-in hybrids rose to 13.4%. This result reflects a new trend in the Norwegian plug-in electric market that began in 2016, as annual sales and the market share of all-electric cars suffered a decline over the previous year, while the plug-in hybrid segment experienced significant growth.[21] A new record monthly market share for plug-in electric passenger segment was achieved in March 2016 with 33.5% of new car sales; the all-electric car segment had an 18.7% market share among new passenger cars, while the plug-in hybrid segment had 14.8%.[99]


The highest-ever monthly market share for the plug-in electric passenger segment was achieved in January 2017 with 37.5% of new car sales; the plug-in hybrid segment reached a 20.0% market share of new passenger cars, while the all-electric car segment had an 17.5%.[24] In addition, the electrified passenger car segment, consisting of plug-in hybrids, all-electric cars and conventional hybrids, for the first time ever surpassed combined sales of cars with a conventional diesel or gasoline engine in January 2017, with a market share of 51.4% of new car sales that month.[25][26]

Sales records
In March 2014, the Tesla Model S broke the 28-year-old Norwegian record for the highest monthly sales of a single model regardless of its power source.[33]

Norway was the first country in the world where plug-in electric cars have been listed among its top 10 best selling new cars in a given month, and the first one to have all-electric cars topping the new car sales monthly ranking. Since 2013, plug-in cars have topped the new car sales monthly ranking nine times. The Tesla Model S has been the top selling new car four times, twice in 2013, first in September and again in December,[53][100] and one more time in March 2014,[33] and again in March 2015.[101][102][103] The Nissan Leaf has topped the monthly new car sales ranking twice, first in October 2013 and again in January 2014.[104][105][106] Both the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S were listed among the Norwegian top 20 best selling new cars in 2013, with the Leaf ranking third with 4,604 units and a 3.2% market share; and the Model S ranking 20th with a 1.4% market share of new car sales in 2013.[107]

In March 2014, the Tesla Model S also broke the 28-year-old record for monthly sales of a single model regardless of its power source, with 1,493 units sold, surpassing the Ford Sierra, which sold 1,454 units in May 1986.[33][34] In July 2016, when new car registrations are break down by type of powertrain, for the first time a plug-in hybrid, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, listed as the top selling new car.[30] In September 2016, the Tesla Model X ranked as the top selling new car model in Norway when registrations are broken down by type of powetrain.[18][108][31] The BMW i3 was the top selling new passenger car in November 2016.[32]

2011-12[edit]

A total of 2,240 electric cars were sold in 2011, up from 722 in 2010.[7] A total of 5,411 electric cars and vans were registered in the country at the end of 2011.[109] Sales in 2011 were led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family with 1,477 units including 1,050 i-MiEVs, 217 Peugeot iOns and 210 Citroën C-Zeros, together representing 66% of electric car sales in Norway that year.[7][110] All-time registrations were led by the Th!nk City with 1,216 units registered at the end of 2011, followed by the Kewet/Buddy with 1,125 units and the Mitsubishi i-MiEV with 1,050 units.[109]

The Th!nk City was the all-time best-selling electric car in the Norwegian market until the end of 2011.[109]

At the end of the first quarter of 2012 the Th!nk City (1,205 units) was surpassed as the all-time top selling electric car by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV (1,223), while registrations during this quarter were dominated by the Nissan Leaf with over 600 units registered.[109] Registrations totaled 4,679 plug-in electric cars in 2012, including 318 plug-in hybrids and 59 electric vans.[98] Plug-in electric-drive sales in 2012 represented a 3.1% market share of passenger car sales in the country, up from 1.6% in 2011. Registrations in 2012 included 300 imported used electric vehicles, representing 1.0% of total used imports in the country.[98] Among the top selling countries of all-electric cars in 2012, Norway ranked 5th with a 7% market share of global EV sales.[111]

Sales in 2012 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 2,487 units registered, including 189 imported used Leafs, and Leaf sales represented 53% of the plug-in segment sales that year.[98] Cumulative sales reached 2,860 Leafs since its launch in September 2011,[98][112] accounting for more than 5% of the Leaf's global sales.[113] Norway was the first country in the world where an electric car ranked among the top 10 best selling cars, as the Nissan Leaf ranked 9th in October new car sales, and ended 2012 in the 13th place, representing a market share of 1.7% of all new car sales in the country, up from 0.3% in 2011.[112] The other top selling models in 2012 were the Mitsubishi i-MiEV with 672 units (7 used imports), Citroën C-Zero 560 (47 used imports), and Peugeot iOn 477 (47 used imports), for a total of 1,709 i MiEV family cars registered.[98] Since 2009, the i-MiEV family sold 3,147 new electric cars through December 2012.[87]

2013[edit]

Plug-in electric vehicle registrations totaled 10,769 units in 2013, of which used imports represented 20%. Total registrations included 387 plug-in hybrids and 355 all-electric light commercial vans, together representing 6.9% of total 2013 registrations, and reflecting the continued dominance of pure electric vehicles in the Norwegian market.[1] The plug-in electric drive segment in Norway grew 129% from 2012 to 2013, achieving one of the highest EV rates of growth in the world, second only to the Netherlands (338%).[97] The number of electric utility vehicles is relatively low, but the segment climbed 221% from 159 units in 2012 to 511 vehicles in 2013.[114]

Nissan Renault CEO Carlos Ghosn visited Norway to launch the 2013 model Leaf. Since 2012 the Nissan Leaf is the all-time top-selling plug-in electric car in Norway.

The Nissan Leaf continued its leadership in the Norwegian plug-in electric market with 4,604 new units sold in 2013, representing 58.4% of plug-in electric car sales in 2013. The Tesla Model S ranked second with 1,986 units (25.2% share), followed by the Volkswagen e-Up! with 580 units (7.4% share).[115] Since September 2011, a total of 7,275 new Leaf cars have been sold in the country through December 2013.[112][115] Accounting for used Leafs imported from neighboring countries, of which, 1,608 units were registered during 2013, a total of 9,080 Leafs have been registered in Norway through December 2013,[87] representing 9.4% of the 96,847 Leafs delivered worldwide through December 2013.[116] The Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was top selling plug-in hybrid in 2013 with 184 units, followed by the Opel Ampera and Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid, both with 94 units.[1]

Registrations reached a monthly record in August 2013, with a total of 990 new and used plug-in electric vehicles, of which, 700 were new car sales. All-electric car sales captured a record 6.0% market share of new passenger car sales in the country in August 2013, up from 3.6% in August 2012. Plug-in hybrids represented a 0.2% share, and all-electric vans a 0.1% of truck sales.[117][118] Sales of new plug-in electric cars represented a 3.4% market share of new car sales between January and August 2013.[119]

The first European deliveries of the Tesla Model S took place at Tesla's store in Oslo in August 2013.

Tesla Model S deliveries began in Oslo on 7 August 2013, corresponding to the first retail delivery of a Model S in Europe.[52] The first Model S was delivered to Frederic Hauge, a Norwegian environmental activist.[120] During its first month in the Norwegian market, a total of 186 units were delivered to retail customers, allowing the Model S to rank as the second most sold electric car in August 2013 behind the Nissan Leaf (448 units).[117] Model S sales together with record Leaf sales, allowed the electric car segment in Norway to reach its best monthly sales ever and a record 6.0% market share of new passenger car sales in August 2013, up from 3.6% in August 2012.[117][121] Model S sales surged in September 2013, with a total of 616 units delivered, making the Tesla Model S the top selling car in Norway during this month, representing a market share of 5.1% of all the new cars sold in the country, and contributing to a record 8.6% market share for all-electric vehicle sales during September. The share climbs to 9.0% when plug-in hybrids and electric vans are accounted for, up from 6% the previous month.[53][54][122] A spoksman from the Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) stated that the peak in Model S registrations "may be a short-lived phenomenon, caused by the grouping together of deliveries made over several months."[123] According to Reuters, the demand for the Model S is so high that there is a five-month waiting list, and as a result of the shortage, a used market has appeared. Some Norwegians were willing to pay as much as US$10,000 to US$20,000 premium to buy a used Model S from existing owners.[124][125]

In October 2013 an all-electric car was the best selling car in the country for a second month in a row. This time was the Nissan Leaf with 716 units sold, representing a 5.6% of new car sales that month. Model S sales totaled 98 units, and with 925 all-electric car sold that month, the segment captured a 7.2% market share of October's Norwegian sales, up from 3% the same month in 2012.[104][106] In December 2013, with 553 units sold and a 4.9% market share, the Model S was the top selling new car in the country for the second time in 2013.[100] A total of 1,986 new Model S cars were sold through December 2013, allowing Tesla's electric car to rank as the second top selling electric vehicle in 2013 after the Nissan Leaf.[115] According to Elon Musk, by the end of 2013 Norway became Tesla's largest per capita sales market for the Model S, together with Switzerland.[126]

2014[edit]

The all-electric Nissan e-NV200 van was released in Norway in 2014.

A total of 23,390 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2014, consisting of 18,094 new all-electric cars, 3,063 used imported all-electric cars, 1,678 new plug-in hybrid cars and 555 new all-electric vans.[2] Combined sales of new and used plug-in electric vehicles captured a 13.84% market share of total passenger car registrations in 2014. The new all-electric car segment reached a market share of 12.5%.[23] New all-electric passenger car registrations were up 129.5% from 2013, and the plug-in hybrid segment grew 411.6% from a year earlier.[2] Norway ended 2014 as the top selling European country in the light-duty all-electric market segment, with 18,649 passenger cars and utility vans registered, surpassing France (15,046), Germany (8,804) and the UK (7,730).[127] Norway accounted for a third of all European all-electric car sales in 2014.[128]

In January 2014, the Leaf topped for a second time the ranking of top selling new cars in Norway, with 650 units sold, representing a 5.7% of new car sales that month.[105] Nissan Leaf registrations passed the 10,000 unit milestone in February 2014. The Model S topped the monthly sales ranking for a third time in March 2014, with 1,493 units sold, capturing a 10.8% market share of new car sales that month, and contributing to a record market share for the all-electric car segment of 20.3% of total new car sales.[129][33][130] A new record market share of the plug-in electric vehicle segment was achieved in January, with 1,895 new all-electric cars registered reaching an 18.0% market share, plus 326 new plug-in hybrids reaching a 3.1% share, for a combined market share of 21.1% of total new car registrations that month.[131][132]

The Nissan Leaf (left) and the Tesla Model S (right) were the two best selling plug-in electric cars in Norway in 2014

A total of 2,056 Model S cars were sold during the first quarter of 2014, making the Model S the best selling new car in Norway during 2014 so far, capturing a 5.6% market share of new car sales. The Renault Zoe was officially launched in the Norwegian market in April 2014, and unlike other European countries, the Zoe is sold with the battery pack included.[133]

During the first half of 2014, the Model S, with 3,136 units sold, ranked as the second best selling new car in Norway with a market share of 4.3% of new car sales;[134] and also was the top selling plug-in electric car, with a 33.5% share of the all-electric segment sales.[135] The Leaf, with 2,665 units, ranked fourth among the top selling new cars, capturing a 3.7% market share of new car sales;[134] and listed as the second top selling plug-in car after the Model S, with a share of 28.5% of the all-electric segment sales.[135] The other top selling plug-in cars were the Volkswagen e-Up! with 1,551 units and 16.6% share of the all-electric segment; the BMW i3 with 1,159 units, including sales of the variant with the range-extender (REx) option, and captured a 12.4% share of the all-electric segment.[135] The recently released Volkswagen e-Golf was the top selling plug-in electric car in July 2014 with 391 units sold and representing 34.4% of the Golf nameplate sales (1,136), which was country's top selling new car that month.[136][137] The e-Golf was again the top selling plug-in electric car in August 2014 with 467 units sold, representing 43.4% of the Golf nameplate sales that month (1,075). In two months and a half a total of 925 Volkswagen e-Golf cars have been sold, surpassing initial Model S sales which delivered 805 units during its first two months in the Norwegian market.[138][139]

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV has been the top selling plug-in hybrid in Norway for three years running (2014-2016). As of December 2016, the plug-in SUV ranks as the all-time top selling plug-in hybrid with 9,499 new units registered.[59][140][141]

Sales of plug-in hybrids increased significantly during the first half of 2014, with 856 units sold. Sales were driven by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 818 units sold between January and June 2014, representing 95.6% of the Norwegian plug-in hybrid segment. Only 25 Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrids, 21 Prius PHVs and 15 Amperas were sold during this period.[135] The Outlander plug-in version represented almost 54% of the 1,523 Outlanders sold in Norway in the first half of 2014.[134] The Outlander P-HEV passed the 1,000 unit mark in August 2014.[138]

Plug-in electric car sales in 2014 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 4,781 new registrations, followed by Tesla Model S with 4,040 units. The Leaf ended 2014 as the third top selling new car in Norway, capturing a 3.3% market share of total new car sales in the country that year.[2] The top selling plug-in hybrid in 2014 was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 1,485 units sold, out of almost 1,700 plug-in hybrids sold in the country that year.[140][142]

As of December 2014, a total of 12,056 new Leafs had been sold in the country.[2][112][115] In addition, there were 3,626 used imported Leafs registered in the country as of 30 September 2014.[87] With about 16,000 units registered including used imports, the Leaf ranks as the country's all-time top selling electric car, representing 39% of the country's all-electric registered fleet.[87] The Tesla Model S, released in August 2013, ranks second with cumulative sales of 6,023 new units up until December 2014,[2][115] with about 14% of the total registered plug-in electric vehicle stock.[87] As of July 2014, Norway is the Model S largest overseas market, with an average of 436 sedans sold per month since August 2013.[143]

2015[edit]

Record registrations and the highest monthly market share ever were registered in March 2015, with 3,391 new all-electric cars sold that month representing 23.4% of new car sales, and 357 plug-in hybrids representing a market share of 2.52% that month, together reaching a combined PEV market share of 26.4%.[101][144] In addition, a total of new 73 all-electric vans and 320 all-electric used import cars were registered in March 2015, raising total March registrations of light-duty plug-in vehicles to 4,141 units.[102] March sales set another record, with three all-electric cars ranking as the top 3 selling new cars in the country, the Tesla Model S with 1,140 units, the Volkswagen e-Golf with 956 (out of a total of 1,421 units sold by the Golf nameplate), and the Nissan Leaf with 526.[101][102][103]

A total of 39,632 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2015, up from 23,408 in 2014 (69.3%). New plug-in sales totaled 34,455 units, consisting of 25,779 pure electric cars, 7,964 plug-in hybrids, and 712 all-electric utility vans. A total of 5,177 used imports were registered, consisting of 5,122 used imported pure electric cars and 55 vans.[3] The combined sales of new plug-in cars reached a market share of 22.4% of all new passenger cars sold in 2015, with the all-electric car segment reaching 17.1%, up from 12.5% in 2014, while the plug-in hybrid segment reached 5.2%, up from 1% in 2014.[22][59]

The Volkswagen e-Golf was the best-selling plug-in electric car in Norway in 2015.

The VW e-Golf, with 8,943 units sold, was the best-selling plug-in electric car in Norway in 2015, representing 34.7% of the plug-in segment sales, ahead of the Tesla Model S (4,039) and the Nissan Leaf (3,189).[59] The e-Golf variant represented 54.6% of total new VW Golf nameplate sales in the country in 2015.[145] For the second year running, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was top selling plug-in hybrid in 2015 with 2,875 units, becoming the all-time top selling plug-in hybrid in the country, with 4,360 units registered since 2014.[59][140] In 2015, the Outlander was followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE with 2,000 units, and the Audi A3 e-tron with 1,684 units, together representing 84% of the plug-in hybrid segment sales in 2015.[59]

As of December 2015, the Nissan Leaf continued as the all-time best selling plug-in electric car in the country with a total of 15,245 new Leafs registered since 2011.[59][2][112][115] In addition, a significant number of used imported Leafs from neighboring countries have been registered in the country, raising the stock of registered Leafs to over 20,000 units, meaning that more than 10% of Leafs sold in the world are on Norwegian roads by November 2015.[146] Ranking second is the Volkswagen e-Golf, with 10,961 new units registered since 2014,[59] followed by the Tesla Model S, with 10,062 new units registered in Norway through December 2015,[59][2][115] representing about 10% of the Model S global sales.[147]

2016[edit]

A total of 50,875 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2016, consisting of 24,222 new electric cars, 5,281 used imported all-electric cars, 20,663 new plug-in hybrid cars, 607 new all-electric vans, and 102 used imported all-electric vans.[4] New light-duty plug-in registrations totaled 45,492 plug-in cars and vans registered.[4] with new plug-in passenger car registrations were up 32% from 2015.[15] Registrations of new plug-in cars reached a market share of 29.1% of all new passenger cars registered in 2016, with the all-electric car segment reaching 15.7%, down from 17.1% in 2015, and the plug-in hybrid segment climbed to 13.4%, up from 5.3% in 2015.[21][148] When conventional hybrids sales are accounted for, the combined market share of the electric-drive segment achieved 40.2% of new passenger car sales in 2016.[148]

The Mistubishi Outlander was the top selling plug-in car in 2016, the first time ever a plug-in hybrid topped the Norwegian list of best selling plug-in electric cars.[141]

The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway passed the 100,000 unit milestone in April 2016, making Norway the country with the fourth largest stock of plug-in cars and vans in the world after China, the U.S. and Japan, and also the European country with largest stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles.[27][28] Registrations of light-duty all-electric vehicles achieved the 100,000 unit milestone in December 2016,[29][35] with three models, the Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model S and Volkswagen e-Golf, accounting for more than half of total stock of pure electric cars on Norwegian roads at the end of November 2016.[35] Norway was the best selling plug-in country in Europe in 2016, surpassing the Netherlands, Europe’s top market in 2015.[15]

The Outlander PHEV ended 2016 listed as the best selling plug-in car in Norway with 5,136 units sold, the first time ever a plug-in hybrid topped the Norwegian list of top selling plug-in electric cars.[141] Ranking next were the Volkswagen e-Golf (4,705), Volkswagen Golf GTE (4,337), Nissan Leaf (4,162), and BMW i3 (3,953).[21][91] Registrations of used imports were led by the Kia Soul (2,494) and the Nissan Leaf (2,112).[91] When new car sales in 2016 are breakdown by powertrain or fuel, nine of the top ten best-selling models were electric-drive models: three plug-in hybrids, three battery electric cars, three conventional hybrids, and only one diesel-powered car.[148]

Historical evolution of the Norwegian plug-in electric car segment market share of new car sales and monthly records through January 2017. (Source: Norwegian Road Federation (OFV).

New plug-in electric car registrations in February 2016 totaled 3,936 used and new light-duty plug-in vehicles, with the new plug-in passenger car segment achieving a 28.5% market share of new car sales, surpassing the previous monthly record holder, March 2015 (26.4%).[101][149] The highest-ever monthly market share for plug-in electric passenger segment was achieved in March 2016 with 33.5% of new car sales; the all-electric car segment had an 18.7% market share among new passenger cars, while the plug-in hybrid segment had a 14.8%.[99] The segment's March registrations totaled 5,183 units, consisting of 2,595 new pure electric cars, 2,051 new plug-in hybrid cars, 68 new all-electric vans, 465 all-electric used cars and 4 used vans.[150] In March 2016, combined sales of the Golf plug-in variants totaled 1,216 units out of 1,411 new Golf nameplate units registered that month, representing 86.2% of the model total registrations.[151]

When new car registrations in July 2016 are broken down by type of powertrain, a total of five plug-in cars ranked among the top 10 best selling new cars in Norway that month, with the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV ranking for the first time as the top selling new car with 504 units registered in July 2016. Ranking next were the Volkswagen Golf GTE (412), Volkswagen Passat GTE (294), Volkswagen e-Golf (279), and Nissan Leaf (237).[30][152] By the end of August 2016, about 90,000 pure electric vehicles have been registered in the country, including used imports, triggering the introduction of the new "EK" special license plate series dedicated to all-electric vehicles.[95][57]

The Tesla Model X was the top selling new car model in Norway in September 2016.[18][31]

The VW Golf nameplate led new car registrations in September 2016 with 996 units, followed by the Tesla Model X with 601 and the BMW i3 with 520. However, when Golf family sales are broken down by each variant's powetrain, the all-electric e-Golf registered 392 units, the Golf GTE plug-in hybrid 358, and the internal combustion-powered Golf 242 units. Therefore, the Model X not only led sales in the plug-in electric segment, but also was the top selling new car model in September 2016.[18][108][31] In addition, when models are ranked considering their powertrain, a total of five plug-in cars ranked among the top 10 best selling new cars in Norway that month. In addition to the Model X and the i3, the other top selling plug-in models were the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (427), Volkswagen e-Golf (392), and Volkswagen Golf GTE (358).[18][73][153][108][31] Again in November 2016, an electric car topped new cars sales in the country. The BMW i3 listed as the top selling new passenger car model with 1,014 units registered, capturing a market share of 7.7% of new car sales that month.[32][19]

As of 30 December 2016, the Nissan Leaf remains as the all-time best selling plug-in electric car in the country with a total of 19,407 new Leafs registered since 2011.[4][154] When used imported Leafs are accounted for, there were 27,115 Leafs on Norwegian roads at the end of November 2016.[35] Ranking second is the VW e-Golf with 16,216 units registered followed by the Tesla Model S with 11,878 units.[4][35] As of December 2016, the Outlander PHEV is the all-time top selling plug-in hybrid car with 9,499 new units registered since 2013.[59][140][141]

2017[edit]

A record monthly market share for the plug-in electric passenger segment was achieved in January 2017 with 37.5% of new car sales; the plug-in hybrid segment had a 20.0% market share of new passenger cars, while the all-electric car segment had an 17.5%.[24] In January 2017 the electrified segment for the first time ever surpassed combined sales of cars with a diesel or gasoline engine. Sales of plug-in hybrids, all-electric cars and conventional hybrids achieved a market share of 51.4% of new car sales that month.[24][25][26]

Latest trends[edit]

Evolution of passenger car fleet market share in Norway by type of fuel or powertrain between 2011 and 2016. Source:.[155]

Plug-in segment is replacing diesel cars[edit]

During the first quarter of 2016 gasoline-powered cars kept almost the same market share as 2015, while the share of diesel-powered cars declined by 8.9%, almost corresponding to the gain of the plug-in hybrid segment.[156] In September 2016 the Norwegian electric-drive segment had achieved a record 47.8% market share of new cars sales that month.[18][108]

In 2016 the more general category of hybrid electric cars, which in Norway includes plug-in hybrids, had a market share of 24.5% of new car sales, up from 12.4% in 2015. Accounting together the market shares of all-electric cars (15.7%), plug-in hybrids (13.4%), and conventional hybrids (11.1%), the Norwegian electric-drive segment achieved a record 40.2% market share of new cars sales in 2016. In contrast, the market share of new diesel-powered cars declined to 30.8% from 40.8% in 2015, and gasoline-powered cars had a 29.0% market share, slightly down from 29.6% in 2015. These trends indicate that the diesel segment, and in a lesser degree, the gasoline segment, are losing market share in favor of conventional hybrids and plug-in electric cars, particularly plug-in hybrids.[4][148][157] Sales of plug-in cars are expected to overtake diesel-powered cars in Norway in 2017.[157]

In January 2017 the electrified passenger car segment for the first time ever surpassed combined sales of cars with a conventional diesel or gasoline engine. Sales of plug-in hybrids, all-electric cars and conventional hybrids achieved a market share of 51.4% of new car sales that month. The plug-in car segment achieved a record market share of 37.5%. Individually, the diesel car segment excluding hybrids had a market share of 23.9%, and gasoline cars excluding hybrids represented 24.7% of new car sales that month.[25][26]

Plug-in hybrid segment growth to the expense of pure electrics[edit]

Registration of new and used imports by type of plug-in electric vehicle between 2013 and 2016.[2][3][4]

The plug-in hybrid segment outsold all-electric cars for the first time ever in the month of April 2016.[158] Registrations of new passenger plug-in vehicles during the first half of 2016 totaled 11,744 all-electric cars and 10,338 plug-in hybrids, with the all-electric car segment reaching a market share of 15.1%, down from 18.4% in the same period in 2015, while the plug-in hybrid segment reached a record 13.3%, up from 4.5% in 2015.[159] These sales results for the first half of 2016 revealed a new trend in the Norwegian plug-in electric market. After years of spectacular growth, the market share of all-electric cars suffered a decline over the previous year, while the plug-in hybrid segment experienced significant growth.[18][73][159] In terms of sales volume during the first half of 2016, for the first time plug-in hybrid registrations (10,338) were very close to all-electrics (11,744).[159] Accounting for registrations during the first three quarters of 2016, plug-in hybrids grew nearly three-fold from the same period in 2016.[18][73][153]

According to the Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association this new trend is the result of uncertainty created by the government about the future incentives for zero-emission vehicles.[159] Also, buyers have more models to choose from, as the number of plug-in hybrid cars available in the market has increased significantly, as of August 2016, there were 19 plug-in hybrid models in the market and 15 all-electric cars.[61] Accounting for cumulative registrations between January and July 2016, four plug-in hybrids were listed among the top 10 selling plug-in electric cars, with a plug-in hybrid ranking for the first time ever in first place. As the trend of stronger plug-in hybrid sales continued in July 2016, the split between battery electric cars and plug-in hybrids almost reached parity, with 12,855 electric cars (51.3%) registered in the first seven months of 2016 compared to 12,203 plug-in hybrids registered in the same period (48.7%).[61] In September 2016, the Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association proposed to the government to change the rules in the 2017 budget to limit the incentives for plug-in hybrids with insufficient all-electric range and luxury models featuring an electric powertrain with a small battery with the sole purpose of increasing power output.[18][76][77]

Registrations by model[edit]

The following table presents registrations of plug-in electric cars and utility vans by model per year since 2008 through December 2015. Figures between 2008 and 2013 correspond to the combined number of first registrations by year accounting for both, new and used imports. Figures for 2014 and 2015 correspond only to new car registrations. The breakdown between new and used import for the Nissan Leaf and the Kia Soul EV is shown because these are the two PEV models with the largest share of used import registrations (almost 70%).


Registration of plug-in electric vehicles by model in Norway
between 2008 and December 2015
Model Total
registrations(1)
Market
share(2)
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008
New only[59][90][160] Includes new and used imports[1][98][87][115][161]
Nissan Leaf Combined 21,231 25.2% 5,277 7,013 6,073 2,487 381[7]      
Only new 15,245 3,189[145] 4,781[145] 4,604[115] 2,298[112] 373[112]      
Used imports 5,986 51.4%(3) 2,088[90] 2,232[162] 1,469[162] 189[98] 8      
Volkswagen e-Golf 10,961 13.0% 8,943 2,018            
Tesla Model S 10,064 11.9% 4,039 4,040 1,985          
Volkswagen e-Up! 5,056 6.0% 1,507 2,971 578          
BMW i3 4,494 5.3% 2,403[163] 2,040 51          
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV 4,363 5.2% 2,875 1,485[142] 3          
Kia Soul EV Combined 3,355 4.0% 2,064 445            
Only new 1,311 866[59] 445[59]            
Used imports 2,044 17.5%(3) 2,044[90] NA            
Mitsubishi i-MiEV 3,077 3.6% 490 413 453 671 1,050      
Renault Zoe 2,071 2.5% 1,634 433 4          
Volkswagen Golf GTE 2,000 2.4% 2,000              
Peugeot iOn 1,815 2.2% 570 309 277 442 217      
Citroën C-Zero 1,796 2.1% 437 371 221 557 210      
Audi A3 e-tron 1,701 2.0% 1,684 17(4)            
Mercedes-Benz B-Class ED 1,352 1.6% 1,352              
Th!nk City(5)(6) 1,120[86] 1.3%     12 22 133 331 93 183
Kewet/Buddy(5)(6) 1,087[86] 1.8%     15 24 125 233 161 209
Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid 972 1.2% 835 43(4) 94          
Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid 407 0.9% 23 29(4) 184 171        
Nissan e-NV200 346 0.8% 263 83            
Ford Focus Electric 311 0.7% 29 169 113          
REVAi(5)(6) 299[86] 0.7%           NA NA NA
Opel Ampera 253 0.6%   18(4) 94 141        
Citroën C1/Saxo Electrique(6) 221[86] 0.5%                
Peugeot 106 Electrique(6) 210[86] 0.5%                
Ford Transit Connect Electric(7) 158[164] 0.4%     86 31 41      
Smart electric drive 109 0.3% 92 5 12          
Renault Twizy 108 0.2% 16[165] 26[165] 61 5        
Tesla Roadster 104 0.2%   2 3 38 34 NA    
Mercedes-Benz C 350 e 101 0.2% 101              
Renault Kangoo Z.E. 97 0.2%     97          
Volkswagen Passat GTE 85 0.2% 85              
BMW X5 xDrive40e 63 0.1% 63              
BMW i8 57 0.1% 38 19(4)            
Tazzari Zero 52 0.1%   2 6 10 34      
Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid 51 0.1% 51              
Renault Fluence 21 0.05%   8 13          
Mia electric 20 0.05%     7 13        
Mercedes-Benz GLE 500 e 18 0.04% 18              
Volvo C30 Electric 10 0.02%     10          
Fisker Karma 5 0.01%   1 4        
Mercedes-Benz S 500 e 4 0.01% 4              
BMW 225xe Active Tourer 3 0.01% 3              
Fiat 500e 3 0.01%     3          
Volvo XC90 T8 2 0.005% 2              
Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Electric Drive 2 0.005%     2          
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid 1 0.002%   1(4)            
Chevrolet Volt 1 0.002%     1          
Total used imports registered[2][3][89] 11,648 13.8% 5,177 3,085 2,086 ~1,300
Total registered[2][3][129][87] 84,401 39,632 23,408 10,769 4,700 2,243 733 454 567
Notes:

(1) Total registrations include new car sales and used imports from neighboring countries since 2004.
(2) Market share as percentage of the 84,401 plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway as of December 2015, including new plug-in electric car and van sales, and used imports.
(3) Share of the 11,648 used plug-in electric cars imported to Norway as of December 2015.
(4) Registrations between January and November 2014.
(5) Total registrations for the Th!nk City, Kewet/Buddy, and REVAi include vehicles registered prior to 2008 up to September 2013. Heavy quadricycles are entitled to the special "EL" license plate.
(6) Registrations through September 2013.
(7) Registrations through June 2013.

Controversies[edit]

Piggyback on French subsidies[edit]

Some car dealers in Norway have been importing new and used plug-in electric cars, in particular from Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, France, Italy and Spain. In the case of the Nissan Leaf, these dealers buy mostly new cars at a lower price than Norway's retail price thanks to the moderate demand for Leaf in other countries, where better price deals are offered. Then, the cars are sold in the Norwegian market up to 30,000 kr (~ US$5,000) cheaper than from Norway's dealerships. Official Norwegian dealers have raised questions about the kind of guarantee offered for the imports.[166] Out of 1,412 all-electric cars registered in the country during the first quarter of 2013, 269 were used imports, representing 19% of all registrations during this quarter.[167]

In September 2013, several French news outlets reported that according to the Norwegian newspaper Dagens Næringsliv, some car dealers in Norway have been buying electric cars in France and earning the €7,000 (~ US$9,465) government subsidy. These cars are then imported to Norway and after discounting the freight costs, they are sold at a discount. Dagens Næringsliv cited the case of one dealer near Oslo with 70% of its electric car sales corresponding to vehicles imported from France, and with at least 40 Leafs imported, totaling €280,000 ( ~ US$378,600) in benefits at a cost of the French taxpayers. These dealers are taking advantage of a loophole in the French law, which only requires to have an address in the country when buying a new car.[168][169]

Tesla Model S, Nissan Leaf, Peugeot iOn, Buddy and Th!nk City parked in a street area reserved for charging electric cars in Oslo, Norway.

Loophole to EU regulations[edit]

During 2015 a total of 2,044 used Kia Soul EVs were imported in Norway, mainly from Germany.[90]

According to Der Spiegel, by the early fourth quarter of 2015 the Kia Soul EV ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in Germany during 2015 with 2,459 units sold, with almost 1,000 registered in October, nevertheless, there were actually only a few of them on German roads. At the time, about 1,400 Soul EVs had been shipped to Norway and sold as used cars, where availability of new Soul EVs is limited. According to the magazine, Kia Motors is registering the electric cars in Germany and then shipping them to Norway, which does not belong to the European Union, as a strategy to reduce the average CO2 fleet emissions of the entire Hyundai-Kia Group. This strategy allows the carmaker to comply with European Union regulations that mandate 130 grams of CO2 emission per km in 2015, and so they avoid to pay a fine of €70 million per year for each gram above the established average limit. According to German authorities this loophole is legal.[170] A total of 2,044 Kia Soul EVs were imported to Norway as used cars during 2015.[90]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  75. ^ Krüger, Robin (2016-09-27). "I denne byen blir det slutt på gratis elbil-parkering" [This city finally gets free electric vehicle parking]. TV2 (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
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  79. ^ Kaja Mejlbo (2013-12-09). "Så rask er el-bilen kontra bensinbilen" [So fast is the electric car vs. the gasoline car]. Budstikka (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  80. ^ Nils H. Harnes & Hanne Vienna (2013-12-10). "Elbilene kan gi full stopp i kollektivfeltet neste år" [Electric cars can cause full stop in the bus lanes next year]. Budstikka (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  81. ^ Alister Doyle (2013-12-20). "Norway is starting to have more electric cars than it can handle". Reuters. Quartz.com. Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  82. ^ Faye Sunderland (2014-09-02). "Norway under pressure to cut EV incentives". The Green Car Website UK. Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  83. ^ Knut Moberg (2015-01-16). "Elbilfordelene kan ikke vare evig" [EV benefits can not last forever]. Dinside.com (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2015-02-23. 
  84. ^ "Ladepunkter i Norge" [EV Charging Points in Norway] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-09. 
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  88. ^ Navigant Research (2014-04-24). "Navigant: US to remain largest national plug-in vehicle market over next 10 years; Tokyo to take metro market lead spot from LA". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
  89. ^ a b c Bert Witkamp (2014-09-14). "Electric vehicle sales in Europe - European Electro-mobility Observatory" (PDF). AVERE. Retrieved 2015-02-22.  See pp.12: New car registration is NOT EV’s on the road - About 1,300 used electric cars were imported into Norway before 2013. By September 2014 most imports came from France, particularly Nissan Leaf cars.
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  92. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2014). "Statistikk-Ladbare biler i Norge" [Vehicle population in 2013] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  As of 31 December 2013, there were 2,487,353 passenger cars registered in the country.
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  94. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-04-17). "Norway Electric Car Incentives Will Hit Sales Cap Next Week". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
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  96. ^ OFV (January 2017). "Kjøretøybestanden per 31. desember 2016" [Vehicle population at December 31, 2016] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken (OFV). Retrieved 2017-01-23. 
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  100. ^ a b Mark Kane (2014-01-04). "Tesla Model S Again #1 in Overall Sales in Norway in December!". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
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  103. ^ a b Matt Gasnier (2015-04-09). "Norway March 2015: Tesla Model S back up to #2 and 8.1% share". Best Selling Car Blog. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  104. ^ a b Reuters (2013-11-01). "Nissan Leaf tops Norway Oct. car sales, beats Toyota Auris, VW Golf". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  105. ^ a b Mark Kane (2014-02-10). "Nissan LEAF Is Best Selling Car In Norway Again In January!". InsideEvs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  106. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2013-11-02). "Norway October 2013: Nissan Leaf new leader!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  107. ^ Mat Gasnier (2014-01-05). "Norway Full Year 2013: VW Golf #1, Nissan Leaf on podium!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  108. ^ a b c d Fred Magne Skillebæk (2016-10-11). "Bilsalget september 2016 - Full fart forover!" [Car sales in September 2016 - Full speed ahead!]. Dinside.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
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  110. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV). "Statistikk-Ladbare biler i Norge" (in Norwegian). Gronnbil. Retrieved 2012-01-13.  See "Anslag nov 2011" on the table at the left.
  111. ^ International Energy Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (April 2013). "Global EV Outlook 2013 - Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020" (PDF). International Energy Agency. Retrieved 2013-04-21.  See pp. 12.
  112. ^ a b c d e f g Mat Gasnier (2013-01-09). "Norway Full Year 2012: VW Tiguan and Nissan Leaf impress". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2016-03-09.  A total of 373 new units were sold in 2011 and 2,298 units in 2012.
  113. ^ "Nok en ny salgsrekord for elbiler og plug-in hybrider i september" [Probably a new sales record for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids in September] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  114. ^ Haakon Førde (2014-04-28). "Antall el-varebiler tredoblet i 2013" [Number of electric vans tripled in 2013]. BilNorge.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  115. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ståle Frydenlund (2014-01-02). "7.882 nye elbiler registrert i 2013" [7882 new electric cars registered in 2013] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-03-13.  Sales during 2013 totaled 4,604 new Leafs and 1,986 Tesla Model S cars.
  116. ^ Padraic Deane (2014-02-07). "Renault-Nissan Alliance a strong partnership". Auto Trade (Ireland). Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  117. ^ a b c "Rekordsalg av elbiler i august" [Record sales of electric cars in August] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 2013-09-02. Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  118. ^ OFV (2013-09-02). "Bilsalget i august" [Car sales in August] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken (OFV). Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  119. ^ Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2013-09-26). "August electric car sales - Norway outsells Germany". Eagle AID. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  120. ^ "Tesla Sells Its First New Electric Car in Europe to Norway". The Nordic Page: Norway. 2013-08-11. Retrieved 2013-08-11. 
  121. ^ OFV (2013-09-02). "Bilsalget i august" [Car sales in August] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken (OFV). Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  122. ^ John Voelcker (2013-10-01). "Tesla Model S Was Best-Selling Car In Norway For September". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  123. ^ Agence France-Presse (AFP) (2013-10-03). "Electric car tops registrations in Norway for first time". Google Hosted News. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  124. ^ Reuters (2013-10-09). "Tesla’s $110,000 Model S is now Norway’s best-selling car". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  125. ^ Eric Loveday (2013-10-09). "Norwegians Buying "Used" Tesla Model S Sedans at Prices Higher Than New to Avoid 5-Month Wait". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  126. ^ Dana Hull (2013-02-14). "Elon Musk vs The New York Times: battle escalates Thursday with dueling blog posts". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2014-09-15. 
  127. ^ AVERE-France (2015-01-30). "Immatriculations de véhicules électriques en Europe : +60% en 2014 !" [Registrations of electric vehicles in Europe: +60% in 2014] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  128. ^ Balazs Koranyi (2015-04-20). "Norway to review electric car subsidies as sales soar". Reuters. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  129. ^ a b Staff (2014-04-02). "Elbilsalget i mars slo alle rekorder" [Electric vehicle sales in March broke all records] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  130. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (April 2014). "Bilsalget i mars" [Car sales in March] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2014-04-03.  A total of 36,492 new passenger cars were registered in Norway during the first quarter of 2014.
  131. ^ OFV (February 2015). "Bilsalget i januar" [Car sales in January] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). Retrieved 2015-02-23. .
  132. ^ Brett Frydenlund (2015-02-04). "Nesten halvparten var e-Golf" [Almost half were e-Golf] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2015-02-23. 
  133. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-04-08). "La Renault Zoé arrive en Norvège, capitale mondiale du véhicule électrique" [Renault Zoe arrives in Norway, the world capital of the electric vehicle] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  134. ^ a b c OFV (July 2014). "Bilsalget i juni og første halvår 2014" [Car sales in June and the first half of 2014] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). Retrieved 2014-08-23.  Click on "Modellfordelt" to display the top 20 selling new cars in Norway.
  135. ^ a b c d Ståle Frydenlund (2014-07-18). "Snart 10.000 nye elbiler registrert" [Almost 10,000 new EVs registered] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  136. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (August 2014). "Bilsalget i juli" [Car sales in July] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2014-08-23.  Click on "Modellfordelt" to display the top 20 selling new cars in Norway.
  137. ^ Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2014-08-06). "Every second electric car sold in Norway this July came from Volkswagen". AID. Retrieved 2014-08-23.  In July 2014 the top selling electric cars in Norway were the Volkswagen e-Golf with 391 units, the Nissan Leaf with 313 and the Volkswagen e-Up! with 282.
  138. ^ a b Ståle Frydenlund (2014-09-02). "VW e-Golf slår Teslas superstart" [VW e-Golf beats Tesla's super start] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  139. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (September 2014). "Bilsalget i august" [Car sales in August] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2014-09-13.  Click on "Modellfordelt" to display the top 20 selling new cars in Norway.
  140. ^ a b c d Ståle Frydenlund (2015-01-02). "Dobbelt så mange elbiler" [Twice as many electric cars] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-02-26. 
  141. ^ a b c d Staff (2017-01-21). "Outlander PHEV was best-selling plug-in model in Norway in 2016". Electric Cars Report. Retrieved 2017-01-21. In 2016, for the first time ever, a plug-in hybrid was the best-selling model, with the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV ending the year with 5.136 units. 
  142. ^ a b "Mitsubishi Motors in Europe – CY14 Sales" (Press release). UK: Mitsubishi Media Europe. 2015-01-21. Retrieved 2016-02-27.  A total of 1,485 Outlander P-HEVs were sold in Norway in 2014.
  143. ^ Angelo Young (2014-08-14). "Tesla In Norway: 436 Model S Sedans Are Being Delivered Monthly In Tesla’s Largest Overseas Market". International Business Times. Retrieved 2014-09-15. 
  144. ^ Mark Kane (2015-04-04). "Norway Electric Car Sales At Nearly 26% Market Share In March!". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  145. ^ a b c Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2016). "Bilsalget i desember" [Car sales in December] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-02-07.  A total of 16,388 new VW Golf cars were registered in Norway in 2015. On the heading "Registreringsstatistikken t.o.m. desember 2015" click "2015, des, Personbiler, Merkefordelt"
  146. ^ Minidokumentar: Norsk elbilforenings 20 år på 20 minutter! [Short Documentary: Norwegian EV Association 20 years in 20 minutes!] (YouTube) (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). 2015-11-26. Retrieved 2015-12-19.  By late November 2015, over 20,000 Nissan Leafs are registered in Norway, representing over 10% of Leaf global sales.
  147. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-12-15). "Tesla Model S Crossed 100,000 Sales Milestone This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-12-19. 
  148. ^ a b c d Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (2017-01-10). "Bilåret 2016 – status og trender" [Car sales 2016 - status and trends] (PDF) (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2017-03-04. 
  149. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (March 2016). "1927 nullutslippsbiler" [1,927 zero-emission vehicles] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-03-06.  A total of 1,927 new zero emission cars were registered in Norway in February 2016 (including two hydrogen cars), representing a 15.8% market share among passenger cars in February. In addition, a total of 1,563 new plug-in hybrid cars were registered that month, representing a market share of 12.8% of the 12,222 new cars registered in February 2016. Also 371 all-electric used imports were registered, and 77 all-electric vans, 67 new and 10 used imports. Total new plug-in car registrations totaled 3,488 units, and accounting for vans and used imports, the total February registrations rise to 3,936 units.
  150. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (April 2016). "2597 nullutslippsbiler" [2,597 zero-emission vehicles] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-04-13.  A total of 2,597 new zero emission cars were registered in Norway in March 2016 (including two hydrogen cars), representing an 18.7% market share among new passenger cars registered that month. In addition, a total of 2,051 new plug-in hybrid cars were registered , representing a market share of 14.8% of the 13,875 new cars registered in March 2016. Also 465 all-electric used imports were registered, and 72 all-electric vans, 68 new and 4 used imports. Total new plug-in car registrations totaled 4,646 units, and accounting for vans and used imports, the total March registrations rise to 5,183 units.
  151. ^ Moberg, Knut (2016-04-04). "Kjøpefesten fortsetter: Bilsalget i mars 2016 : Et sterkt første kvartal" [Buying party continues: Auto sales in March 2016: A strong first quarter]. Dinside.com (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-04-04.  See table: "Bilmodellenes topp 20 i mars", "Ladbare hybrider i mars" and "Elbil-salget i mars." The hybrid segment, which in Norway includes plug-in hybrids, achieved a market share of 24.5% of total new car registrations in March 2016. A total of 3,396 hybrid cars were registered in March 2016, of these, 2,501 were plug-in hybrids (73.6%).
  152. ^ Ayre, James (2016-08-19). "Electric Car Sales = 28% Of All Car Sales In Norway (First 7 Months Of 2016)". Clean Technica. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  153. ^ a b Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (October 2016). "Bilsalget i september" [Car sales in September] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-10-09. 
  154. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-12-12). "Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf Celebrate Their Sixth-Year Anniversary". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-12-15. 
  155. ^ Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). "Bilsalget 2016" [Car sales in 2016] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2017-01-23.  Click on the links in the right side for registration figures on each year (2011-2016).
  156. ^ Frydenlund, Ståle (2016-04-15). "De ladbare hybridene kan ta igjen elbilene" [Plug-in hybrids can catch all-electric cars] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-04-20. 
  157. ^ a b Grant, Alex (2017-01-17). "Plug-in sales likely to overtake diesel in Norway this year". EV Fleet World. Retrieved 2017-01-22. 
  158. ^ Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2016-05-12). "Is Norway’s love-affair with the electric car over?". AID Newsletter. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  159. ^ a b c d Ståle Frydenlund (2016-07-05). "15 av 100 nye biler var elbiler" [15 out of 100 cars were electric vehicles] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-07-26. 
  160. ^ Moberg, Knut (2015-01-03). "44 prosent av oss vil ha ladbar bil 28 kommentarer" [44 percent of us will have a plug-in car]. Dinside.com (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-03-10.  See table: "Ladbare hybrider i Norge"
  161. ^ "2012 (Full Year) Norway: Best-Selling Electric Car Models". Car Sales Statistics. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  162. ^ a b Moberg, Knut (2016-01-16). "Bilsalget i 2015: Tidenes bronseplass" [Car sales in 2015: The bronze age]. Dinside.com (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-03-05.  See table: "Import av bruktbil i 2014." Used Leaf imported to Norway from neighboring countries totaled 2,232 units in 2014 and 1,469 in 2013.
  163. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2016). "CO2-utslippet i desember" [CO2 emissions in December] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-03-10.  See graph: "Gjennomsnittlig CO2-utslipp for registrerte ney personbiler per modell 2015, til og med desember.
  164. ^ Bekker, Henk (2013-07-04). "2013 (Half Year) Norway: Best-Selling Electric Cars". Car Sales Statistics. Retrieved 2016-03-13. 
  165. ^ a b Groupe Renault (January 2016). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2016-03-13.  Click on "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2015)" to download the file "XLSX - 227 Ko" for 2015 sales, and open the tab "Twizy Renault". Sales in Norway for 2015 and 2014 are reported.
  166. ^ Stian Hæreid Espeland (2013-09-19). "Elbil-boom i Norge" [Electric Vehicle Boom in Norway] (in Norwegian). Bladet. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  167. ^ "Elbilsuksessen fortsetter" [Electric vehicle success continues] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 2013-04-05. Retrieved 2013-04-06. 
  168. ^ Agence France-Presse (AFP) (2013-09-19). "Comment la France subventionne des voitures en Norvège" [How France subsidizes cars in Norway]. Challenges (France) (in French). Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  169. ^ Maxime Amiot (2013-09-20). "Quand l'Etat français subventionne les voitures électriques en Norvège" [When the French government subsidizes electric cars in Norway]. Les Échos (France) (in French). Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  170. ^ Nils-Viktor Sorge & Wilfried Eckl-Dorna (2015-11-26). "Dubiose Zulassungs-Strategie:Dieser Ladenhüter trickst Kias Umweltbilanz schön" [Dubious approval strategy: This dealer is tricking beautifully Kia's environmental balance]. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 2016-03-03. 

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