São Paulo Metro

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São Paulo Metrô
Metrô-SP logo.svg
ViaQuatro SP.jpg ViaMobilidade SP.png
Spmetropolitanomontagem.jpg
Overview
Native nameMetrô de São Paulo
LocaleSão Paulo, Brazil
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines6
Line number 1   2   3   4   5   15 
Number of stations89
Daily ridership5.3 million (2019)
Annual ridership1.494 billion (2019)[1][2][3][4]
WebsiteMetrô (in English)
Operation
Began operationSeptember 14, 1974
Operator(s)Metrô-SP icon.svg Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo (Lines 1–3, 15)
ViaQuatro logo.png ViaQuatro (Line 4)
ViaMobilidade logo.png ViaMobilidade (Line 5)
Headway1′40" to 3′
Technical
System length101.1 km (62.8 mi)[5](Metro only)
374 km (232 mi)[6] (complete network)
Track gauge1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) (Lines 1-3)
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (Lines 4-5)
Electrification
Average speed60 km/h (37 mph)
Top speed100 km/h (62 mph) (Lines 1-3)
80 km/h (50 mph) (Lines 4-5, 15)
System map

Mapa do Metrô de São Paulo em escala.png

The São Paulo Metro (Portuguese: Metrô de São Paulo), commonly called the Metrô (Portuguese pronunciation: [meˈtɾo]) is one of the urban railways that serves the city of São Paulo, alongside the São Paulo Metropolitan Trains Company (CPTM), forming the largest metropolitan rail transport network of Latin America.[7] The six lines in the metro system operate on 101.1 kilometres (62.8 mi) of route, serving 89 stations.[8] The metro system carries about 5,300,000 passengers a day.[9]

Metro itself is far from covering the entire urban area in the city of São Paulo and only runs within the city limits. However, it is complemented by a network of metropolitan trains operated by CPTM, which serve the São Paulo and the São Paulo Metropolitan Region.[10][11] The two systems combined form a 374 km (232 mi) long network.[12] The CPTM differs from Metro because it also serves other municipalities around São Paulo with larger average distance between stations and freight trains operating in some lines (except for the Line 9, which has almost no differences to the Metro lines).

Considered the most modern in Latin America[13], the system is the first to install platform screen doors at a station[14], and use communications-based train control[15] with lines 4 and 15 being fully automated.[16] Line 15, is a monorail line that partially opened for service in 2014 and is the first high capacity monorail line of Latin America. The São Paulo Metro and CPTM both operate as State-owned companies, and have received awards in the recent past as one of the cleanest systems in the world by ISO9001.[17] The São Paulo Metro was voted Best Metro Americas at the MetroRail 2010 industry conference[18] and it was chosen as one of the best metro systems of the world by the Business Insider, being the only system in Latin America to make the list.[19]

History[edit]

The Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo (Metrô) was founded on April 24, 1968. Eight months later, work on North-South line was initiated. In 1972, the first test train trip occurred between Jabaquara and Saúde stations. On September 14, 1974, the segment between Jabaquara and Vila Mariana entered into commercial operation.

The first line, Norte/Sul (North/South), later renamed "Blue Line" or Line 1 - Blue, was opened on September 18, 1972, with an experimental operation between Saúde and Jabaquara stations. Commercial operations started on September 14, 1974, after an eight-year "gestation" period that began in 1966, under Mayor Faria Lima's administration. Expansion of the metro system includes new lines. As of late 2004, construction began on a US$1 billion, 12.8 km (8.0 mi) all-underground line (Line 4 - Yellow), with eleven stations, aimed at transporting almost one million people per day. By 2004, Line 2 was also being expanded, with two new stations open in 2006 and another one in 2007.

An 10.5-kilometre (6.5 mi) expansion of Line 5 was completed in 2018.

As of January 2020, tickets cost R$4.40. In 2006, the São Paulo Metro system has started to use a smart card, called "Bilhete Único" (or "Single Ticket" in English).

Current operational data[edit]

Operational control center of the São Paulo metro.

The metro system consists of six color-coded lines: Line 1 (Blue), Line 2 (Green), Line 3 (Red), Line 4 (Yellow), Line 5 (Lilac) and Line 15 (Silver), operating from Sunday to Saturday, from 4:40 AM to midnight (1:00 AM on Saturdays).[20] Line 15 (Silver), is a high-capacity monorail.

The six lines achieved an average weekday ridership of 5.3 million in 2019[9]. On 14 September 2019, Metrô recorded the highest ever ridership figure of 5.5 million on a single business day, caused by the recent expansion of some lines. The Metro provided 1,4945 billion rides over the course of 2019.[1]

Bus terminals[edit]

In May 1977, Metro assumed the administration and commercial utilization of the Inter-City Jabaquara Intermunicipal Terminal, and inaugurated, in May 1982, the modern Inter-city Tietê Bus Terminal, replacing the former Júlio Prestes Terminal.

This agreement established that Metro would be in charge of the studies for the planning, implementation, and operation of passenger transportation in the municipal district of São Paulo, either directly or through third parties.

Later, the other inter-city bus terminals were integrated into the system, such as Bresser, in January 1988, and Palmeiras-Barra Funda, in December 1989. In January 1990 the inter-city bus terminals were outsourced by Metrô, which through public bidding, contracted Consortium Prima for the administration and commercial utilization of the 4 inter-city bus terminals of the city of São Paulo. This contract included the responsibility for maintenance and conservation of the existing installations, as well as of the expansion and modernisation of the terminals.[21]

Rolling stock[edit]

Train 114, or A14 in current nomenclature.

The first cars started operating in 1974, the same year the company's commercial activities were initiated. This model was named Series 100, whose cars received the numbers of 1001 to 1306 (51 trains of 6 cars each). They were designed in United States by the Budd Company, and the national rolling stock manufacturer Mafersa did the final assembly. The model was based off the Class A trains from the BART system, even using the same Westinghouse 1460 series chopper traction controls, and was to be used along the North-South line, now known as Line 1 - Blue. The initially they operated with two car trains with cars added as demand increased, up to a maximum of six cars. All of them have a pair of electric motors and a cab.

Train 337, or D37 in current nomenclature.

Today, this stock is known by "A stock" and all operate in the full six car consists. The entire "A stock" was planned to be entirely phased out by the beginning of 2015, as the recent modernization processes saw them being converted into two different stocks: I and J. The last A stock train was withdrawn from service in February 2018.

To reduce the manufacturing costs, the Cobrasma company decided to provide, for the East-West Line, now Line 3. Trains had cabs only and made use of more advanced ventilation and maintenance systems. This stock was known by the name of "C". The batch of trains designed for this line were produced by two different national companies, Cobrasma and Mafersa (whose trains got named as "D"). The trains entered service between 1984 and 1986 on Line 3 and remained there for their entire service lives, although in their final years, some of the D stock trains were transferred to Line 1 where they ran with the older A stock trains.

Interior of train P19.

The only difference between the two is the front mask and some structural framework. Their original technical nomenclature was 300. According to it, the C stock was numbered from 301 (C01) to 325 (C25), and the D stock had trains numbered from 326 (D26) to 347 (D47). The C stock trains were already refurbished as K stock and the D stock was refurbished and created the L cars. The refurbishment program for the entire stock of A, C and D trains was completed in 2018.

Today the rolling stock of the São Paulo Metro consists of 11 stocks, 232 trains[1] and 1,419 cars[22] and it is divided as follows:

E stock: Built by Alstom and entered service between 1998 and 1999. They currently operate on Line 1 - Blue.

F stock: Alstom trains specially built for Line 5 - Lilac between 2001 and 2002.

G stock: Also built by Alstom and entered service in 2008. They currently run on Lines 1 - Blue and 3 - Red.

H stock: Streamlined CAF-built trains built in 2010 which operate exclusively on Line 3 - Red since 2014.

I and J stock: Refurbished A stock trains which operate on Lines 1 - Blue and 2 - Green from 2011. They differ cosmetically as well as mechanically. I stock was rebuilt by Alstom and Siemens while J stock was rebuilt by Bombardier, Temoinsa, BTT and Tejofran.

K stock: Refurbished C stock trains rebuilt by a consortium consisting of T’trans, MTTrens, MPE and Temoinsa. They operate on Line 3 - Red just like the original trains.

L stock: D stock refurbished by Alstom and IESA and operates on Line 1 - Blue

M stock: The Monorail stock built by Bombardier between 2013 and 2016 and operates on Line 15 - Silver.

P stock: CAF-built trains from 2013 which run on Line 5 - Lilac alongside the former F stock.

400 series: Driverless trains built in 2009-2010 and 2016-2017 by Hyundai Rotem for Line 4 - Yellow [23]

Security[edit]

Metro's security agents have police powers and in case of need they will provide assistance. All police matters that occur within the system are directed to the police station of the subway system, DELPOM (Delegacia de Polícia do Metropolitano de São Paulo), located at Palmeiras-Barra Funda station.[24]

System lines[edit]

System Map - July 2020
Line Color Termini Opened Length Stations Duration
of trip (min)
Hours of
Operation
Line 1 Blue TucuruviJabaquara September 14, 1974 20.2 km (12.6 mi)[25] 23 39 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 2 Green Vila MadalenaVila Prudente January 25, 1991 14.7 km (9.1 mi)[25] 14 26 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 3 Red Palmeiras-Barra FundaCorinthians-Itaquera March 10, 1979 22.0 km (13.7 mi)[25] 18 34 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 4[26] Yellow São Paulo-MorumbiLuz May 25, 2010 11.4 km (7.1 mi)[27] 10 19 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 5[28] Lilac Capão RedondoChácara Klabin October 20, 2002 19.9 km (12.4 mi)[29] 17 35 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 15 Silver
(Monorail)
Vila PrudenteSão Mateus August 30, 2014 12.8 km (8.0 mi)[25] 10 21 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)

Future developments[edit]

Several conventional metro and monorail lines are currently under construction or under project.

System Map - under construction, May 2018
Under Construction
Line Color Termini Length Stations
Line 2[30][31] Green (Expansion) Vila Prudente ↔ Penha 8.3 km (5.2 mi) 8
Line 4[26][32] Yellow (Expansion) São Paulo-Morumbi ↔ Vila Sônia 1.5 km (0.93 mi) 1
Line 6[33] Orange Brasilândia ↔ São Joaquim 13.4 km (8.3 mi) 15
Line 15[34] Silver (Monorail) (Expansion) São Mateus ↔ Jardim Colonial 1.8 km (1.1 mi) 1
Line 17[35] Gold (Monorail) Morumbi ↔ Jardim Aeroporto 6.7 km (4.2 mi) 8
Planned
Line Color Termini Length Stations
Line 2[30] Green (Expansion) Penha ↔ Dutra 5 km (3.1 mi) 5
Line 2[30] Green (Expansion) Vila Madalena ↔ Cerro Corá 1 km (0.62 mi) 1
Line 4[26][32] Yellow (Expansion) Vila Sônia ↔ Taboão da Serra 3 km (1.9 mi) 2
Line 5[28] Lilac (Expansion) Capão Redondo ↔ Jardim Ângela 4 km (2.5 mi) 3
Line 5[28] Lilac (Expansion) Chácara Klabin ↔ Ipiranga 3 km (1.9 mi) 2
Line 15 Silver (Monorail) (Expansion) Jardim Colonial ↔ Hospital Cidade Tiradentes 9.2 km (5.7 mi) 6
Line 15 Silver (Monorail) (Expansion) Ipiranga ↔ Vila Prudente 1.9 km (1.2 mi) 1
Line 16[36][37] Violet Oscar Freire ↔ Jardim Brasília 20 km (12 mi) 21
Line 17[35] Gold (Monorail) (Expansion) Morumbi ↔ São Paulo-Morumbi 6.4 km (4.0 mi) 5
Line 17[35] Gold (Monorail) (Expansion) Jardim Aeroporto ↔ Jabaquara 3.5 km (2.2 mi) 5
Line 19[38][39][40] Sky Blue Bosque Maia ↔ Anhangabaú 17.6 km (10.9 mi) 15
Line 20[39][37] Pink Santa Marina ↔ Santo André 31 km (19 mi) 24
Cancelled
Line Color Termini Length Stations
Line 17[41] Gold (Monorail) (Expansion) Congonhas ↔ São Judas 3.8 km (2.4 mi) 2
Line 18[42][43] Bronze (Monorail) Tamanduateí ↔ Djalma Dutra 14.9 km (9.3 mi) 13
Line 21[44] Gray Pari ↔ Nordestina 21 km (13 mi) 12
Line 22[45][46][47][37] Maroon Rebouças ↔ Granja Viana 16.1 km (10.0 mi) 13
Line 23[37][48][49][50] Magenta Lapa ↔ Dutra 17 km (11 mi) 20
Line 24[51] Color unknown São Paulo ↔ Diadema

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Relatório Integrado 2019" [Integrated Report 2019] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Companhia do Metropolitano de Sao Paulo. 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-22.
  2. ^ http://transparencia.metrosp.com.br/dataset/demanda"Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo
  3. ^ https://www.viamobilidade.com.br/linhas/passageiros-transportados
  4. ^ http://www.viaquatro.com.br/linha-4-amarela/passageiros-transportados
  5. ^ "Governo de SP entrega 3 novas estações do Metrô" (in Portuguese). 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  6. ^ Ricardo Meier (29 October 2018). "Estação São Paulo-Morumbi coloca a Linha 4 mais próxima da periferia" (HTML) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  7. ^ http://www.urbanrail.net/am/spau/sao-paulo.htm
  8. ^ "Estação São Paulo-Morumbi do Metrô recebe visita técnica". Governo do Estado de Sao Paulo. 2018. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
  9. ^ a b "Com demanda em alta, linhas de metrô já transportam mais de 5,3 milhões de pessoas por dia" [With rising demand, subway lines already transport more than 5.3 million people a day] (in Portuguese). metrocptm. 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-23.
  10. ^ Metropolitan Map of São Paulo
  11. ^ Expansion Archived January 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ https://www.metrocptm.com.br/estacao-sao-paulo-morumbi-coloca-a-linha-4-mais-proxima-da-periferia/
  13. ^ Government of Sao Paulo State (30 January 2010). "Serra inaugura estação Sacomã do Metrô" [Governor Serra opens Metro station Sacoma] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  14. ^ http://www.saopaulo.sp.gov.br/spnoticias/ultimas-noticias/serra-inaugura-estacao-sacoma-do-metro-1
  15. ^ http://www.revistaferroviaria.com.br/index.asp?InCdNewsletter=5547&InCdUsuario=23745&InCdMateria=11225&InCdEditoria=1
  16. ^ Sitio de ViaQuatro, see section Technology
  17. ^ http://www.metro.sp.gov.br/metro/institucional/certificacao.aspx
  18. ^ * "9 Of The World's Best Subways (PHOTOS)". Huffington Post. April 12, 2010.
  19. ^ Business Insider (24 August 2015). "This graphic compares the best public transportation systems around the world" (SHTML). Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Horários - funcionamento | Metrô São Paulo". www.metro.sp.gov.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  21. ^ "Metrô - Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  22. ^ Includes 1,245 cars reported in February 2018 by the Metro, and additional 174 cars (29 trains) of Line 4 - Yellow.
  23. ^ https://www.metrocptm.com.br/linha-4-amarela-esta-prestes-a-receber-novos-trens/
  24. ^ "Metrô - Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  25. ^ a b c d "Infraestrutura" (PDF). Portal de transparência e governança corporativa da Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo. November 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  26. ^ a b c "Obras de expansão da Linha 4-Amarela - Metrô São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  27. ^ "Sobre a Linha 4 Amarela | ViaQuatro". www.viaquatro.com.br. Retrieved 2020-01-04.
  28. ^ a b c "Obras de expansão da Linha 5-Lilás - Metrô São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  29. ^ "ViaMobilidade completa 1 ano operando a Linha 5-Lilás". www.viamobilidade.com.br. Retrieved 2020-01-04.
  30. ^ a b c https://web.archive.org/web/20091015233144/http://www.expansao.sp.gov.br/metro_linha_branca.php. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. ^ Bertoloto, Bernardo (17 January 2020). "Governo anuncia retomada da expansão da Linha Verde do Metrô prometida para 2013" (in Portuguese). G1. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  32. ^ a b Sioux, Maddox (7 February 2017). "Expansão São Paulo: Linha 4 Amarela viaQuatro". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  33. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20091016163651/http://www.expansao.sp.gov.br/metro_linha_laranja.php. Archived from the original on October 16, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  34. ^ "Monotrilho Linha 15-Prata - Metrô São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  35. ^ a b c "Obras de expansão da Linha 17-Ouro - Metrô São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  36. ^ (PDF) https://www.pdui.sp.gov.br/rmsp/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  37. ^ a b c d SP, Márcio PinhoDo G1 (12 August 2012). "Metrô contrata estudos para três novas linhas na Zona Norte de SP". São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  38. ^ "PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  39. ^ a b http://www.domboscoitaquera.org.br/downloads/secretaria_estadual_de_transportes.pdf Seminário sobre infraestrutura e sistema viário para a copa 2014 e o desenvolvimento da zona leste, Jurandir Fernandes, Secretário dos Transportes Metropolitanos, 25/08/2011
  40. ^ "Metrô contrata estudos para três linhas an zona norte de SP".
  41. ^ Lobo, Renato (25 June 2020). "A extensão cancelada do Monotrilho da Linha 17 até a estação São Judas" (in Portuguese). Via Tróelbus. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  42. ^ http://www.aeamesp.org.br/bblt/16s/d4programa.aspx Associação dos Engenheiros e Arquitetos do Metrô de S. Paulo - 16ª Semana da Tecnologia Metroferroviária - 16 de setembro de 2010, Palestra : Metroleve ABC-SP
  43. ^ Meier, Ricardo (3 July 2019). "Governo do estado cancela Linha 18-Bronze de metrô" (in Portuguese). Metrô CPTM. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  44. ^ (PDF) https://www.pdui.sp.gov.br/rmsp/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  45. ^ https://viatrolebus.com.br/2018/11/nova-linha-de-metro-entre-cotia-e-sao-paulo/. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  46. ^ "Quando o Metrô chegará a outra cidade da Grande São Paulo?". Metrô CPTM (in Portuguese). 10 September 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  47. ^ https://www.jornalcotiaagora.com.br/metro-sp-cotia-projeto-funcional-da-linha-22-esta-atrasado-e-tera-aumento-de-estacoes/. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  48. ^ (PDF) https://www.pdui.sp.gov.br/rmsp/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  49. ^ https://viatrolebus.com.br/2012/08/metro-licita-projeto-funcional-para-linha-23-que-vai-ligar-a-dutra-ate-a-lapa/. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  50. ^ https://viatrolebus.com.br/2013/12/rede-futura-do/. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  51. ^ https://plamurbblog.wordpress.com/2018/12/19/metro-divulga-quais-serao-as-linhas-em-projeto-na-proxima-decada/. Retrieved 16 December 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]