São Paulo Metro

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São Paulo Metrô
Metrô-SP logo.svg
ViaQuatro SP.jpg ViaMobilidade SP.png
Spmetropolitanomontagem.jpg
Overview
Native nameMetrô de São Paulo
LocaleSão Paulo, Brazil
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines6 (Line 15 is a monorail line)
(Lines 4, 5, 15 in expansion)
Number of stations85
Daily ridership5 million (2019)
Annual ridership1.3586 billion (2018)[1]
WebsiteMetrô ‹See Tfd›(in English)
Operation
Began operationSeptember 14, 1974
Operator(s)Companhia do Metropolitano
de São Paulo (Lines 1, 2, 3, 15)
ViaQuatro (Line 4)
ViaMobilidade (Line 5)
Technical
System length96.0 km (59.7 mi)[2] (Metro only)
370.0 km (229.9 mi)[3] (complete network)
Track gauge1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) (Lines 1-3)
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge (Lines 4-5)
Electrification3,000 V DC catenary
750 V DC third rail (Lines 4-5)
Average speed60 km/h (37 mph)
Top speed100 km/h (62 mph) (Lines 1-3)
80 km/h (50 mph) (Lines 4-5,15)
System map

[1]

The São Paulo Metro (Portuguese: Metropolitano de São Paulo), commonly called the Metrô (Portuguese pronunciation: [meˈtɾo]) or Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo (CMSP), is one of the urban railways that serves the city of São Paulo, alongside the São Paulo Metropolitan Trains Company (CPTM), forming the largest metropolitan rail transport network of Latin America.[4] The six lines in the metro system operate on 96.0 kilometres (59.7 mi) of route, serving 85 stations.[2] The metro system carries about 5,000,000 passengers a day.[2]

Metro itself is far from covering the entire urban area in the city of São Paulo and only runs within the city limits. However, it is complemented by a network of metropolitan trains operated by CPTM, which serve the São Paulo and the São Paulo Metropolitan Region.[5][6] The two systems combined form a 370 km (230 mi) long network.[7] The CPTM differs from Metro because it serves other municipalities around São Paulo with larger average distance between stations and freight trains operating in some lines (except for the Line 9, which has almost no differences to the Metro lines).

The system is the first in Latin America to install platform screen doors at a station,[8] and use communications-based train control[9] with Line 4 being fully automated.[10] Line 15, is a monorail line that partially opened for service in 2014 and is the first high capacity monorail line of Latin America. The São Paulo Metro and CPTM both operate as State-owned companies, and have received awards in the recent past as one of the cleanest systems in the world by ISO9001.[11] The São Paulo Metro was voted Best Metro Americas at the MetroRail 2010 industry conference[12] and it was chosen as one of the best metro systems of the world by the Business Insider, being the only system in Latin America to make the list.[13]

History[edit]

The Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo (Metrô) was founded on April 24, 1968. Eight months later, work on North-South line was initiated. In 1972, the first test train trip occurred between Jabaquara and Saúde stations. On September 14, 1974, the segment between Jabaquara and Vila Mariana entered into commercial operation.

The first line, Norte/Sul (North/South), later renamed "Blue Line" or Line 1 - Blue, was opened on September 18, 1972, with an experimental operation between Saúde and Jabaquara stations. Commercial operations started on September 14, 1974, after an eight-year "gestation" period that began in 1966, under Mayor Faria Lima's administration. Expansion of the metro system includes new lines. As of late 2004, construction began on a US$1 billion, 12.8 km (8.0 mi) all-underground line (Line 4 - Yellow), with eleven stations, aimed at transporting almost one million people per day. By 2004, Line 2 was also being expanded, with two new stations open in 2006 and another one in 2007.

An 10.5-kilometre (6.5 mi) expansion of Line 5 was completed in 2018.

As of May 2019, tickets cost R$4.30. In 2006, the São Paulo Metro system has started to use a smart card, called "Bilhete Único" (or "Single Ticket" in English).

Current operational data[edit]

Operational control center of the São Paulo metro.

The metro system consists of six color-coded lines: Line 1 (Blue), Line 2 (Green), Line 3 (Red), Line 4 (Yellow), Line 5 (Lilac) and Line 15 (Silver), operating from Sunday to Saturday, from 4:40 AM to midnight (1:00 AM on Saturdays).[14] Line 15 (Silver), is a high-capacity monorail.

In 2016, the five lines operated by CMSP (Lines 1, 2, 3, 5 and 15) achieved an average weekday ridership of 4.3 million,[15] and provided 1,107 billion rides over the course of 2016.[16] The greatest number of passengers ever carried by the Metro on a single day is 4,916,659, which took place on November 14, 2013. During that year, the São Paulo Metro transported a total of more than 1,297 billion passengers.[17]

Bus terminals[edit]

In May 1977, Metro assumed the administration and commercial utilization of the Inter-City Jabaquara Intermunicipal Terminal, and inaugurated, in May 1982, the modern Inter-city Tietê Bus Terminal, replacing the former Júlio Prestes Terminal.

This agreement established that Metro would be in charge of the studies for the planning, implementation, and operation of passenger transportation in the municipal district of São Paulo, either directly or through third parties.

Later, the other inter-city bus terminals were integrated into the system, such as Bresser, in January 1988, and Palmeiras-Barra Funda, in December 1989. In January 1990 the inter-city bus terminals were outsourced by Metrô, which through public bidding, contracted Consortium Prima for the administration and commercial utilization of the 4 inter-city bus terminals of the city of São Paulo. This contract included the responsibility for maintenance and conservation of the existing installations, as well as of the expansion and modernisation of the terminals.[18]

Rolling stock[edit]

Train 114, or A14 in current nomenclature.

The first cars started operating in 1974, the same year the company's commercial activities were initiated. This model was named Series 100, whose cars received the numbers of 1001 to 1306 (51 trains of 6 cars each). They were designed in United States by the Budd Company, and the national rolling stock manufacturer Mafersa did the final assembly. The model was based off the Class A trains from the BART system, even using the same Westinghouse 1460 series chopper traction controls, and was to be used along the North-South line, now known as Line 1 - Blue. The initially they operated with two car trains with cars added as demand increased, up to a maximum of six cars. All of them have a pair of electric motors and a cab.

Train 337, or D37 in current nomenclature.

Today, this fleet is known by "A Fleet" and all operate in the full six car consists. The entire "A Fleet" was planned to be entirely phased out by the beginning of 2015, as the recent modernization processes saw them being converted into two different fleets: I and J. The last Fleet A train was withdrawn from service in February 2018.

To reduce the manufacturing costs, the Cobrasma company decided to provide, for the East-West Line, now Line 3. Trains had cabs only and made use of more advanced ventilation and maintenance systems. This fleet was known by the name of "C". The batch of trains designed for this line were produced by two different national companies, Cobrasma and Mafersa (whose trains got named as "D"). The trains entered service between 1984 and 1986 on Line 3 and remained there for their entire service lives, although in their final years, some of the fleet D trains were transferred to Line 1 where they ran with the older A fleet trains.

Interior of train P19.

The only difference between the two is the front mask and some structural framework. Their original technical nomenclature was 300. According to it, the C fleet was numbered from 301 (C01) to 325 (C25), and the D fleet had trains numbered from 326 (D26) to 347 (D47). The C fleet trains were already refurbished as K fleet and the D fleet was refurbished and created the L cars. The refurbishment program for the entire fleet of A, C and D trains was completed in 2018.

Today the rolling stock of the São Paulo Metro consists of 11 fleets, 232 trains and 1,419 cars[19] and it is divided as follows:

E fleet: Built by Alstom and entered service between 1998 and 1999. They currently operate on Lines 1 - Blue and 2 - Green.

F fleet: Alstom trains specially built for Line 5 - Lilac between 2001 and 2002. Currently known as 1st Phase 500 series.

G fleet: Also built by Alstom and entered service in 2008. They currently run on Lines 2 - Green and 3 - Red.

H fleet: Streamlined CAF-built trains built in 2010 which operate exclusively on Line 3 - Red since 2014.

I and J fleets: Refurbished A fleet trains which operate on Lines 1 - Blue and 2 - Green from 2011. They differ cosmetically as well as mechanically. Fleet I was rebuilt by Alstom and Siemens while Fleet J was rebuilt by Bombardier, Temoinsa, BTT and Tejofran.

K fleet: Refurbished C fleet trains rebuilt by a consortium consisting of T’trans, MTTrens, MPE and Temoinsa. They operate on Line 3 - Red just like the original trains.

L fleet: D fleet refurbished by Alstom and IESA and operates on Line 1 - Blue

M fleet: The Monorail fleet built by Bombardier between 2013 and 2016 and operates on Line 15 - Silver.

P fleet: CAF-built trains from 2013 which run on Line 5 - Lilac alongside the former F fleet. Currently known as 2nd Phase 500 Series.

4000 series: Driverless trains built in 2009-2010 by Hyundai Rotem for Line 4 - Yellow

Security[edit]

Metro's security agents have police powers and in case of need they will provide assistance. All police matters that occur within the system are directed to the police station of the subway system, DELPOM (Delegacia de Polícia do Metropolitano de São Paulo), located at Palmeiras-Barra Funda station.[20]

System lines[edit]

System Map - September 2018
Line Color Termini Opened Length Stations Duration
of trip (min)
Hours of
Operation
Line 1 Blue TucuruviJabaquara September 14, 1974 20.2 km (12.6 mi)[citation needed] 23 39 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 2 Green Vila MadalenaVila Prudente January 25, 1991 14.7 km (9.1 mi)[citation needed] 14 26 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 3 Red Palmeiras-Barra FundaCorinthians-Itaquera March 10, 1979 22.0 km (13.7 mi)[citation needed] 18 34 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 4[21] Yellow São Paulo-MorumbiLuz May 25, 2010 11.5 km (7.1 mi)[citation needed] 10 19 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 5[22] Lilac Capão RedondoChácara Klabin October 20, 2002 19.9 km (12.4 mi)[citation needed] 17 35 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)
Line 15 Silver
(Monorail)
Vila PrudenteVila União August 30, 2014 7.8 km (4.8 mi)[citation needed] 6 10 Daily
(4:40 AM–0:32 AM)

Future developments[edit]

Several conventional metro and monorail lines are currently under construction or under project.

System Map - under construction, May 2018
Under Construction
Line Color Termini Length Stations
Line 4[21][23] Yellow (Expansion) Vila Sônia 1.5 km (0.93 mi) 1
Line 6[24] Orange Brasilândia ↔ São Joaquim 15.3 km (9.5 mi) 15
Line 15[25] Silver (Monorail) (Expansion) Vila União ↔ Jardim Colonial 7.5 km (4.7 mi) 5
Line 17[26] Gold (Monorail) Morumbi ↔ Jardim Aeroporto 7.7 km (4.8 mi) 8
Planned
Line Color Termini Length Stations
Line 2[27] Green (Expansion) Vila Prudente ↔ Dutra 14.4 km (8.9 mi) 9
Line 4[21][23] Yellow (Expansion) Vila Sônia ↔ Largo do Taboão 3 km (1.9 mi) 2
Line 5[22] Lilac (Expansion) Capão Redondo ↔ Jardim Ângela 4 km (2.5 mi) 3
Line 5[22] Lilac (Expansion) Chácara Klabin ↔ Ipiranga 3 km (1.9 mi) 2
Line 15 Silver (Monorail) (Expansion) Jardim Colonial ↔ Cidade Tiradentes 9.2 km (5.7 mi) 6
Line 15 Silver (Monorail) (Expansion) Ipiranga ↔ Vila Prudente 1.9 km (1.2 mi) 2
Line 16[28][29] Violet Oscar Freire ↔ Cidade Líder 18 km (11 mi) 19
Line 17[26] Gold (Monorail) (Expansion) Morumbi ↔ São Paulo-Morumbi 6.4 km (4.0 mi) 5
Line 17[26] Gold (Monorail) (Expansion) Jardim Aeroporto ↔ Jabaquara 3.5 km (2.2 mi) 5
Line 18[30] Bronze (Monorail) Tamanduateí ↔ Djalma Dutra 14.9 km (9.3 mi) 13
Line 19[31][32][33][34] Sky Blue Bosque Maia ↔ Campo Belo 27 km (17 mi) 26
Line 20[32][35] Pink Lapa ↔ Afonsina 25 km (16 mi) 24
Line 21[36] Gray Pari ↔ Nordestina 21 km (13 mi) 12
Line 22[37][38][39][40][41] Maroon (Monorail) Butantã ↔ Cotia 12.6 km (7.8 mi) 20
Line 23[42][43][44][45] Magenta Lapa ↔ Dutra 17 km (11 mi) 20

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.metro.sp.gov.br/metro/institucional/pdf/rel-integrado.pdf]/
  2. ^ a b c "Estação São Paulo-Morumbi do Metrô recebe visita técnica". Governo do Estado de Sao Paulo. 2018. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
  3. ^ Ricardo Meier (29 October 2018). "Estação São Paulo-Morumbi coloca a Linha 4 mais próxima da periferia" (HTML) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  4. ^ http://www.urbanrail.net/am/spau/sao-paulo.htm
  5. ^ Metropolitan Map of São Paulo
  6. ^ Expansion Archived January 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ https://www.metrocptm.com.br/estacao-sao-paulo-morumbi-coloca-a-linha-4-mais-proxima-da-periferia/
  8. ^ http://www.saopaulo.sp.gov.br/spnoticias/ultimas-noticias/serra-inaugura-estacao-sacoma-do-metro-1/
  9. ^ http://www.revistaferroviaria.com.br/index.asp?InCdNewsletter=5547&InCdUsuario=23745&InCdMateria=11225&InCdEditoria=1
  10. ^ Sitio de ViaQuatro, ver sección Tecnología
  11. ^ http://www.metro.sp.gov.br/metro/institucional/certificacao.aspx
  12. ^ * "9 Of The World's Best Subways (PHOTOS)". Huffington Post. April 12, 2010.
  13. ^ Business Insider (24 August 2015). "This graphic compares the best public transportation systems around the world" (SHTML). Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Horários - funcionamento | Metrô São Paulo". www.metro.sp.gov.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  15. ^ "Metrô e CPTM transportaram 40 milhões de passageiros a menos nos dias úteis de 2016" [Metro and CPTM transported 40 million passenger less in 2016 compared to 2015] (in Portuguese). R7. 2017. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  16. ^ "Metrô de São Paulo perde passageiros pela primeira vez em 12 anos" [Sao Paulo Metro lost passengers for the first time in 12 years] (in Portuguese). Folha de Sao Paulo. 2017. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  17. ^ https://www.alamys.org/es/noticias/metro-sao-paulo-numero-de-usuarios-transportados-no-sistema-metroferroviario-paulista-em-2013-e-recorde/
  18. ^ "Metrô - Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  19. ^ Includes 1,245 cars reported in February 2018 by the Metro, and additional 174 cars (29 trains) of Line 4 - Yellow.
  20. ^ "Metrô - Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  21. ^ a b c "Obras de expansão da Linha 4-Amarela - Metrô São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  22. ^ a b c "Obras de expansão da Linha 5-Lilás - Metrô São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  23. ^ a b Sioux, Maddox (7 February 2017). "Expansão São Paulo: Linha 4 Amarela viaQuatro". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  24. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20091016163651/http://www.expansao.sp.gov.br/metro_linha_laranja.php. Archived from the original on October 16, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. ^ "Monotrilho Linha 15-Prata - Metrô São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  26. ^ a b c "Obras de expansão da Linha 17-Ouro - Metrô São Paulo". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  27. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20091015233144/http://www.expansao.sp.gov.br/metro_linha_branca.php. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. ^ (PDF) https://www.pdui.sp.gov.br/rmsp/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. ^ SP, Márcio PinhoDo G1 (12 August 2012). "Metrô contrata estudos para três novas linhas na Zona Norte de SP". São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  30. ^ http://www.aeamesp.org.br/bblt/16s/d4programa.aspx Associação dos Engenheiros e Arquitetos do Metrô de S. Paulo - 16ª Semana da Tecnologia Metroferroviária - 16 de setembro de 2010, Palestra : Metroleve ABC-SP
  31. ^ (PDF) https://www.pdui.sp.gov.br/rmsp/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  32. ^ a b http://www.domboscoitaquera.org.br/downloads/secretaria_estadual_de_transportes.pdf Seminário sobre infraestrutura e sistema viário para a copa 2014 e o desenvolvimento da zona leste, Jurandir Fernandes, Secretário dos Transportes Metropolitanos, 25/08/2011
  33. ^ http://g1.globo.com/sao-paulo/noticia/2012/08/metro-contrata-estudos-para-tres-novas-linhas-na-zona-norte-de-sp.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  34. ^ (PDF) https://www.pdui.sp.gov.br/rmsp/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. ^ SP, Márcio PinhoDo G1 (12 August 2012). "Metrô contrata estudos para três novas linhas na Zona Norte de SP". São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  36. ^ (PDF) https://www.pdui.sp.gov.br/rmsp/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  37. ^ https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-ab&q=metr%C3%B4+linha+22+bordo. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  38. ^ https://viatrolebus.com.br/2018/11/nova-linha-de-metro-entre-cotia-e-sao-paulo/. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. ^ "Quando o Metrô chegará a outra cidade da Grande São Paulo?". Metrô CPTM (in Portuguese). 10 September 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  40. ^ https://www.jornalcotiaagora.com.br/metro-sp-cotia-projeto-funcional-da-linha-22-esta-atrasado-e-tera-aumento-de-estacoes/. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ SP, Márcio PinhoDo G1 (12 August 2012). "Metrô contrata estudos para três novas linhas na Zona Norte de SP". São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  42. ^ SP, Márcio PinhoDo G1 (12 August 2012). "Metrô contrata estudos para três novas linhas na Zona Norte de SP". São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  43. ^ (PDF) https://www.pdui.sp.gov.br/rmsp/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PDUI-STM-RedeAltaMediaCapacidade-11-05-2016.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  44. ^ https://viatrolebus.com.br/2012/08/metro-licita-projeto-funcional-para-linha-23-que-vai-ligar-a-dutra-ate-a-lapa/. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  45. ^ https://viatrolebus.com.br/2013/12/rede-futura-do/. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]