|Owner||Beijing Municipal Government|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||18|
|Number of stations||319[a]|
|Daily ridership||9.2786 million (2014 daily avg.)
10.0876 million (2014 weekday avg.)
11.78 million (Peak record)
|Annual ridership||3.41 billion (2014)|
|Began operation||1 October 1969|
|Operator(s)||Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp., Ltd
Beijing MTR Corp. Ltd.
|Number of vehicles||4688 Revenue Railcars|
|System length||527 km (327 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (standard gauge)|
The Beijing Subway is a rapid transit rail network that serves the urban and suburban districts of Beijing municipality. The network has 18 lines, 319 stations[a] and 527 km (327 mi) of track in operation, and is the second longest subway system in the world after the Shanghai Metro. The subway is the world's busiest in annual ridership, with 3.41 billion trips delivered in 2014, averaging 9.2786 million per day, with peak single-day ridership reaching 11.5595 million.
The Beijing Subway opened in 1969 and is the oldest metro system in mainland China. The subway has undergone rapid expansion since 2002, as only two lines were in service before then. The most recent expansion came into effect on December 28, 2014 with the opening of Line 7, and sections of Lines 6, 14, and 15. The existing network still cannot adequately meet the city's mass transit needs and extensive expansion plans call for 1,050 km (650 mi) of track by 2020.
The Beijing Subway is owned by the city of Beijing and has two operators, the wholly state-owned Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp., which operates 15 lines, and the Beijing MTR Corp., a public–private joint venture with the Hong Kong MTR, which manages the other three lines.
- 1 Fares
- 2 Hours of operation
- 3 Lines
- 4 History
- 5 Future lines
- 6 Rolling stock
- 7 System upgrades
- 8 Safety
- 9 Logo
- 10 Subway Culture Park
- 11 Beijing Suburban Railway
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
|Distance-based fare schedule|
On December 28, 2014, the Beijing Subway switched from a fixed-fare to a distance-based fare schedule for all lines except the Airport Express. Fares starts at ¥3 for a trip up to 6 km in distance, with ¥1 added for the next 6 km, for every 10 km thereafter until the total distance reaches 32 km, and for every 20 km beyond the first 32 km. For example, a 40 km trip would cost ¥7. The Airport Express cost ¥25 per ride.
Children below 1.3 metres (51 in) in height ride for free when accompanied by a paying adult. Senior citizens over the age of 65, individuals with physical disabilities, retired revolutionary cadres, police and army veterans who had been wounded in action, military personnel and People's Armed Police can ride the subway for free.
|Discounts for Yikatong card users|
after credit rebate
The subway's fare collection gates accept single-ride tickets and the Yikatong fare card. The Yikatong, also known as the One Card Through Card is an integrated circuit card that stores credit for the subway, urban and suburban buses and e-money for other purchases. Riders can purchase tickets and add credit to Yikatong card at ticket counters or vending machines in every station. The Yikatong card itself must be purchased at the ticket counter.
Riders must insert the ticket or tap the card at the gate both before entering and exiting the station. To prevent fraud, riders are required to complete their journeys within four hours upon entering the subway. If the four-hour limit is exceeded, a surcharge ¥3 is imposed.
To enter a station, the Yikatong card must have a minimum balance of ¥3.00. Each Yikatong card is allowed to be overdrawn once. The overdrawn amount is deducted when credits are added to the card.
Yikatong card users who spend more than ¥100 on subway fare in a calendar month will receive credits to their card the following month. After reaching ¥100 of spending in one calendar month, 20% of any further spending up to ¥50 will be credited. When spending exceeds ¥150, 50% of any further spending up to ¥250 will be credited. Once expenditures exceed ¥400, further spending will not earn any more credits. The credits are designed to ease the burden of the fare increase on commuters.
Previous fare schedules
Prior to the December 28, 2014 fare increase, a flat rate of RMB(¥) 2.00 with unlimited transfers applied to all lines except the Airport Express, which cost ¥25. The flat fare was the lowest among metro systems in China.
Before the flat fare schedule was introduced on October 7, 2007, fares ranged from ¥3 to ¥7, depending on the line and number of transfers.
Hours of operation
The subway is generally closed after midnight, unless a special occasion prompts extended operating hours.[c] The first trains depart terminals at around 5 am and the last leave at around 11 pm. The Airport Express train starts at around 6 am.
Beijing Subway lines generally follow the checkerboard layout of the city. Most lines through the urban core (outlined by the Line 10 loop) run parallel or perpendicular to each other and intersect at right angles. Of the 18 lines, 12 are numbered and the other six are named after suburban destinations.
Lines serving the urban core
- Line 1, a straight east-west line underneath Chang'an Avenue, which bisects the city through Tiananmen Square. Line 1 connects major commercial centres, Xidan, Wangfujing, Dongdan and the Beijing CBD.
- Line 2, the shorter of the two rectangular loop lines, traces the Ming-era city wall that once surrounded the inner city, and stops at 11 of the wall's former gates (ending in men), now busy intersections, as well as the Beijing Railway Station.[d]
- Line 4, a mainly north-south line running west of city centre with stops at the Summer Palace, Old Summer Palace, Peking and Renmin Universities, Zhongguancun Technology Park, National Library, Beijing Zoo, Xidan and Beijing South Railway Station.
- Line 5, a straight north-south line just east of the city centre. It passes the Temple of Earth, Lama Temple and the Temple of Heaven.
- Line 6, a nearly straight east-west line running parallel and to the north of Line 1. It passes through the city centre north of Beihai Park.
- Line 7, an east-west line running parallel and to the south of Line 1 and Batong Line, from Beijing West Railway Station to Jiaohuachang (Coking Plant).
- Line 8, a north-south line following the city’s central axis from Changping District through Huilongguan and the Olympic Green to Shichahai and Nanluoguxiang inside the Second Ring Road.
- Line 9, a north-south line running west of Line 4 from the National Library through the Military Museum and Beijing West Railway Station to Guogongzhuang, southwest of city centre.
- Line 10, the longer of the two loop lines, runs underneath or just beyond the Third Ring Road. Apart from the Line 2 loop, which is entirely enclosed in the larger loop, every other line through the urban core intersects with Line 10. In the north, Line 10 traces Beijing's Yuan-era city wall.
Lines to outlying suburbs
The following lines run from the edge of the urban core to outer suburbs beyond the Fifth Ring Road.
- Line 13 arcs across suburbs north of the city and channels commuters to Xizhimen and Dongzhimen, at the northwest and northeast corners of Line 2.
- Line 14 currently operates in two separate sections. The west section runs from Xiju on Line 10, across the Yongding River, to Zhangguozhuang in Fengtai District. The east section runs north from Jintailu on Line 6, to Shan'gezhuang in Chaoyang District.
- Line 15 starts from the east of Tsinghua University, passes the Olympic Green and Wangjing, and runs northeast to suburban Shunyi District.
- Batong Line extends Line 1 eastward from Sihui to suburban Tongzhou District.
- Changping Line branches off Line 13 at Xi'erqi and runs north to suburban Changping District.
- Daxing Line extends Line 4 south to suburban Daxing District.
- Fangshan Line extends Line 9 south from Guogongzhuang to Fangshan District in the southwestern suburbs.
- Yizhuang Line extends from Line 5's southern terminus to the Yizhuang Economic & Technological Development Zone in the southeastern suburbs.
- Airport Express connects the Beijing Capital International Airport, 27 km (17 mi) northeast of the city, with Line 10 at Sanyuanqiao and Lines 2 and 13 at Dongzhimen.
The subway was proposed in September 1953 by the city's planning committee and experts from the Soviet Union. After the end of the Korean War, Chinese leaders turned their attention to domestic reconstruction. They were keen to expand Beijing's mass transit capacity but also valued the subway as an asset for civil defense. They studied the use of the Moscow Metro to protect civilians, move troops and headquarter military command posts during the Battle of Moscow, and planned the Beijing Subway for both civilian and military use.
The Chinese lacked expertise in building subways and drew heavily on Soviet and East German technical assistance. In 1954, a delegation of Soviet engineers, including some who had built the Moscow Metro, was invited to plan the subway in Beijing. From 1953 to 1960, several thousand Chinese students were sent to the Soviet Union to study subway construction. An early plan unveiled in 1957 called for one ring route and six other lines with 114 stations and 172 km (107 mi) of track. Two routes vied for the first to be built. One ran east-west from Wukesong to Hongmiao, underneath Changan Avenue. The other ran north-south from the Summer Palace to Zhongshan Park, via Xizhimen and Xisi. The former was chosen due to more favorable geological foundation and greater number of government bureaus served. The second route would not be built until construction on Line 4 began forty years later.
The deterioration of relations between China and Soviet Union disrupted subway planning. Soviet experts began to leave in 1960, and were completely withdrawn by 1963. In 1961, the entire project was halted temporarily due to severe hardships caused by the Great Leap Forward. Eventually, planning work resumed. The route of the initial line was shifted westward to create an underground conduit to move personnel from the heart of the capital to the Western Hills. On February 4, 1965, Chairman Mao Zedong personally approved the project.
1965–1981: the slow beginning
Construction began on July 1, 1965, at a ceremony attended by national leaders including Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, and mayor Peng Zhen. The most controversial outcome of the initial subway line was the demolition of the Beijing's historic inner city wall to make way for the subway. Construction plans for the subway from Fuxingmen to the Beijing Railway Station called for the removal of the wall, as well as the gates and archery towers at Hepingmen, Qianmen, and Chongwenmen. Leading architect Liang Sicheng argued for protecting the wall as a landmark of the ancient capital. Chairman Mao favored demolishing the wall over demolishing homes. In the end, Premier Zhou Enlai managed to preserve several walls and gates, such as the Qianmen gate and its arrow tower by slightly altering the course of the subway.
The initial line was completed and began trial operations in time to mark the 20th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic on October 1, 1969. It ran 21 km (13 mi) from the army barracks at Fushouling to the Beijing Railway Station and had 16 stations. This line forms parts of present-day Lines 1 and 2. It was the first subway to be built in China, and predates the metros of Hong Kong, Seoul, Singapore, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C., but technical problems would plague the project for the next decade.
Initially, the subway hosted guest visits. On November 11, 1969, an electrical fire killed three people, injured over 100 and destroyed two cars. Premier Zhou Enlai placed the subway under the control of the People's Liberation Army in early 1970, but reliability problems persisted.
On January 15, 1971, the initial line began operation on a trial basis between the Beijing Railway Station and Gongzhufen. Single ride fare was set at ¥0.10 and only members of the public with credential letters from their work units could purchase tickets. The line was 10.7 km in length, had 10 stations and operated more than 60 train trips per day with a minimum wait time of 14 minutes. On August 15, the initial line was extended to Yuquan Lu and had 13 stations over 15.6 km. On November 7, the line was extended again, to Gucheng Lu, and had 16 stations over 22.87 km. The number trains per day rose to 100. Overall, the line delivered 8.28 million rides in 1971, averaging 28,000 riders per day.
From 1971 to 1975, the subway was shut down for 398 days for political reasons.[e] On December 27, 1972, the riders no longer needed to present credential letters to purchase tickets. In 1972, the subway delivered 15 million rides and averaged 41,000 riders per day. In 1973, the line was extended to Pingguoyuan and reached 23.6 km in length with 17 stations and 132 train trips per day. The line delivered 11 million rides in 1973, averaging 54,000 riders per day.
Despite its return to civilian control in 1976, the subway remained prone to closures due to fires, flooding, and accidents. Annual ridership grew from 22.2 million in 1976 and 28.4 million in 1977 to 30.9 million in 1978, and 55.2 million in 1980.
1981–2000: two lines for two decades
On April 20, 1981, the Beijing Subway Company, then a subsidiary of the Beijing Public Transportation Company, was organized to take over subway operations. On September 15, 1981, the initial line passed its final inspections, and was handed over to the Beijing Subway Company, ending a decade of trial operations. It had 19 stations and ran 27.6 kilometres (17.1 miles) from Fushouling in the Western Hills to the Beijing Railway Station. Investment in the project totaled ¥706 million. Annual ridership rose from 64.7 million in 1981 and 72.5 million in 1982 to 82 million in 1983.
On September 20, 1984, a second line was opened to the public. This horseshoe-shaped line was created from the eastern half of the initial line and corresponds to the southern half of the present-day Line 2. It ran 16.1 km (10.0 mi) from Fuxingmen to Jianguomen with 16 stations. Ridership reached 105 million in 1985.
On December 28, 1987, the two existing lines were reconfigured into Lines 1, which ran from Pingguoyuan to Fuxingmen and Line 2, in its current loop, tracing the Ming city wall. Fares doubled to ¥0.20 for single-line rides and ¥0.30 for rides with transfers. Ridership reached 307 million in 1988. The subway was closed from June 3–4, 1989 during the suppression of the Tiananmen Square demonstrations. In 1990, the subway carried more than one million riders per day for the first time, as total ridership reached 381 million. After a fare hike to ¥0.50 in 1991, annual ridership declined slightly to 371 million.
On January 26, 1991, planning began on the eastward extension of Line 1 under Chang'an Avenue from Fuxingmen. The project was funded by a 19.2 billion yen low-interest development assistance loan from Japan. Construction began on the eastern extension on June 24, 1992, and the Xidan station opened on December 12, 1992. The remaining extension to Sihui East was completed on September 28, 1999. National leaders Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Yu Zhengsheng and mayor Liu Qi were on hand to mark the occasion. The full-length of Line 1 became operational on June 28, 2000.
Despite little track expansion in the early 1990s, ridership grew rapidly to reach a record high of 558 million in 1995, but fell to 444 million the next year when fares rose from ¥0.50 to ¥2.00. After fares rose again to ¥3.00 in 2000, annual ridership fell to 434 million from 481 million in 1999.
2001–2008: planning for the Olympics
In the summer of 2001, the city won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics and accelerated plans to expand the subway. From 2002 to 2008, the city planned to invest ¥63.8 billion (US$7.69 billion) in subway projects. Work on Line 5 had already begun on September 25, 2000. Land clearing for Lines 4 and 10 began in November 2003 and construction commenced by the end of the year. Most new subway construction projects were funded by loans from the Big Four state banks. Line 4 was funded by the Beijing MTR Corporation, a joint-venture with the Hong Kong MTR. To achieve plans for 19 lines and 561 km (349 mi) by 2015, the city planned to invest a total of ¥200 billion ($29.2 billion).
The next additions to the subway were surface commuter lines that linked to the north and east of the city. Line 13, a half loop that links the northern suburbs, first opened on the western half from Huilongguan to Xizhimen on September 28, 2002 and the entire line became operational on January 28, 2003. Batong Line, built as an extension to Line 1 to Tongzhou district, was opened as a separate line on December 27, 2003. Work on these two lines had begun respectively in December 1999 and 2000. Ridership hit 607 million in 2004.
Line 5 came into operation on October 7, 2007. It was the city's first north-south line, extending from the Songjiazhuang in the south to Tiantongyuan in the north. On the same day, subway fares were reduced from between ¥3 and ¥7 per trip, depending on the line and number of transfers, to a single flat fare of ¥2 with unlimited transfers. The lower fare policy caused the Beijing Subway to run a deficit of ¥600 million in 2007, which was expected to widen to ¥1 billion in 2008. The Beijing municipal government covered these deficits to encourage mass transit use, and reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. On a total of 655 million rides delivered in 2007, the government's subsidy averaged ¥0.92 per ride.
In the summer of 2008, in anticipation of the Summer Olympic Games, three new lines—Line 10, the Olympic Branch Line and the Airport Express—opened on July 19 for trial operation. The use of paper tickets, hand checked by clerks for 38 years, was discontinued and replaced by electronic tickets that are scanned by automatic fare collection machines upon entry and exit of the subway. Stations are outfitted with touch screen vending machines that sell single-ride tickets and multiple-ride Yikatong fare cards. The subway set a daily ridership record of 4.92 million on August 22, 2008, the day of the Games' closing ceremony In 2008, total ridership rose by 75% to 1.2 billion.
2008–2014: rapid expansion
After the Chinese government announced a ¥4 trillion economic stimulus package in November 2008, the Beijing urban planning commission further expedited subway building plans, especially for surface light rail to suburban districts that are cheaper to build. In December 2008, the commission moved completion dates of the Yizhuang and Daxing Lines to 2010 from 2012, finalized the route of the Fangshan Line, and unveiled the Changping and Western Suburban Lines.
Line 4 started operation on September 28, 2009, bringing subway service to much of western Beijing. It is managed by the Hong Kong MTR through a joint venture with the city. In 2009, the subway delivered 1.457 billion rides, 19.24% of mass transit trips in Beijing.
On December 30, 2010, five suburban lines: Lines 15 (Phase I from Wangjing West to Houshayu except Wangjing East Station), Changping, Fangshan (except Guogongzhuang Station), Yizhuang (except Yizhuang Railway Station), and Daxing, commenced operation. The addition of 108 km (67 mi) of track, a nearly 50% increase, made the subway the fourth longest metro in the world. One year later, on December 31, 2011, the subway surpassed the New York City Subway to become the third longest metro in revenue track length with the extension of Line 8 north from the Olympic Green to Huilongguan, the opening of Line 9 in southwest Beijing from Beijing West Railway Station to Guogongzhuang (except Fengtai Dongdajie Station, which opened on October 12, 2012), the extension of the Fangshan Line to Guogongzhuang, and the extension of Line 15 from Houshayu to Fengbo in central Shunyi. Ridership reached 2.18 billion in 2011.
On December 30, 2012, Line 6 (Phase I from Haidian Wuluju to Caofang), the extension of Line 8 from Beitucheng south to Gulou Dajie (except Andelibeijie Station), the remainder of Line 9 (except Military Museum Station) and the remainder of the Line 10 loop (except the Xiju-Shoujingmao section and Jiaomen East Station) entered service. The addition of 69.8 km (43 mi) of track increased the network length to 442 km (275 mi) and allowed the subway to overtake the Shanghai Metro, for several months, as the world’s longest metro. The subway delivered 2.46 billion rides in 2012.
On May 5, 2013, the Line 10 loop was completed with the opening of the Xiju-Shoujingmao section and the Jiaomen East Station. The 57 km (35 mi) loop line became the longest underground subway loop in the world. On the same day, the first section of Line 14 from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju also entered operation, ahead of the opening of the Ninth China International Garden Expo in Fengtai District. The subway's total length reached 456 km (283 mi).
On December 28, 2013, two sections were added to Line 8, which extended the line north to Zhuxinzhuang and south to Nanluoguxiang. In 2013, the subway delivered 3.209 billion rides, an increase of 30% from the year before.
On December 28, 2014, the subway network expanded by 62.2 km (38.6 mi) to 18 lines and 527 km (327 mi) with the opening of Line 7, the eastern extension of line 6 (from Caofang to Lucheng), the eastern section of line 14 (from Jintailu to Shan'gezhuang), and the western extension of line 15 (from Wangjing West to Qinghuadonglu Xikou). At the same time, the ¥2 flat-rate fare was replaced with a variable-rate fare (a minimum of ¥3), to cover operation costs. In 2014, the subway delivered 3.387 billion rides, an increase of 5.68% from the year before. Average daily and weekday ridership also set new highs of 9.2786 million and 10.0876 million, respectively.
|Average Daily Ridership|
|Source: 北京地铁大事记回顾 1965-2006 北京市2010年暨“十一五”期间国民经济和社会发展统计公报 北京市2011年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 北京市2012年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 北京市2013年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 |
There are at least seven lines under construction with work on several more lines set to begin in 2015. According to expansion plans announced in January 2011, the subway network in 2015 is expected to reach track density of 0.51 km per km2 (0.82 mi per sq. mi.) inside the Fifth Ring Road where residents would on average have to walk 1 km (0.62 mi) to the nearest subway station.
The new lines will significantly expand the subway's coverage, especially south and west of the city. Line 16 will run parallel and to the west of Line 4. Line 14's two sections will be connected into an inverted L-shaped line that pivots in the southeast. The Fangshan Line will be extended to the Third Ring Road and be connected with Lines 10 and 16. The Western Suburban and Yanfang Lines will link outlying districts to the Beijing Subway.
To address the city's worsening traffic congestion problem, in December 2010 city planners moved the construction of several lines from the 13th Five Year Plan to the 12th Five Year Plan. This means Lines 8 (Phase III), 3, 12, 16, the Yanfang Line, as well as additional lines to Changping, Tiantongyuan, and Haidian will begin construction before 2015. Subway planning authorities had indicated that Lines 3, 11, 12 and 16 were being planned for the more distant future.
In January 2010, the government of Shijingshan District disclosed plans for a Line 11 in western Beijing that would traverse the Beijing Capital Steel complex and intersect with Lines 1 and 4. Construction is set to begin in 2020.
In February 2012, the city government confirmed that six new lines, including Lines 3, 12, 17, R1 and R3, were under planning. Line 17, also known as R2 is planned to run north-south, parallel and to the east of Line 5, from the Future Technology City to Yizhuang.
|Details of future subway lines|
|Line||Phase & Section||Terminals
|Phase II||Nanshao||Ming Tombs Scenic Area
|extends Changping Line to Ming Tombs.||2011||9.5||4|||
|Line 14||Phase II Central Section||Xiju||Pingleyuan
|J-shaped line, from the southwest corner of the city to the southeast corner, through Beijing South Station, then turning north to Guangqu Lu.||Apr. 2010||16.3||14|||
|Line 17||North section||North District of Future Technology City
|northern-most section from Changping District through Tiantongyuan to Wangjing||2014||6|||
|Fangshan Line||West extension||Yancun North
|connects Fangshan Line to Yanfang Line||2014||2.2||1|||
|Yanfang Line||Main Line||Yancun North
|Yanhua||extends Fangshan Line west to Yanshan Sinopec Center.||2013||10.2||8|||
|light rail or tram from the northwest corner of Line 10 to the Fragrant Hills.||2010||9.1||7|||
|2016||Line 6||Phase III||Pingguoyuan
|extends Line 6 east to Shijingshan District||2013||8.9||5|||
|Line 8||Phase III South Section||Zhushikou
|Southern section of a new north-south axis to Daxing District.||2013||13|||
|north-south line west of Line 4, including a section formerly known as Haidian Shanhou Line||2013||49.8||29|||
|Fangshan Line||North extension||Guogongzhuang
|connects Fangshan Line to Line 16||4.6||4|||
|2017||Line 8||Phase III North Section||Museum of Art
|Central section of Line 8 through Qianmen and Yongdingmen completing the central north-south axis.||2013||3|||
|Airport Express||Western Extension||Dongzhimen
|Extension to Line 5||1.9||1|||
|2018||New Airport Line||Mudanyuan||Beijing Daxing International Airport||Connecting to a proposed new Beijing Airport||59.2||5||.|
|Before 2020||Line 3||Tiancun||Dongba||East-west line parallel to line 6||37||29|
|Line 8||Phase III, South Extension||Wufutang||Yinghaizhen||5||2|
|Line 9||Phase 2 North Extension||National Library||Xi'erqi||17.1||10|||
|Line 12||Tiancun||Jiuxianqiao||Following the North Third Ring Road||24||20|
|Line 17||Wangjing West
|Yizhuang Railway Station
|North-south line via Dongdaqiao, Yonganli and Shilihe||49.7||21|||
|An express line, running under Line 1||55||15|
Beijing planning authorities are also assessing mass transit monorail lines for areas of the city in which subway construction or operation is difficult. Straddle beam monorail trains have lower transport capacity and operating speed (60 km/h) than conventional subways, but they are quieter to operate, have smaller turning radius and better climbing capability, and cost only one-third to one-half of subways to build. According to the initial environmental assessment report by the Chinese Academy of Rail Sciences, the Yuquan Lu Line is planned to have 21 stations over 24.966 km in western Beijing. The line was to begin construction in 2014 and would take two years to complete. Another monorail line along the eastern Fourth Ring Road, is planned have 21 stations over 36 km. In early 2015, projects of both monorail lines were indefinitely shelved, due to resident opposition. Both lines remain on the city's 2020 transportation plan, and may be built as conventional below-ground subway lines.
All subway trains run on 1,435 millimetres (56.5 in) standard gauge rail and draw power from the 750V DC third rail, with the exception of trains on Lines 6 and 14, which use overhead wires. All lines operate 6-car train sets with a maximum speed of 80 km/h (50 mph), except Lines 6 and 7, which use 8-car sets that can reach 100 km/h (62 mph), and the Airport Express, which has 4-car sets with a maximum speed of 110 km/h (68 mph). Line 14 trains feature wide-bodied Type-A cars that have a designed capacity of 430 passengers per car, 30% greater than Type-B cars with 310 passengers per car. Type-B cars are used on all other lines except the Airport Express, whose cars can seat 230 passengers.
Until 2003 nearly all trains were manufactured by the Changchun Railway Vehicles Company Ltd., now a subsidiary of the China CNR Corporation. Currently, all trains on Lines 2, 5, 8, 10, 13, Airport Express and older models on Line 1 are made by Changchun RVC, which is under contract to supply trains for Lines Yizhuang, 9 and 10 (Phase II). The newest Line 1 trains and those on Lines 4, 8, Batong, Changping and Daxing are made by Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., a subsidiary of China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry Corp..
With new lines drawing more riders to the network, the subway has experienced severe overcrowding, especially during the rush hour. As of 2013, significant sections of Lines 1, 4 - Daxing, 5, 13, Batong and Changping are officially over capacity during rush hour. In short term response, the subway upgraded signal equipment to increase the frequency of trains which added additional capacity to the subway lines. Average headways has been reduced to 2 min. on Lines 2 and 4; 2 min. 05 sec. on Line 1; 2 min. 15 sec. on Lines 5 and 10; 3 min. on Lines 13 and Batong; 3 min. 30 sec. on Line 8; and 15 min. on the Airport Express.
Lines 13 and Batong have converted 4-car to 6-car trains. Lines 6 and 7 have longer platforms that can accommodate 8-car B size trains, while line 14 uses high capacity wide-body A size trains in 6 car sets. Lines 3, 11, 12, 16 and Haidian Shanhou under planning may adopt 8-car A size trains.
Despite these efforts, during the morning rush hour, conductors at line terminals and other busy stations must routinely restrict the number of passengers who can board each train to prevent the train from becoming too crowded for passengers waiting at other stations down the line. As of August 31, 2011, 25 stations mainly on Lines 1, 5, 13, and Batong have imposed such restrictions. Some of these stations have built queuing lines outside the stations to manage the flow of waiting passengers. By January 7, 2013, 41 stations on Lines 1, 2, 5, 13, Batong, and Changping had instituted passenger flow restrictions during the morning rush hour. The number of stations with passenger flow restrictions reached 55 in August 2014 had reached 61 in January 2015, affecting Lines 1, 5, 6, 10, 13, Batong, and Changping.
Interchange stations that permit transfers across two or more subway lines receive heavy traffic passenger flow. The older interchange stations are notorious for lengthy transfer corridors and slow transfers during peak hours. The average transfer distance an older interchange stations is 128 meters The transfer between Lines 2 and 13 at Xizhimen was over 200 meters long and required 15 minutes to complete during rush hours. In 2011, this station was rebuilt to reduce the transfer distance. There are plans to rebuild other interchange stations such as Dongzhimen.
In newer interchange stations, which are designed to permit more efficient transfers, the average transfer distance is 63 meters. Many of the newer interchange stations including Guogongzhuang Station (Lines 9 and Fangshan), Nanluoguxiang (Lines 8 and 6), Zhuxinzhuang (Changping and Line 8), Beijing West Station (Lines 9 and 7), and National Library (Lines 9 and 4) feature cross platform transfers. Nevertheless, longer transfer corridors must still be used when the alignment of the lines do not permit cross-platform transfer. The transfer corridors between Lines 1 and 9 at the Military Museum, which opened on December 23, 2013, are 160 m in one direction and just under 300 m in the other.
Cellular network coverage
Each station is equipped with ramps, lifts, or elevators to facilitate wheelchair access. Newer model train cars now provide space to accommodate wheelchairs. Automated audio announcements for incoming trains are available in all lines except for Line 1. On all lines, station names are announced in Mandarin Chinese and English.
Automatic fare collection
To ensure public safety during the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games, the subway initiated a three-month heightened security program from June 29 to September 20, 2008. Riders were subject to searches of their persons and belongings at all stations by security inspectors using metal detectors, X-Ray machines and sniffer dogs. Items banned from public transportation such as "guns, ammunition, knives, explosives, flammable and radioactive materials, and toxic chemicals" were subject to confiscation. The security program was reinstituted during the 2009 New Year Holiday and has since been made permanent through regulations enacted in February 2009. Only bags are generally X-rayed (as of 2012), riders are checked only occasionally.
After witnessing several serious subway accidents in South Korea (e.g. Daegu subway fire in February 2003), the subway removed all shops and vendors from the inside of stations and installed self-illuminating exit signs to facilitate emergency evacuation. The popular underground mall at Xidan station was closed.
The subway was plagued by numerous accidents in its early years, including a fire in 1969 that killed six people and injured over 200. But its operations have improved dramatically and there have been few reported accidents in recent years. Most of the reported fatalities on the subway are the result of suicides. Authorities have responded by installing doors on platforms of newer lines.
There have been several reported fatal incidents at subway construction sites in recent years. On October 8, 2003, the collapse of steel beams at the construction site of Line 5's Chongwenmen Station killed three workers and injured one. On March 29, 2007, the construction site at the Suzhoujie Station on Line 10 collapsed, burying six workers. On June 6, 2008, prior to the opening of Line 10, a worker was crushed to death inside an escalator in Zhichunlu Station when an intern turned on the moving staircase. On July 14, 2010, two workers were killed and eight were injured at the construction site of Line 15's Shunyi Station when the steel support structure collapsed on them. On September 17, 2010, Line 9 tunnels under construction beneath Yuyuantan Lake were flooded, killing one worker. A city official who oversaw waterworks contracts at the site was convicted of corruption and given a death sentence with reprieve. On June 1, 2011, one worker was killed when a section of Line 6 under construction in Xicheng District near Pinganli collapsed. A collapse of an escalator at the Beijing Zoo Station on July 5, 2011, caused the death of one 13-year-old boy and injuries to 28 others.
On May 4, 2013, a train derailed when it overran a section of track on Line 4. The section was not open to the public and was undergoing testing. There were no injuries.
On November 6, 2014, a woman was killed when she tried to board the train at Huixinxijie Nankou Station on Beijing Subway's Line 5. She became trapped between the train door and the platform edge door and was crushed to death by the departing train. The accident happened on the second day of APEC China 2014 meetings in the city during which the municipal government has banned cars from the roads on alternate days to ease congestion and reduce pollution during the summit – measures which the capital’s transport authorities have estimated would lead to an extra one million passengers on the subway every day.
The subway's logo, a capital letter "G" encircling a capital letter "D" with the letter "B" silhouetted inside the letter D, was designed by Zhang Lide, a subway employee, and officially designated in April 1984. The letters B, G, and D form the abbreviation for Běijīng gāosù diànchē or "Beijing high-speed electric carriage".
Subway Culture Park
The Beijing Subway Culture Park, located near Xihongmen in Daxing District, opened in 2010 to commemorate the 40-year history of the Beijing Subway. The 19 ha (47 acres) park was built using dirt and debris removed from the building of the Daxing Line and contains old rolling stock, sculpture, and informational displays. Admission to the park is free.
Beijing Suburban Railway
The Beijing Suburban Railway, a suburban commuter train service, is managed separately from the Beijing Subway and has a different fare structure. Six "S"-numbered lines have been planned. Line S2, opened August 6, 2008, runs from the Beijing North Railway Station to Yanqing County, and provides direct urban rail access to the Great Wall at Badaling. The Beijing North Station is located near the subway stop at Xizhimen (Subway Lines 2, 4, 13).
a. ^ As of December 28, 2014, the number of unique stations in operation is 268. The unique station count treats the multiple platforms of a station complex as one station. If each station complex's platforms are counted as separate stations, then the total number of stations in operation as of December 28, 2014 would be 319.
The unique station count of 268 excludes: the Erligou, Tongyunmen and Beiyunhe East Stations on Line 6, the Shuangjing and Fatou Stations on Line 7, the Andelibeijie and National Art Museum Stations on Line 8, the Chaoyang Park and Gaojiayuan Stations on Line 14, the Datunlu East and Wangjing East Stations on Line 15 and the Yizhuang Railway Station on the Yizhuang Line, which were not in use as of December 28, 2014. Also excluded are the three restricted stations of Line 1, which are no longer used.
The total station count of 319 excludes the stations listed above and treats the Gongyixiqiao Station as two stations, as the southern terminus for Line 4 and northern terminus for the Daxing Line, even though through-train service have effectively transformed the two lines into a single line for which the Gongyixiqiao Station is (usually) not a terminus but a single station.
- A loop that covers both lines, from Anheqiao North, the northern terminus of Line 4, to Tiangongyuan, the southern terminus of the Daxing Line.
- A loop that covers Line 4 plus one stop on the Daxing Line, from Anheqiao North to Xingong, the northernmost stop on the Daxing Line. Travelers wishing to proceed further south on the Daxing Line have to switch to a south-bound full-route train.
c. ^ The subway operated throughout the night from Aug. 8-9, 2008 to accommodate the Opening Ceremonies of the Olympic Games, and is extending evening operations of all lines by one to three hours (to 1-2 a.m.) through the duration of the Games.
e. ^ From August 12, 1973 to June 30, 1974 and in January 1975, the subway was closed due to defense mobilization. It was closed from September 13 to November 6, 1971 in the aftermath of the Lin Biao Incident and on September 18, 1976 after the death of Chairman Mao.
f. ^ As of December 28, 2014, Line 14 has two sections in operation—from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju in the west and Jintailu to Shan'gezhuang in the east. The two sections operate separately but will eventually be connected and is therefore counted as a single line.
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- See "History" section of this article.
- Xinhuanet.com "北京地铁诞生记:周总理称筹建地铁是为备战" Part 1,北京日报 September 28, 2007
- News.xinhuanet.com Id. Part 2
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- The ceremony was not publicized at the time because the project was classified for its national security implications.
- 北京地铁诞生记:周总理称筹建地铁是为备战 北京日报 (Part 3) Sept. 28, 2008
- The initial line, originally slated for completion by 1968, was delayed by the onset of the Cultural Revolution. The original director of the project, General Yang Yong and much of the city government were purged in 1967. "杨勇小传(5)" in 毛泽东瞩目的著名将帅（二） (2003)
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- Line 4 was originally scheduled to be completed by the end of 2007 see (Chinese) Gzuda.gov.cn "北京地铁4号和10号线获审批2007年底投入运营" September 4, 2004; & Bh.buaa.edu.cn; 北京地铁4号线特许经营案例 Xinhuanet.com "北京地铁4号线今日开通 站内设施服务全接触"
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- Backgrounder: Major metro accidents in China
- For example, 北京地铁一号线一男子跳轨事故最新情况 2009-07-17 and 北京地铁一号线因乘客跳下站台晚点 已恢复运营 2014-02-14
- (Chinese) "北京地铁实习生误操作 一维修工电梯内被挤死" 法制晚报 2009-06-21
- "Two killed in Beijing subway construction site accident" Xinhua 2010-07-14
- (Chinese) 北京地铁透水事故涉事官员贪贿近6千万被判死缓 Legal Daily 2014-01-30
- (Chinese) "北京地铁6号线工地发生塌方 一工人被埋身亡" 2011-06-01
- "Xinhuan News - One dead, 28 injured in Beijing subway escalator accident" 2011-07-05
- http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1634392/beijing-subway-passengers-tried-raise-alarm-accident-victim-was-dragged "South China Morning Post - Beijing subway passengers tried to raise alarm before accident victim was dragged to her death"
- (Chinese) "中国地铁标志花样迭出 地铁建设如火如荼" 中国建筑新闻网 2012-06-04
- (Chinese) Li Zhiyong, "北京建成首座地铁主题文化公园" Xinhua 2010-10-28
- (Chinese) 本市规划建设6条市郊铁路 满足郊区市民出行 千龙网 July 22, 2008
- (Chinese) 本市首条市郊铁路8月初通车 记者体验“动车”S2线 千龙网 July 22, 2008
- "北京京港地铁有限公司". Mtr.bj.cn. 2010-12-29. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- "Beijing MTR Corporation Limited". Mtr.bj.cn. 2010-09-27. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- "北京地铁今起至23日延长运营时间". Bjsubway.com. 2008-08-13.
- (Chinese)"地铁公司1971 -- 1980年" 地铁大事记 1
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Beijing Subway.|
- Official Beijing Subway Website (Chinese)
- Official Beijing Subway Website (English)
- Beijing Subway Schedule Timetable
- Official Beijing MTR Website
- Beijing Subway Information on UrbanRail.net
- The Beijing Guide
- Beijing Subway at world.nycsubway.org
- Beijing subway map (to scale)
- Official Beijing Subway Model Train