|Produced||Since 24 February 2011|
|Width||7.4 mm plug (8.3 mm receptacle)|
|Height||4.5 mm plug (5.4 mm receptacle)|
|Audio signal||Via DisplayPort protocol or USB-based external audio cards. Supports audio through HDMI converters.|
|Video signal||Via DisplayPort protocol|
|Max. voltage||18 V (bus power)|
|Max. current||550 mA (9.9 W max.)|
|Pin 2||HPD||Hot plug detect|
|Pin 3||HS0TX(P)||HighSpeed transmit 0 (positive)|
|Pin 4||HS0RX(P)||HighSpeed receive 0 (positive)|
|Pin 5||HS0TX(N)||HighSpeed transmit 0 (negative)|
|Pin 6||HS0RX(N)||HighSpeed receive 0 (negative)|
|Pin 9||LSR2P TX||LowSpeed transmit|
|Pin 10||GND||Ground (reserved)|
|Pin 11||LSP2R RX||LowSpeed receive|
|Pin 12||GND||Ground (reserved)|
|Pin 15||HS1TX(P)||HighSpeed transmit 1 (positive)|
|Pin 16||HS1RX(P)||HighSpeed receive 1 (positive)|
|Pin 17||HS1TX(N)||HighSpeed transmit 1 (negative)|
|Pin 18||HS1RX(N)||HighSpeed receive 1 (negative)|
|This is the pinout for both sides of the connector, source side and sink side. The cable is actually a crossover cable. It swaps all receive and transmit lanes; e.g. HS1TX(P) of the source is connected to HS1RX(P) of the sink.|
Thunderbolt is the brand name of a hardware interface for the connection of external peripherals to a computer. It was developed by Intel, in collaboration with Apple. It was initially marketed under the name Light Peak, and first sold as part of an end-user product on 24 February 2011.
Thunderbolt combines PCI Express (PCIe) and DisplayPort (DP) into two serial signals, and additionally provides DC power, all in one cable. Up to six peripherals may be supported by one connector through various topologies. Thunderbolt 1 and 2 use the same connector as Mini DisplayPort (MDP), whereas Thunderbolt 3, 4, and 5 use the same USB-C connector as USB does.
Thunderbolt controllers multiplex one or more individual data lanes from connected PCIe and DisplayPort devices for transmission via two duplex Thunderbolt lanes, then de-multiplex them for use by PCIe and DisplayPort devices on the other end. A single Thunderbolt port supports up to six Thunderbolt devices via hubs or daisy chains; as many of these as the host has DP sources may be Thunderbolt monitors.
A single Mini DisplayPort monitor or other device of any kind may be connected directly or at the very end of the chain. Thunderbolt is interoperable with DP-1.1a compatible devices. When connected to a DP-compatible device, the Thunderbolt port can provide a native DisplayPort signal with four lanes of output data at no more than 5.4 Gbit/s per Thunderbolt lane. When connected to a Thunderbolt device, the per-lane data rate becomes 10 Gbit/s and the four Thunderbolt lanes are configured as two duplex lanes, each 10 Gbit/s comprising one lane of input and one lane of output.
Thunderbolt can be implemented on PCIe graphics cards, which have access to DisplayPort data and PCIe connectivity, or on the motherboard of new computers with onboard video, such as the MacBook Air.
The interface was originally intended to run exclusively on an optical physical layer using components and flexible optical fiber cabling developed by Intel partners and at Intel's Silicon Photonics lab. It was initially marketed under the name Light Peak, and after 2011 as Silicon Photonics Link. However, it was discovered that conventional copper wiring could furnish the desired 10 Gbit/s per channel at lower cost.
This copper-based version of the Light Peak concept was co-developed by Apple and Intel. Apple registered Thunderbolt as a trademark, but later transferred the mark to Intel, which held overriding intellectual-property rights. Thunderbolt was commercially introduced on Apple's 2011 MacBook Pro, using the same Apple-developed connector as Mini DisplayPort. Certain MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, Mac mini and iMac models downgrade Thunderbolt 4 protocol to Thunderbolt 3 due to not supporting dual 4K displays over Thunderbolt.
Sumitomo Electric Industries started selling up to 30 m (100 ft) optical Thunderbolt cables in Japan in January 2013, and Corning, Inc., began selling up to 60 m (200 ft) optical cables in the US in late September 2013.
Intel introduced Light Peak at the 2009 Intel Developer Forum (IDF), using a prototype Mac Pro logic board to run two 1080p video streams plus LAN and storage devices over a single 30-meter optical cable with modified USB ends. The system was driven by a prototype PCI Express card, with two optical buses powering four ports. Jason Ziller, head of Intel's Optical I/O Program Office showed the internal components of the technology under a microscope and the sending of data through an oscilloscope. The technology was described as having an initial speed of 10 Gbit/s over plastic optical cables, and promising a final speed of 100 Gbit/s. At the show, Intel said Light Peak-equipped systems would begin to appear in 2010, and posted a YouTube video showing Light Peak-connected HD cameras, laptops, docking stations, and HD monitors.
On 4 May 2010, in Brussels, Intel demonstrated a laptop with a Light Peak connector, indicating that the technology had shrunk enough to fit inside such a device, and had the laptop send two simultaneous HD video streams down the connection, indicating that at least some fraction of the software/firmware stacks and protocols were functional. At the same demonstration, Intel officials said they expected hardware manufacturing to begin around the end of 2010.
Copper vs. optical
In 2009, Intel officials said the company was "working on bundling the optical fiber with copper wire so Light Peak can be used to power devices plugged into the PC." In 2010, Intel said the original intent was "to have one single connector technology" that would let "electrical USB 3.0 ... and piggyback on USB 3.0 or 4.0 DC power." Light Peak aimed to make great strides in consumer-ready optical technology, by then having achieved "[connectors rated] for 7,000 insertions, which matches or exceeds other PC connections ... cables [that were tied] in multiple knots to make sure it didn't break and the loss is acceptable," and, "You can almost get two people pulling on it at once and it won't break the fibre." They predicted that "Light Peak cables will be no more expensive than HDMI."
In January 2011, Intel's David Perlmutter told Computerworld that initial Thunderbolt implementations would be based on copper wires. "The copper came out very good, surprisingly better than what we thought," he said. A major advantage of copper is the ability to carry power. The final Thunderbolt standard specifies 10 W DC on every port. See comparison section below.
Intel and industry partners are still developing optical Thunderbolt hardware and cables. The optical fiber cables would run "tens of meters" but would not supply power, at least not initially. The version from Corning contains four 80/125 μm VSDN (Very Short Distance Network) fibers to transport an infrared signal up to 190 m (600 ft). The conversion of electrical signal to optical is embedded into the cable itself, so the current MDP connector is forward compatible. Eventually, Intel hopes for a purely optical transceiver assembly embedded in the PC.
The first such optical Thunderbolt cable was introduced by Sumitomo Electric Industries in January 2013. It is available in lengths of 10 m (30 ft), 20 m (70 ft), and 30 m (100 ft). However, those cables are retailed almost exclusively in Japan, and the price is 20 to 30 times that of copper Thunderbolt cables.
German company DeLock also released optical Thunderbolt cables in lengths of 10 m (30 ft), 20 m (70 ft), and 30 m (100 ft) in 2013, priced similarly to the Sumitomo ones, and retailed only in Germany.
In September 2013, glass company Corning Inc. released the first range of optical Thunderbolt cables available in the Western marketplace, along with optical USB 3.0 cables, both under the brand name "Optical Cables". Half the diameter and a fifth the mass of comparable copper Thunderbolt cables, they work with the 10 Gbit/s Thunderbolt protocol and the 20 Gbit/s Thunderbolt 2 protocol, and thus are able to work with all self-powered Thunderbolt devices (unlike copper cables, optical cables cannot provide power). The cables extend the current 30 m (100 ft) maximum length offered by copper to a maximum of 60 m (200 ft).
Before 2020, there were no optical Thunderbolt 3 cables on the market. However, optical Thunderbolt 1 and 2 cables could be used at the time with Apple's Thunderbolt 3 (USB-C) to Thunderbolt 2 adapters on each end of the cable. This achieves connections up to the 60 m (200 ft) maximum offered by previous versions of the standard.
In April 2019, Corning showed an optical Thunderbolt 3 cable at the 2019 NAB Show in Las Vegas. Just over a year later, in September 2020, Corning released their optical Thunderbolt 3 cables in lengths of 5 m (20 ft), 10 m (30 ft), 15 m (50 ft), 25 m (80 ft), and 50 m (160 ft). In the meantime, Taiwanese company Areca released optical Thunderbolt 3 cables in April 2020 in lengths of 10 m (30 ft), 20 m (70 ft), and 30 m (100 ft).
In early 2021, copper Thunderbolt 4 cables arrived from many companies at the 0.8 m (2.6 ft) length. Copper versions of Thunderbolt 4 cables offer full 40 Gbit/s speed and support backward compatibility with all versions of USB (up to USB4), DisplayPort Alternate Mode (DP 1.4 HBR3), and Thunderbolt 3. Released in early 2021, they are also all to be available in three specified lengths: 0.2 m (0.66 ft), 0.8 m (2.6 ft), and 2 m (6.6 ft) – with many companies initially offering 0.8 m (2.6 ft) ones. Copper Thunderbolt 4 cables up to 1.0 m (3.3 ft) are passive cables, while longer cables must integrate active signal conditioning circuitry. 2 m (6.6 ft) cables from CalDigit and Cable Matters are active cables. Later on, optical Thunderbolt 4 cables are targeting lengths from ~5 m (20 ft) to 50 m (160 ft) for release at sometime in the future.
CNET's Brooke Crothers said it was rumored that the early-2011, MacBook Pro update would include some sort of new data port, and he speculated it would be Light Peak (Thunderbolt). At the time, there were no details on the physical implementation, and mock-ups appeared showing a system similar to the earlier Intel demos using a combined USB/Light Peak port. Shortly before the release of the new machines, the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) announced they would not allow such a combination port, and that USB was not open to modification in that way.
Other implementations of the technology began in 2012, with desktop boards offering the interconnection now available.
Apple stated in February 2011 that the port was based on Mini DisplayPort, not USB. As the system was described, Intel's solution to the display connection problem became clear: Thunderbolt controllers multiplex data from existing DP systems with data from the PCIe port into a single cable. Older displays that using DP 1.1a or earlier must be located at the end of a Thunderbolt device chain, but native displays can be anywhere along the line. Thunderbolt devices can go anywhere on the chain. In that respect, Thunderbolt shares a relationship with the older ACCESS.bus system, which used the display connector to support a low-speed bus.
Apple states that up to six daisy-chained peripherals are supported per Thunderbolt port, and that the display should come at the end of the chain, if it does not support daisy chaining.
In February 2011, Apple introduced MacBook Pro (13-inch, Early 2011), Macbook Pro (15-inch, Early 2011), and Macbook Pro (17-inch, Early 2011) featuring one Thunderbolt port. In May 2011, Apple introduced iMac (21.5-inch, Mid 2011) featuring one Thunderbolt port, and iMac (27-inch, Mid 2011) featuring two Thunderbolt ports. In July 2011, Apple introduced Mac mini (Mid 2011), MacBook Air (11-inch, Mid 2011), MacBook Air (13-inch, Mid 2011) and Apple Thunderbolt Display featuring one Thunderbolt port for daisy-chaining, or other devices.
The Thunderbolt port on the new Macs is in the same location relative to other ports and maintains the same physical dimensions and pinout as the prior MDP connector. The main visible difference on Thunderbolt-equipped Macs is a Thunderbolt symbol next to the port.
The DisplayPort standard is partially compatible with Thunderbolt, as the two share Apple's physically compatible MDP connector. The Target Display mode on iMacs requires a Thunderbolt cable to accept a video-in signal from another Thunderbolt-capable computer. A DP monitor must be the last (or only) device in a chain of Thunderbolt devices.
Intel announced they would release a developer kit in the second quarter of 2011, while manufacturers of hardware-development equipment have indicated they will add support for the testing and development of Thunderbolt devices. The developer kit is being provided only on request.
In July 2011, Sony released its Vaio Z21 line of notebook computers that had a "Power Media Dock" that uses optical Thunderbolt (Light Peak) to connect to an external graphics card using a combination port that behaves like USB electrically, but that also includes the optical interconnect required for Thunderbolt.
In June 2013, Intel announced that the next version of Thunderbolt, based on the controller code-named "Falcon Ridge" (running at 20 Gbit/s), is officially named "Thunderbolt 2" and entered production in 2013. The data-rate of 20 Gbit/s is made possible by joining the two existing 10 Gbit/s-channels, which does not change the maximum bandwidth, but makes using it more flexible.
In June 2013, Apple announced Mac Pro (Late 2013) featuring six Thunderbolt 2 ports. In October 2013, Apple announced MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Late 2013), and MacBook Pro (Retina, 15-inch, Late 2013) featuring two Thunderbolt 2 ports. In October 2014, Apple announced Mac mini (Late 2014), and iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, Late 2014) featuring two Thunderbolt 2 ports. In March 2015, Apple announced MacBook Air (11-inch, Early 2015), and MacBook Air (13-inch, Early 2015) featuring one Thunderbolt 2 port.
At the physical level, the bandwidth of Thunderbolt 1 and Thunderbolt 2 are identical, and Thunderbolt 1 cabling is thus compatible with Thunderbolt 2 interfaces. At the logical level, Thunderbolt 2 enables channel aggregation, whereby the two previously separate 10 Gbit/s channels can be combined into a single logical 20 Gbit/s channel.
Thunderbolt 2 incorporates DisplayPort 1.2 support, which allows for video streaming to a single 4K video monitor or dual QHD monitors. Thunderbolt 2 is backwards compatible, which means that all Thunderbolt cables and connectors are compatible with Thunderbolt 1.
The first Thunderbolt 2 product for the consumer market was Asus's Z87-Deluxe/Quad motherboard, announced on 19 August 2013, and the first system released with Thunderbolt 2 was Apple's late 2013 Retina MacBook Pro, on 22 October 2013.
Thunderbolt 3 is a hardware interface developed by Intel. It shares USB-C connectors with USB, supports USB 3.1 Gen 2, and can require special "active" cables for maximum performance for cable lengths over 0.5 meters (1.5 feet). Compared to Thunderbolt 2, it doubles the bandwidth to 40 Gbit/s (5 GB/s). It allows up to 4 lanes of PCI Express 3.0 (32.4 Gbit/s) for general-purpose data transfer, and 4 lanes of DisplayPort 1.4 HBR3 (32.40 Gbit/s before 8/10 encoding removal, and 25.92 Gbit/s after) for video, but the maximum combined data rate cannot exceed 40 Gbit/s; video data will be using all needed speed, limiting PCIe data. DP 1.2 support is mandatory, while DP 1.4 is optional. Other overheads are possible on PCIe data (1.5% of 128b/130b is also removed) and Thunderbolt 3 protocol (you either optimise for speed or for latency), the last one gives only 21.6 Gbit/s to 25 Gbit/s. Thunderbolt 3 uses 64b/66b encoding after that, which means the real rate is bigger than 40 Gbit/s, 2 times 20.625 Gbit/s.
Intel's Thunderbolt 3 controller (codenamed Alpine Ridge, or the new Titan Ridge) halves power consumption, and simultaneously drives two external 4K displays at 60 Hz (or a single external 4K display at 120 Hz, or a 5K display at 60 Hz when using Apple's implementation for the late-2016 MacBook Pros) instead of just the single display previous controllers can drive. The new controller supports PCIe 3.0 and other protocols, including DisplayPort 1.2 (allowing for 4K resolutions at 60 Hz). Thunderbolt 3 has up to 15 watts of power delivery on copper cables and no power delivery capability on optical cables. Using USB-C on copper cables, it can incorporate USB power delivery, allowing the ports to source or sink up to 100 watts of power. This eliminates the need for a separate power supply from some devices. Thunderbolt 3 allows backwards compatibility with the first two versions by the use of adapters or transitional cables.
Intel offers three varieties for each of the controllers:
- Double Port (DP) uses a PCIe 3.0 ×4 link to provide two Thunderbolt 3 ports (DSL6540, JHL6540, JHL7540)
- Single Port (SP) uses a PCIe 3.0 ×4 link to provide one Thunderbolt 3 port (DSL6340, JHL6340, JHL7340)
- Low Power (LP) uses a PCIe 3.0 ×2 link to provide one Thunderbolt 3 port (JHL6240).
This follows previous practice, where higher-end devices such as the second-generation Mac Pro, iMac, Retina MacBook Pro, and Mac Mini use two-port controllers; while lower-end, lower-power devices such as the MacBook Air use the one-port version.
Devices with Thunderbolt 3 ports began shipping at the beginning of December 2015, including notebooks running Microsoft Windows (from Acer, Asus, Clevo, HP, Dell, Dell Alienware, Lenovo, MSI, Razer, and Sony), as well as motherboards (from Gigabyte Technology), and a 0.5 m Thunderbolt 3 passive USB-C cable (from Lintes Technology).
In October 2016, Apple announced MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2016, 2 Thunderbolt 3 Ports) which, as the name indicates, features two Thunderbolt 3 ports, MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2016, 4 Thunderbolt 3 Ports), and MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2016), which features four Thunderbolt 3 ports. In June 2017, Apple announced iMac (21.5-inch, 2017), iMac (Retina 4K, 21.5-inch, 2017), iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, 2017) which feature two Thunderbolt 3 ports, as well as the iMac Pro, which featured four Thunderbolt 3 ports and was released in December 2017. In October 2018, Apple announced MacBook Air (Retina, 13-inch, 2018), and Mac mini (2018) both featuring two Thunderbolt 3 ports. In June 2019, Apple unveils Mac Pro (2019) and Mac Pro (Rack, 2019) featuring up to twelve Thunderbolt 3 ports, and Pro Display XDR with features one Thunderbolt 3 port, both released in December 2019. In April 2021, Apple announced iPad Pro 11-inch (3rd generation) and iPad Pro 12.9-inch (5th generation) featuring one Thunderbolt 3 port. In March 2022, Apple released Studio Display featuring one Thunderbolt 3 port.
On 8 January 2018, Intel announced a product refresh (codenamed Titan Ridge) with "enhanced robustness" and support for DisplayPort 1.4. Intel offers a single port (JHL7340) and double port (JHL7540) version of this host controller and a peripheral controller supporting two Thunderbolt 3 ports (JHL7440). The new peripheral controller can now act as a USB sink (compatible with regular USB-C ports).
The Apple Pro Display XDR, which macOS allows to connect using two HBR3 connections to a Mac, doesn't support Display Stream Compression (DSC). That would be 51.84 Gbit/s, impossible for Thunderbolt 3, but it works because the two 3008×3384 10bpc 60Hz 648.91MHz signals of the XDR display only require 38.9 Gbit/s total and Thunderbolt does not transmit the DisplayPort stuffing symbols used to fill the HBR3 bandwidth.
It supports 40 Gbit/s (5 GB/s) throughput, is optionally compatible with Thunderbolt 3, and is backwards compatible with USB 3.2 and USB 2.0. The architecture defines a method to share a single high-speed link with multiple end device types dynamically that best serves the transfer of data by type and application.
In November 2020, Apple announced MacBook Air (M1, 2020), MacBook Pro (13-inch, M1, 2020), and Mac mini (M1, 2020) featuring USB4. In April 2021, Apple announced iMac (24-inch, M1, 2021) featuring two USB4 ports.
USB4 PCIe Mode
USB4 makes the PCIe aspects of Thunderbolt "open source" – PCIe USB devices can be released without Thunderbolt certification. But notably, those devices will not be allowed to use Thunderbolt branding. However, Thunderbolt 4 devices use PCIe Mode with added certification labeling, and promoting backwards compatibility. This means multiple rival devices may use different brandings to accomplish the same task. USB4 PCIe devices can be backwards compatible with Thunderbolt 1–3 but this is not required. USB4 PCIe Mode is not an Alternate Mode like DisplayPort Alternate Mode, and Microsoft requires devices with USB4 to include PCIe support currently, in order to be WHQL/Windows certified PCs.
Thunderbolt 4 was announced at CES 2020 and the final specification was released in July 2020. The key differences between Thunderbolt 4 and Thunderbolt 3 are a minimum bandwidth requirement of 32 Gbit/s for PCIe link, support for dual 4K displays (DisplayPort 1.4), and Intel VT-d-based direct memory access protection to prevent physical DMA attacks.
Another major improvement is that Thunderbolt 4 supports Thunderbolt Alternate Mode USB hubs ("Multi-port Accessory Architecture"), and not just daisy chaining. Those hubs are backwards compatible with Thunderbolt 3 devices and can be backwards compatible with Thunderbolt 3 hosts (Titan Ridge only; with Alpine Ridge the additional downstream ports get downgraded to USB 3).
The maximum bandwidth remains at 40 Gbit/s, the same as Thunderbolt 3 and four times as fast as USB 3.2 Gen 2x1. Supporting products began arriving in late 2020 and included Tiger Lake mobile processors for Project Athena notebooks and 8000-series standalone Thunderbolt controllers (codenamed Goshen Ridge for devices and Maple Ridge for hosts). USB4 supports DisplayPort 2.0 over its alternative mode. DisplayPort 2.0 can support higher than 8K resolution at 60 Hz losslessly due to new UHBR 10, 13.5, and 20 signaling standards (DSC 1.2 used in DisplayPort 1.4 for that resolution is not lossless) in 8 bit and 8K 60 Hz with 10 bit color and use up to 80 Gbit/s (effective bandwidth 77.37 Gbit/s), which is double the amount available to USB data, because (just as previously in DisplayPort 1.4) it sends almost all the data in one direction (to the monitor) and can thus use all four data lanes at once. Resolutions up to 16K (15360×8640) 60 Hz display with 10 bit Y'CbCr 4:4:4 or RGB are possible.
In October 2021, Apple announced a 14-inch MacBook Pro and a 16-inch MacBook Pro which each featured three Thunderbolt 4 ports. In March 2022, Apple announced the Mac Studio with up to six Thunderbolt 4 ports.
On September 12, 2023 Intel previewed Thunderbolt 5 (codenamed Barlow Ridge), aligned to the USB Implementers Forum's (USB-IF) USB4 2.0 specification. It provides symmetric bandwidth of 80 Gbit/s, e.g. for mass-storage devices, double that of Thunderbolt 4, and unidirectional bandwidth of 120 Gbit/s for displays (three times that of Thunderbolt 3 and 4), supporting dual 8K displays at 60Hz.
The full specifications cover:
- Supporting the latest version of USB4 2.0 80 Gbit/s specification
- Two times the total bandwidth of Thunderbolt 4 to 80 Gbit/s, while providing up to three times the bandwidth to 120 Gbit/s for video-intensive uses
- Support for DisplayPort 2.1
- Two times (64 Gbit/s) the PCI Express data-throughput using PCI Express Gen. 4 x4, for faster storage and external graphics
- Up 240W of charging power downstream
- Works with existing passive cables up to 1 m (3.3 ft) via PAM-3
- Compatible with previous versions of Thunderbolt, USB, and DisplayPort
- Supported by Intel's enabling and certification programs
Intel announced that computers and accessories compatible with Thunderbolt 5 will come out starting in 2024.
On 24 May 2017, Intel announced that Thunderbolt 3 would become a royalty-free standard to OEMs and chip manufacturers in 2018, as part of an effort to boost the adoption of the protocol. The Thunderbolt 3 specification was later released to the USB-IF on 4 March 2019, making it royalty-free, to be used to form USB4. Intel says it will retain control over certification of all Thunderbolt 3 devices. Intel also states it employs "mandatory certification for all Thunderbolt products".
Before March 2019, there were no AMD chipsets or computers with Thunderbolt support released or announced due to the certification requirements (Intel did not certify non-Intel platforms). However, the YouTuber Wendell Wilson from Level1Techs was able to get Thunderbolt 3 support on an AMD computer with a Threadripper CPU and Titan Ridge add-in card working by modifying the firmware, indicating that the lack of Thunderbolt support on non-Intel systems is not due to any hardware limitations. As of May 2019, it is possible to have Thunderbolt 3 support on AMD using add-in cards without any problems, and motherboards like ASRock X570 Creator already have Thunderbolt 3 ports.
In January 2020 Intel certified ASRock X570 Phantom Gaming ITX/TB3 and now vendors are freely allowed to produce Thunderbolt controller silicon (even though those ASRock motherboards used Intel Titan Ridge).
Asus currently supports Thunderbolt 3 on AMD with the add-in card Thunderboltex 3-TR, being compatible with AMD motherboards and Ryzen 3, 5 (56xx): ROG Strix B550-E Gaming, ROG Strix B550-F Gaming, Prime B550-PLUS, TUF Gaming B550-Plus. The ASUS ProArt B550-Creator has 2 Thunderbolt 4 ports.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2017)
The first Thunderbolt peripheral devices appeared in retail stores only in late 2011, following Apple's release of its first Thunderbolt-equipped computer in early 2011 with MacBook Pro, with the relatively expensive Pegasus R4 (4-drive) and Pegasus R6 (6-drive) RAID enclosures by Promise Technology aimed at the prosumer and professional market, initially offering up to 12 TB of storage, later increased to 18 TB. Sales of these units were hurt by the 2011 floods in Thailand (who manufacture much of the world's supply of hard-drives) resulting in a cut to worldwide hard-drive production and a subsequent driving-up of storage costs, hence the retail price of these Promise units increased in response, contributing to a slower take-up of the devices.
It also took some time for other storage manufacturers to release products: most were smaller devices aimed at the professional market, and focused on speed rather than high capacity. Many storage devices were under 1 TB in size, with some featuring SSDs for faster external-data access rather than standard hard-drives.
Other companies have offered interface products that can route multiple older, usually slower, connections through a single Thunderbolt port. In July 2011, Apple released its Apple Thunderbolt Display, whose gigabit Ethernet and other older connector types made it the first hub of its type. Later, companies such as Belkin, CalDigit, Other World Computing, Matrox, StarTech, and Elgato have all released Thunderbolt docks.
As of late 2012, few other storage devices offering double-digit TB capacity had appeared. Exceptions included Sonnet Technologies' highly priced professional units, and Drobo's 4- and 5-drive enclosures, the latter featuring their own BeyondRAID proprietary data-handling system.
Backwards compatibility with non-Thunderbolt-equipped computers was a problem, as most storage devices featured only two Thunderbolt ports, for daisy-chaining up to six devices from each one. In mid-2012, LaCie, Drobo, and other device makers started to swap out one of the two Thunderbolt ports for a USB 3.0 connection on some of their low-to-mid end products. Later models had the USB 3.0 added in addition to the two Thunderbolt ports, including those from LaCie on their 2big range.
Apple released its first Thunderbolt-equipped computer in early 2011 with MacBook Pro, and have continued to immediately update their devices with newer generations of Thunderbolt as soon as available.
List of Apple devices featuring Thunderbolt ports include:
- MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Late 2012 to Early 2013)
- MacBook Pro (Retina, 15-inch, Mid 2012 to Early 2013)
- MacBook Pro (17-inch, Early 2011 to Late 2011)
- MacBook Pro (15-inch, Early 2011 to Mid 2012)
- MacBook Pro (13-inch, Early 2011 to Mid 2012)
- MacBook Air (13-inch, Mid 2011 to Early 2014)
- MacBook Air (11-inch, Mid 2011 to Early 2014)
- Mac Mini (Mid 2011 to Late 2012)
- iMac (27-inch, Mid 2011 to Late 2013)
- iMac (21.5-inch, Mid 2011 to Mid 2014)
The late 2013 Retina MacBook Pro was the first product to have Thunderbolt 2 ports, following which manufacturers started to update their model offerings to those featuring the newer, faster, 20 Gbit/s connection throughout 2014. Again, among the first was Promise Technology, who released updated Pegasus 2 versions of their R4 and R6 models along with an even larger R8 (8-drive) RAID unit, offering up to 32 TBs of storage. Later, other brands similarly introduced high capacity models with the newer connection type, including SanDisk Professional (with their G-RAID Studio models offering up to 24 TB) and LaCie (with their 5big, and rack mounted 8big models, offering up to 48 TB). LaCie also offering updated designed versions of their 2big mainstream consumer models, up to 12 TB, using new 6 TB hard-drives.
List of Apple devices featuring Thunderbolt 2 ports include:
- MacBook Pro (Retina, 15-inch, Late 2013 to Mid 2015)
- MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Late 2013 to Early 2015)
- MacBook Air (13-inch, Early 2015 to 2017)
- MacBook Air (11-inch, Early 2015)
- Mac Mini (Late 2014)
- iMac (Retina 4K, 21.5-inch, Late 2015)
- iMac (21.5-inch, Late 2015)
- iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, Late 2014 to Late 2015)
- Mac Pro (Late 2013)
Thunderbolt 3 was introduced in late 2015, with several motherboard manufacturers and OEM laptop manufacturers including Thunderbolt 3 with their products. Gigabyte and MSI, large computer component manufacturers, entered the market for the first time with Thunderbolt 3 compatible components.
Apple first included Thunderbolt 3 on Mac in 2016.
Although Thunderbolt has initially had poor hardware support outside of Apple devices, and has been relegated to a niche gadget port, with the adoption of Thunderbolt 3 that uses the USB-C connector standard, meant that a much wider array of hardware was accepting of the market acceptance of the standard, especially when it later became part of USB4 standard.
List of Apple devices featuring Thunderbolt 3 ports include:
- MacBook Pro (13-inch, M1, 2020 to M2, 2022)
- MacBook Pro (16-inch, 2019)
- MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2016 to 2019)
- MacBook Pro (13-inch, Four Thunderbolt 3 ports, 2016 to 2020)
- MacBook Pro (13-inch, Two Thunderbolt 3 ports, 2016 to 2020)
- MacBook Air (M1, 2020 to M2, 2022)
- MacBook Air (Retina, 13-inch, 2018 to 2020)
- Mac Mini (2018 to M1, 2020)
- iMac (24-inch, M1, 2021)
- iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, 2017 to 2020)
- iMac (Retina 4K, 21.5-inch, 2017 to 2019)
- iMac (21.5-inch, 2017)
- iMac Pro
- Mac Pro (2019 + Rack, 2019)
- iPad Pro 12.9-inch (5th generation)
- iPad Pro 11-inch (3rd generation)
Apple started to include Thunderbolt 4 on some of their devices, starting in 2021 with MacBook Pro.
List of Apple devices featuring Thunderbolt 4 ports include:
- MacBook Pro (14-inch, M1, 2021 to M2, 2023)
- MacBook Pro (16-inch, M1, 2021 to M2, 2023)
- Mac Studio (2022 to 2023)
- Mac Mini (2023)
- Mac Pro (2023 + Rack, 2023)
Vulnerability to DMA attacks
Thunderbolt 3 – like many high-speed expansion buses, including PCI Express, PC Card, ExpressCard, FireWire, PCI, and PCI-X — is potentially vulnerable to a direct memory access (DMA) attack. If users extend the PCI Express bus (the most common high-speed expansion bus in systems as of 2018[update]) with Thunderbolt, it allows very low-level access to the computer. An attacker could physically attach a malicious device, which, through its direct and unimpeded access to system memory and other devices, would be able to bypass almost all security measures of the operating system, allowing the attacker to read and write system memory, potentially exposing encryption keys or installing malware. Such attacks have been demonstrated, modifying inexpensive commodity Thunderbolt hardware. The IOMMU virtualization, if present, and configured by the BIOS and the operating system, can close a computer's vulnerability to DMA attacks, but only if a malicious device can't alter the code that configures the IOMMU before the code is executed. As of 2019, the major OS vendors had not taken into account the variety of ways in which a malicious device could take advantage of complex interactions between multiple emulated peripherals, exposing subtle bugs and vulnerabilities. Some UEFI implementations offer Kernel DMA Protection. Intel® VT-d-based direct memory access (DMA) protection is a requirement for Thunderbolt 4 Certification.
This vulnerability is not present when Thunderbolt is used as a system interconnection (IPoTB supported on OS X Mavericks), because the IP implementation runs on the underlying Thunderbolt low-latency packet-switching fabric, and the PCI Express protocol is not present on the cable. That means that if IPoTB networking is used between a group of computers, there is no threat of such DMA attack between them.
Vulnerability to Option ROM attacks
When a system with Thunderbolt boots, it loads and executes Option ROMs from attached devices. A malicious Option ROM can allow malware to execute before an operating system is started. It can then invade the kernel, log keystrokes, or steal encryption keys. The ease of connecting Thunderbolt devices to portable computers makes them ideal for evil-maid attacks.
Some systems load Option ROMs during firmware updates, allowing the malware in a Thunderbolt device's Option ROM to potentially overwrite the SPI flash ROM containing the system's boot firmware. In February 2015, Apple issued a Security Update to Mac OS X to eliminate the vulnerability of loading Option ROMs during firmware updates, although the system is still vulnerable to Option ROM attacks during normal boots.
Firmware-enforced boot security measures, such as UEFI Secure Boot (which specifies the enforcement of signatures or hash allowlists of Option ROMs) are designed to mitigate this kind of attack.
Vulnerability to data exposure attacks (Thunderspy)
In May 2020, seven major security flaws were discovered in the Thunderbolt protocol, collectively named Thunderspy. They allow a malicious party to access all data stored in a computer, even if the device is locked, password-protected, and has an encrypted hard drive. These vulnerabilities affect all Thunderbolt 1, 2 and 3 ports. The attack requries the computer to be in sleep mode and have a Thunderbolt controller with a writable fireware chip. An well-trained attacker with physical access to the computer ("evil maid") can perform the required steps in 5 minutes. With a malicious firmware, the attacker can covertly disable Thunderbolt security, clone device identities, and proceed to use DMA to extract data. Thunderspy vulnerabilities can largely be mitigated using Kernel DMA Protection, along with traditional anti-intrusion hardware features.
In June 2012, Apple began selling a Thunderbolt-to-gigabit Ethernet adapter for US$29. In the third quarter of 2012, other manufacturers started shipping Thunderbolt cables, including cables reaching the 3 metres (9.8 feet) length limit, while some storage-enclosure builders began bundling Thunderbolt cables with their devices, rather than making customers buy them separately, as had been standard practice.
In January 2013, Apple reduced the price of their 2 m (6.6 ft) length cable to US$39 and added a half-meter cable for US$29.
In Thunderbolt 3’s introduction, Intel announced passive USB-C cables would connect Thunderbolt devices at speeds greater than USB 3.1 (though less than active Thunderbolt cables), thereby eliminating the adoption barrier of Thunderbolt active cable costs.
In mid-2016, copper Thunderbolt 3 cables became available at lengths up to 2 m (6.6 ft). However, 40 Gbit/s on copper required either active cables, or short (initially 0.5 m (1.6 ft), later 0.8 m (3 ft)) passive cables. Passive copper cables exceeding 0.8 m (3 ft) are limited to 20 Gbit/s. Despite that limit, passive cables provide USB 3 (20 Gbit/s) backward compatibility, while active cables support only USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/s). In April 2020, optical Thunderbolt 3 cables debuted (see Copper vs. optical).
Copper versions of Thunderbolt 4 cables offer full 40 Gbit/s speed and backward compatibility with all versions of USB (up to USB4), DisplayPort Alternate Mode (DP 1.4 HBR3), and Thunderbolt 3. Released in early 2021, they are also all to be available in three specified lengths: 0.2 m (0.66 ft), 0.8 m (2.6 ft), and 2 m (6.6 ft) – with many companies initially offering 0.8 m (2.6 ft) lengths. Copper Thunderbolt 4 cables up to 1.0 m (3.3 ft) are passive cables, while longer cables must integrate active signal conditioning circuitry. At some unspecified time in the future, optical Thunderbolt 4 cables are targeting lengths from ~5 m (16 ft) to 50 m (160 ft).
|1||82523EF||4||15 × 15||3.8||Light Ridge||Q4 2010|
|DSL2510||2||?||Eagle Ridge||Q1 2011|
|DSL2310||8 × 9||1.85||SFF|
|DSL2210||1||5 × 6||0.7||Port Ridge||Q4 2011||Device only|
|DSL3510H||4||12 × 12||3.4||Cactus Ridge||—||Cancelled|
|DSL4410||2||10 × 10||?||Host only|
|2||DSL5520||4||?||?||Falcon Ridge||Q3 2013||Thunderbolt 2, 20 Gbit/s speed+DP 1.2|
|3||DSL6540||10.7 × 10.7||2.2||Alpine Ridge||Q4 2015||40 Gbit/s speed, PCIe 3.0, HDMI 2.0 LSPCon (DP Protocol Converter),|
DP 1.2, USB 3.1, 100 W power delivery (compatible with USB Power Delivery).
|DSL6340||1||1.7||Q1 2015||40 Gbit/s speed, DP 1.2|
|JHL6240||1.2||Q2 2016||40 Gbit/s speed, DP 1.2, lead-free|
|JHL7340||1||1.9||Titan Ridge||Q1 2018||40 Gbit/s speed, DP 1.4|
|JHL7440||2.4||Q1 2018||40 Gbit/s speed, DP 1.4, optional USB-C port compatibility,|
backwards compatibility when a Thunderbolt 3 docking station is connected to a non-Thunderbolt 3 computer
|4||JHL8340†||1||?||?||Maple Ridge||2H 2020||40 Gbit/s speed, USB4 compliant|
|JHL8540†||2||10.7 × 10.7||?||Q4 2020|
|JHL8440*||4||10.7 × 10.7||?||Goshen Ridge||Q3 2020||40 Gbit/s speed, USB4 compliant (peripheral only), with 4x Thunderbolt 4 ports for branching hub topology. Tunnelling of DP1.4, USB 3 (10 Gbit/s), PCIe (32 Gbit/s). Has PCIe 3.0 x1 and USB 3 (10 Gbit/s) native interfaces.|
|Devices controller aimed at: † computers, * accessories|
- Apple Thunderbolt Display
- Computer bus
- DisplayPort / Mini DisplayPort
- IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
- Interconnect bottleneck
- List of interface bit rates
- List of computer peripheral bus bit rates
- MacBook Pro
- Optical communication
- Fiber-optic cable
- Parallel optical interface
- USB 3.0
- "Apple Updates MacBook Pro with Next Generation Processors, Graphics & Thunderbolt I/O Technology" (Press release). Apple. 24 February 2011. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "Thunderbolt – Technology Brief". Intel. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "OWC Thunderbolt Hub". Retrieved 19 November 2020.
- "Thunderbolt 4 Press deck" (PDF). Thunderbolt technology. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
- "Thunderbolt Device Driver Programming Guide". Apple. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- "Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) – Thunderbolt Technology Community". thunderbolttechnology.net.
- Shamah, David. "Thunderbolt 3: How USB cooperation could lead to 100 million connected computers soon". ZDNet. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
- Shah, Agam (6 June 2013). "Intel shows 'world's fastest thumb drive'". Computerworld. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
- Frakes, Dan (24 February 2011). "What you need to know about Thunderbolt". MacWorld. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- Cunningham, Andrew. "USB 3.1 and Type-C: The only stuff at CES that everyone is going to use".
- Foresman, Chris (24 February 2011). "Thunderbolt smokes USB, FireWire with 10 Gb/s throughput". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- Dilger, Daniel Eran (24 February 2011). "Intel details Thunderbolt, says Apple has a full year's head start". AppleInsider. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Nilsson, LG (25 February 2011). "Intel announces Thunderbolt". VR-Zone. VR Media. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Light Peak: Overview" (PDF). Intel. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- "White Paper: The 50G Silicon Photonics Link" (PDF). Intel. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- "Thunderbolt trademark rights will be transferred from Apple to Intel". AppleInsider. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "Sumitomo Electric Starts Selling Optical Thunderbolt Cable at Amazon Online". Global Sei.
- "Optical Cables by Corning launched as the first Thunderbolt all-optical fiber cables". Corning. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Patel, Nilay (24 September 2009). "Video: Intel's Light Peak running an HD display while transferring files... on a hackintosh". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Ziller, Jason (26 January 2010). Intel Light Peak Interconnect Technology Update (YouTube). Intel. Event occurs at 1:20. Archived from the original on 23 March 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- on YouTube
- "Light Peak to succeed USB 3.0". UK: The Register. 15 April 2010.
- Shiels, Maggie (25 September 2009). "Future is TV-shaped, says Intel". BBC News. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- Collins, Barry (4 May 2010). "Intel shows off first Light Peak laptop". PC Pro. Dennis Publishing. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Hollister, Sean (14 September 2010). "Intel's Light Peak optical interconnect shrinks slightly, LaCie, WD, Compal and Avid begin prototyping". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Hachman, Mark (24 February 2011). "Intel Thunderbolt Rollout Won't Be Lightning Fast". PC Mag. Ziff Davis. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
- Shankland, Stephen (23 September 2009). "Intel's Light Peak: One PC cable to rule them all". CNet News. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Crothers, Brooke (29 September 2009). "Sources: 'Light Peak' technology not Apple idea". CNet News. CNet. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Branscombe, Mary (5 August 2010). "Intel Light Peak: a tech guide". ZDNet. Ziff Davis. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Shah, Agam (8 January 2011). "Intel says Light Peak interconnect technology is ready". Computerworld. International Data. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "IPtronics Develops Components for Light Peak Technology" (Press release). IPtronics. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- Clarke, Peter (1 October 2009). "IPtronics, Avago chip in to Intel's optical interconnect". EE Times. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- Metz, Cade (24 February 2011). "Intel: 'PC makers took the light out of Light Peak'". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Ziller, Jason (23 January 2010). Light Peak to Connect Consumer Devices at Record Speed (YouTube). Intel. Event occurs at 1:13. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Sumitomo Electric Starts Selling Optical Thunderbolt Cable at Amazon Online" (Press release). Global SEI. 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "Delock Cable Thunderbolt optical male/male 30 m black". DeLock. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "PSA: For Thunderbolt 3 over distance; use *OPTICAL Thunderbolt 1/2 cables!*". Macrumors. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "Optical thunderbolt 3 cables from Corning. Up to 60m. #NAB2019 #NABShow". Twitter. Mat X. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
- "Corning's Optical Thunderbolt 3 Cables Now Available in Lengths From 5 to 50 Meters". Macrumors. 30 September 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "Optical Thunderbolt 3 Cables Begin Rolling Out in Lengths Up to 50 Meters". Macrumors. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
- "Thunderbolt 4 / USB 4 Cable (2m) Active 40Gb/s, 100W, 20V, 5A". CalDigit.
- "Cable Matters Active Thunderbolt 4 Cable". Cable Matters.
- "Intel Thunderbolt 4 announcement press deck" (PDF). Intel Thunderbolt. 8 July 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- Crothers, Brooke (19 February 2011). "New high-speed connection tech due from Apple". CNet News. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Kim, Arnold (19 February 2011). "Apple to Introduce Light Peak (High Speed Connection Technology) Soon?". MacRumors. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Smith, Mat (21 May 2012). "ASUS and MSI launch Thunderbolt motherboards, tie for first place". Engadget.
- "Thunderbolt: Next-Generation high-speed I/O technology". Apple. 24 February 2011. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "MacBook Pro (13-inch, Early 2011) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Pro (15-inch, Early 2011) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Pro (17-inch, Early 2011) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iMac (21.5-inch, Mid 2011) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iMac (27-inch, Mid 2011) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Mac mini (Mid 2011) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Air (11-inch, Mid 2011) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Air (13-inch, Mid 2011) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Apple Thunderbolt Display – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Apple Announces New iMac With Next Generation Quad-Core Processors, Graphics & Thunderbolt I/O Technology". Apple. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "iMac (Mid 2011): Target Display Mode does not accept video over a Mini DisplayPort cable". Apple. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Shah, Agam (12 April 2011). "Intel to Open up Thunderbolt Development This Quarter". PC World. PCWorld Communications. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Holland, Colin (12 April 2011). "LeCroy lines up armada for Thunderbolt testing". Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Registration required for developer information". Intel. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "Video Creation Bolts Ahead – Intel's Thunderbolt 2 Doubles Bandwidth, Enabling 4K Video Transfer & Display". Intel. 4 June 2013.
- "Mac Pro (Late 2013) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Late 2013) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Pro (Retina, 15-inch, Late 2013) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Mac mini (Late 2014) - Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, Late 2014) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Air (11-inch, Early 2015) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Air (13-inch, Early 2015) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- Apple (2013) "Thunderbolt". Apple. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Video Creation Bolts Ahead – Intel's Thunderbolt 2 Doubles Bandwidth, Enabling 4K Video Transfer & Display". intel.com. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Walton, Jarred (19 August 2013). "ASUS Introduces Z87-Deluxe/Quad: World's First Thunderbolt 2 Certified Motherboard". AnandTech. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- Torres, Edwin (28 January 2013) . MacRumors. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Intel". Facebook.
- Byrne, Seamus (2 June 2015). "One port to rule them all: Thunderbolt 3 and USB Type-C join forces". CNET. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "Thunderbolt 3 is twice as fast and uses reversible USB Type-C". Engadget. 2 June 2015.
- "Thunderbolt 3 embraces USB Type-C connector, doubles bandwidth to 40Gbps". arstechnica.co.uk. 2 June 2015.
- "Intel® 7000 Series Thunderbolt™ 3 Controllers" (PDF). Intel.
- "Thunderbolt 3 Technology Brief" (PDF). Intel.
- "Thunderbolt 3 – The USB-C That Does It All". Thunderbolt Technology Community. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Leaked Info on Third-Generation Thunderbolt Points to 40Gbps Transfer Speeds". MacRumors. 21 April 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Next-gen Thunderbolt details: 40Gbps, PCIe 3.0, HDMI 2.0, and 100W power delivery for single-cable PCs". Extreme Tech. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Next-gen Thunderbolt doubles speeds but changes the connector". Ars Technica. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Day 1 of Thunderbolt peripheral training Q4 15 final v1.0" (PDF), Thunderbolt technology
- "Thunderbolt 3 devices". Thunderbolt Technology. January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- "MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2016, Two Thunderbolt 3 ports) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2016, Four Thunderbolt 3 ports) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2016) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iMac (21.5-inch, 2017) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iMac (Retina 4K, 21.5-inch, 2017) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, 2017) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iMac Pro (2017) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Air (Retina, 13-inch, 2018) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Mac mini (2018) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Mac Pro (2019) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Mac Pro (Rack, 2019) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Pro Display XDR – Technical Specifications". Apple. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iPad Pro, 11-inch (3rd generation) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iPad Pro, 12.9-inch (5th generation) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Studio Display – Technical Specifications". Apple. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- Ziller, Jason. "New Intel Thunderbolt 3 controllers offer DisplayPort 1.4, and basic peripheral compatibility with USB-C computer ports". Thunderbolt Technology. Intel. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "USB Promoter Group USB4 Specification". USB implementers forum. 29 August 2019.
- Bright, Peter (4 March 2019). "Thunderbolt 3 becomes USB4, as Intel's interconnect goes royalty-free". Ars Technica. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Grunin, Lori (4 March 2019). "USB4 marries Thunderbolt 3 for faster speeds and smarter transfers". CNET. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Brant, Tom (4 March 2019). "Thunderbolt 3 Merges With USB to Become USB4". PC Magazine. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- "VESA Releases Updated DisplayPort Alt Mode Spec to Bring DisplayPort 2.0 Performance to USB4 and New USB Type-C® Devices". VESA - Interface Standards for The Display Industry. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
- "Thunderbolt 4 Explained | Tripp Lite". Tripp Lite Website. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
- "MacBook Air (M1, 2020) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Pro (13-inch, M1, 2020) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Mac mini (M1, 2020) – Technical specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "iMac (24-inch, M1, 2021) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- USB type C system overview (PDF), USB
- "USB4 Systems PCIe Tunneling Support". Microsoft.
- "USB4 is Coming! Here is What You Need to Know". Black box.
- "DisplayPort Alt Mode 2.0 Spec Released: Defining Alt Mode for USB4". Anand tech.
- "USB4 vs. USB C". Linux hint.
- Owen, Malcolm (7 January 2020). "Intel confirms Thunderbolt 4 on way with four-times USB 3 speed". Apple Insider. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Introducing Thunderbolt 4 universal cable connectivity for everyone, Intel
- Introducing Thunderbolt 4: Universal Cable Connectivity for Everyone. Intel. July 8, 2020
- "What is Thunderbolt 4?". Cable Matters.
- "Razer Thunderbolt 4 Dock". Retrieved 5 February 2021.
- "Sonnet Thunderbolt 4 Dock Compatibility" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
- S, Ganesh T. "Intel Teases Thunderbolt 4, Light on Details". Anandtech. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- Smith, Ryan. "DisplayPort Alt Mode 2.0 Spec Released: Defining Alt Mode for USB4". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
- "VESA Releases Updated DisplayPort Alt Mode Spec to Bring DisplayPort 2.0 Performance to USB4 and New USB Type-C® Devices". VESA – Interface Standards for The Display Industry. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
- "MacBook Pro (14-inch, 2021) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "MacBook Pro (16-inch, 2021) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Mac Studio (2022) – Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Intel Introduces Thunderbolt 5 Connectivity Standard". Intel. 19 October 2022. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
- "Intel has a grand plan to bring Thunderbolt 3 ports to every laptop". Techradar. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
- "USB Promoter Group Announces USB4 Specification" (PDF). USB. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
- "USB4 Specification". USB. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- "The new USB4 spec promises a lot: Thunderbolt 3 support, 40Gbps bandwidth, and less confusion". PCWorld. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
- "Introducing Thunderbolt 4: Universal Cable Connectivity for Everyone". PCWorld. 8 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- "Where is Thunderbolt on Threadripper?! Here it is, but…", Level1Techs, 29 July 2018, archived from the original on 3 November 2021, retrieved 20 February 2019 – via You tube
- Lilly, Paul (30 July 2018). "Complex Threadripper hack gets Intel's Thunderbolt 3 working on AMD hardware". PC Gamer. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- "Thunderbolt 3 AMD Threadripper 1950X + RTX 2080@32Gbps-TB3". eGPU.io. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- "ASRock X570 Creator". Asrock. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Products". Thunderbolt Technology Community. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- Broekhuijsen, Niels (6 February 2020). "Intel Finally Certified an AMD Thunderbolt Motherboard: Here's Why That Matters (Updated)". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- "THUNDERBOLTEX 3-TR｜Motherboards｜ASUS Global". www.asus.com. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
- "ProArt B550-CREATOR｜Motherboards｜ASUS Global". ASUS Global. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
- "Identify the ports on your Mac". Apple Support. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- Butler, Stacey (7 November 2023). "What Exactly Is Thunderbolt and How Is It Different From USB-C? • macReports". macReports. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
- "Gigabyte Unveils the Z170X-UD5 TH Thunderbolt 3 Certified Motherboard". Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "MSI embraces Skylake and Thunderbolt 3.0 for new gaming laptops". Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "New Alienware laptops pack Thunderbolt 3 and prettier screens, but oddly lack Skylake". Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Graham, Robert (24 February 2011). "Thunderbolt: Introducing a new way to hack Macs". Errata Security. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Sevinsky, Russ (1 August 2013). Funderbolt: Adventures in Thunderbolt DMA Attacks (PDF). Black Hat Briefings. Las Vegas.
- Porter, Jon (11 May 2020). "Thunderbolt flaw allows access to a PC's data in minutes". The Verge. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- "Thunderclap: Exploring Vulnerabilities in Operating System IOMMU Protection via DMA from Untrustworthy Peripherals – NDSS Symposium". Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Thunderbolt™ 3 vs. Thunderbolt™ 4 Technology: What's the Difference?". Retrieved 23 February 2023.
- "Thunderbolt how it works". Intel. 2014. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- Sevinsky, Russ (1 October 2013). Black Hat USA 2013 – Funderbolt: Adventures in Thunderbolt DMA Attacks. Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- Heasman, John (2007). "Hacking the Extensible Firmware Interface" (PDF). Black Hat.
- Snare (2012). "Mac EFI rootkits" (PDF). Black Hat.
- Hudson, Trammell (27 December 2014). "Thunderstrike: EFI firmware rootkits for MacBooks". Chaos Communication Congress.
- US-CERT/NIST (30 January 2015). "CVE-2014-4498: The Thunderstrike issue".
- "About the security content of OS X Yosemite v10.10.2 and Security Update 2015-001". Apple. 4 February 2015.
- Ruytenberg, Björn (2020). "Thunderspy: When Lightning Strikes Thrice: Breaking Thunderbolt 3 Security". Thunderspy.io. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- Ruytenberg, Björn. "Thunderspy 2: Kernel DMA Protection for Unpatched Thunderbolt Systems".
- "Kernel DMA Protection (Windows 10) – Microsoft 365 Security". docs.microsoft.com.
- Foresman, Chris (30 June 2011). "The technology inside Apple's $50 Thunderbolt cable". Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- van Beijnum, Iljitsch (20 June 2012). "Hands-on: Apple's Thunderbolt Gigabit Ethernet adapter". Ars Technica.
- Gurman, Mark (10 January 2013). "Apple slashes price on Thunderbolt cable, releases additional shorter model". 9to5Mac.
- Anthony, Sebastian (2 June 2015). "Thunderbolt 3 embraces USB Type-C connector, doubles bandwidth to 40Gbps". Ars Technica UK.
- "Intel JHL6540 Thunderbolt 3 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- "Next-Gen Intel "Alpine Ridge" Thunderbolt Controller Detailed". techpowerup.com.
- "Intel 6000 Series Thunderbolt 3 Controllers" (PDF).
- "Alpine Ridge 頻寬可達 40Gb/s，新一代 Thunderbolt 晶片將具更多功能 – VR-Zone 中文版". vr-zone.com. 19 April 2014.
- "Intel DSL6340 Thunderbolt 3 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- "Intel JHL6240 Thunderbolt 3 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- "Intel JHL6340 Thunderbolt 3 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- "Intel JHL6540 Thunderbolt 3 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- "Intel JHL7340 Thunderbolt 3 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- "Intel JHL7540 Thunderbolt 3 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- "Intel JHL7440 Thunderbolt 3 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- "Intel unveils the Thunderbolt 4 spec, which AMD believes it can use". pcworld.com.
- Intel Corporation (16 December 2020). "Intel JHL8540 Thunderbolt 4 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- Intel Corporation (23 September 2020). "Intel JHL8440 Thunderbolt 4 Controller Product Specifications". intel.com.
- * Nilsson, LG. "Intel cans 3.4W TDP Cactus Ridge Thunderbolt chip". VR-Zone. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Nilsson, LG. "Thunderbolt roadmap unveiled, new features coming to Apple et al". VR-Zone. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Chen, Monica. "Intel to release new Thunderbolt chip in 2Q13". Digitimes. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Nilsson, LG. "Intel finally shipping 2nd gen Thunderbolt controllers, just in time for new Macs". VR-Zone. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- Shimpi, Anand. "New Thunderbolt Controllers (DSL4510/4410) and Future 20 Gbps Falcon Ridge TB Controller Announced". AnandTech. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Verry, Tim (15 September 2013). "IDF 2013: Products With 20Gbps Thunderbolt 2 Appear At IDF 2013". PC Perspective. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "Products", Formerly Falcon Ridge, Intel, retrieved 14 October 2013
- "New Intel Thunderbolt 3 controllers offer DisplayPort 1.4, and basic peripheral compatibility with USB-C computer ports".
- Ziller, Jason (2 June 2015). "Thunderbolt 3 – The USB-C That Does It All". thunderbolttechnology.net. Intel.
- "Adapters for the Thunderbolt 3 or USB-C port on your Mac". apple.com. Apple. 11 August 2021.