|• Mayor||Anatolii Kurtiev (acting Mayor since 30 September 2021)|
|• City||334 km2 (129 sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,675 km2 (1,805 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,365.2/km2 (3,536/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area code||+380 61(2)|
Zaporizhzhia[note 1] (Ukrainian: Запоріжжя, IPA: [zɐpoˈriʒʲːɐ] ⓘ; Russian: Запорожье, romanized: Zaporozhye, IPA: [zəpɐˈroʐje] ⓘ), until 1921 known as Aleksandrovsk or Oleksandrivsk,[note 2] is a city in southeast Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative centre of Zaporizhzhia Oblast. Zaporizhzhia has a population of 710,052 (2022 estimate).
Zaporizhzhia is known for the historic island of Khortytsia, multiple power stations and for being an important industrial centre. Steel, aluminium, aircraft engines, automobiles, transformers for substations, and other heavy industrial goods are produced in the region.
Names and etymology
The name Zaporizhzhia refers to the position of the city: "beyond the rapids"—downstream or south of the Dnieper Rapids. These were previously an impediment to navigation and the site of important portages. In 1932, the rapids were flooded to become part of the reservoir of the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station.
Zaporizhzhia was founded in 1770, when the Aleksandrovskaya (Александровская) Fortress was built as a part of the Dnieper Defence Line, to protect the southern territories of the Russian Empire from Crimean Tatar invasions. Following the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1775, the southern lands of the Russian Plain and the Crimean peninsula were absorbed into the Russian Empire. The Aleksandrovskaya Fortress then lost its military significance, and became a small rural town, which from 1806 to around 1930 was called Alexandrovsk.
The opening of the Kichkas Bridge at the start of the 20th century, the first rail crossing of the Dnieper, was followed by the industrial growth of Zaporizhzhia . In 1916, during World War I, the DEKA Stock Association transferred its aircraft engine manufacturing plant from Saint Petersburg to Zaporizhzhia.
During the Russian Civil War (1918–1921), Zaporizhzhia was the scene of fierce fighting between the Red Army and the White armies of Denikin and Wrangel, Petliura's Ukrainian People's Army of the Ukrainian People's Republic, and German-Austrian troops. The opposing armies used the strategically important Kichkas Bridge to transfer troops, ammunition, and medical supplies. The Soviet government industrialized Zaporizhzhia still further during the 1920s and 1930s, when the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station, and the Zaporizhzhia Steel Plant, and the Dnieper Aluminium Plant were built. In the 1930s, the American United Engineering and Foundry Company built a strip mill similar to the Ford River Rouge steel mill to produce rolling steel strip. The annual capacity of the mill reached 540,000 tonnes (600,000 short tons) of 170 cm (66 inches) wide steel.
World War II (1941–1945)
After the outbreak of the War between the USSR and Nazi Germany in June 1941, the Soviet government began evacuating Zaporizhzhia's industries to Siberia. and the Soviet security forces began shooting political prisoners in the city. On 18 August 1941, elements of the German 1st Panzergruppe reached the outskirts of Zaporizhzhia on the right bank and seized the island of Khortytsia.
The Red Army blew a 120 by 10 metres (394 ft × 33 ft) hole in the Dnieper hydroelectric dam on 18 August 1941, producing a flood wave that swept from Zaporizhzhia to Nikopol. The flood killed local residents as well as soldiers from both armies, with historians estimating the death toll to be between 20,000 and 100,000. Despite reinforcements, Zaporizhzhia was taken on 3 October 1941. The German occupation lasted two years; during which the Germans shot over 35,000 people, and sent 58,000 people to Germany as forced labourers.
The Germans reformed Army Group South in February 1943, and put its headquarters in Zaporizhzhia. Adolf Hitler visited the headquarters in February 1943, and again the following month, where he was briefed by Field Marshal Eric von Manstein and his air force counterpart Field Marshal Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, and in September 1943, the month the Army Group moved its headquarters to Kirovohrad.
In August 1943, the Germans built the Panther-Wotan defence line along the Dnieper from Kyiv to Crimea. They retreated back to this line in September 1943, holding the city as a bridgehead over the Dnieper with elements of 40th Panzer and 17th Corps. The Soviet Southwestern Front, commanded by Army General Rodion Malinovsky, attacked Zaporizhzhia on 10 October 1943. The defenders repelled these attacks, but the Red Army launched a surprise night attack on 13 October, which succeeded in reclaiming most parts of the city.
In 2004, to alleviate congestion around the Zaporizhzhia Arch Bridge area, construction began on the New Zaporizhzhia Dniper Bridge, although construction was halted soon after it began, due to a lack of funding.
During the 2014 Euromaidan regional state administration occupations, during protests against President Viktor Yanukovych, Zaporizhzhia's regional state administration building was occupied by 4,500 protesters, and there were clashes between Ukrainian and pro-Russian activists in April 2014.
On 19 May 2016, the Verkhovna Rada approved the "Decommunisation Law". Since the introduction of the law, the city council renamed over 50 streets and administrative areas of the city,[note 3] monuments of the Soviet Union leaders Lenin and Felix Dzerzhinsky have been destroyed, and names honouring Soviet leaders in the titles of industrial plants, factories, culture centres, and the DniproHES have been removed.
Russian invasion (2022)
Russian forces have been engaged in ongoing attacks on Zaporizhzhia since the beginning of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. On 27 February, fighting was reported in the southern outskirts, and Russian forces began shelling the city later that evening. On 3 March, Russian forces approached the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, raising concerns about a potential nuclear meltdown. Russian military forces fired missiles on Zaporizhzhia on the evening of 12/13 May.
On 30 September, hours before Russia formally annexed Southern and Eastern Ukraine, the Russian Armed Forces launched S-300 missiles at a civilian convoy in Zaporizhzhia, killing at least 30 people. On 9 October, Russian forces launched rockets at residential buildings, killing at least 17 people.
Zaporizhzhia is located in south-eastern Ukraine. The Dnieper splits the city in two; between them is Khortytsia Island. The city covers 334 km2 (129 sq mi) at an elevation of 50 m (160 ft) above sea level. The New and Old Dnieper flow past around Khortytsia: The New Dnieper is about 800 m (2,600 feet) wide while the Old Dnieper is about 200 m (660 feet) wide. The island size is 12 km × 2 km (7.5 mi × 1.2 mi). Smaller rivers in the city also enter the Dnieper: Sukha and Mokra Moskovka, Kushuhum, and Verkhnia Khortytsia.
The flora of Khortytsia is unique and diverse, due to the dry steppe air and a large freshwater basin, which cleans the air polluted by industry. The island is a national park. The ground surface is cut by large ravines ("balka"), hiking routes and historical monuments. The island, which is a popular recreational area, has sanatoriums, resorts, health centres, and sandy beaches.
|Climate data for Zaporizhzhia (1991–2020, extremes 1959–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||12.2
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−29.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||39
|Average extreme snow depth cm (inches)||7
|Average rainy days||10||8||11||12||13||13||10||8||10||11||13||11||130|
|Average snowy days||14||14||9||1||0||0||0||0||0||1||6||13||58|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85.2||82.4||77.6||67.2||63.1||66.0||63.6||62.1||68.5||75.5||84.3||86.1||73.5|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source 2: World Meteorological Organization (humidity 1981–2010)|
The city population has been declining since the first years of state independence. In 2014–2015 the rate of the population decrease was −0.56%/year.
In January 2017, the population was 750,685. The total reduction of the population of the city since independence has been around 146,000 (not including 2017–2018).
According to the 2001 census, 70.28% of the population of Zaporizhzhia (total population 815,300) were Ukrainians, 25.39% were Russians, 0.67% were Belarusians, 0.44% were Bulgarians, 0.42% were Jews, 0.38% were Georgians, 0.38% were Armenians, 0.27% were Tatar, 0.15% were Azeris, 0.11% were Roma (Gypsies), 0.1% were Poles, 0.09% were Germans, 0.09% were Moldovans, and 0.07% were Greeks.
Ukrainian is used for official government business. The native language of people living in Zaporizhzhia, according to censuses in Ukraine (by percent):
The following religious denominations are present in Zaporizhzhia:
Most of the citizens are Orthodox Christians of Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) or Orthodox Church of Ukraine. Among the Orthodox churches the Church of the Intercession, which is under the Moscow Patriarchate, is most popular. There are also St. Nicholas Church and St. Andrew's Cathedral in the city.
Protestantism is represented by:
- All-Ukrainian Union of Christians of Evangelical Faith;
- Seventh-day Adventist Church;
- Full Gospel Church.
Catholicism is represented by:
The biggest Catholic church is Church of God, the Father of Mercy
Orthodox Judaism is represented by one union and six communities.
In the Zaporizhzhia district there are five communities which are part of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Ukraine and four independent Muslim communities.
The city hosts a branch of the Vedic Academy.
Zaporizhzhia is an important industrial centre of Ukraine, the country's main car manufacturing company, the Motor-Sich aircraft engine manufacturer. Well supplied with electricity, Zaporizhzhia forms, together with the adjoining Donets Basin (Donbas) and the Nikopol manganese and Kryvyi Rih iron mines, one of Ukraine's leading industrial complexes.
The city is a home of Ukraine's main automobile production centre, which is based at the Zaporizhzhia Automobile Factory (ZAZ), producing Ukrainian car brands such as Zaporozhets and Tavria.
After the end of the Russian Revolution, the city became an important industrial centre. The presence of cheap labor and the proximity of deposits of coal, iron ore, and manganese created favorable conditions for large-scale enterprises of the iron and mechanical engineering industries. Today Zaporizhzhia is an important industrial centre of the region with heavy industry (particularly metallurgy), aluminium, and chemical industry. Cars, avia motors and radioelectronics are manufactured in the city. The port of Zaporizhzhia is important for transshipment for goods from the Donbas.
Zaporizhstal, Ukraine's fourth largest steel maker, and ranking 54th in the world, is based in the city.
Zaporizhzhia is a large electricity generating hub. There are hydroelectric power plant known as "DniproHES" Dnieper Hydroelectric Station and the largest nuclear power plant in Europe. Prior to the 2022 invasion, the plants generated about 25% of the Ukrainian electricity supply. Located near Enerhodar and about 60 km (37 miles) from Zaporizhzhia is the Zaporizhzhia Thermal Power Station and the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, the largest nuclear power plant in Europe.
Zaporizhzhia has an orchestra, museums, theatres, and libraries. These include the Magara Academic Drama Theatre, the Municipal Theatre Lab "VIE", the Theatre for Young-Age spectators, the Theatre of Horse Riding "Zaporizhzhian Cossacks", the Zaporizhzhia Regional Museum, the National Museum of the History of the Zaporizhzhian Cossacks, the Zaporizhzhia Regional Art Museum, the Motor Sich Aviation Museum, and the Zaporizhzhia Region Universal Scientific Library.
Zaporizhzhia has an open-air exhibition-and-sale of Zaporizhzhia city association of artists «Kolorit» near the 'Fountain of Life' at the Mayakovskoho square. A daily exhibition of artists' organizations of the city is a unique place in Zaporizhzhia, where people can meet craftsmen and artists, watch carving, embroidery, beading classes, and receive advice from professional artists and designers.
The historical and cultural museum "Zaporizka Sich" is placed on the northern rocky part of Khotritsa Island. The museum is a reconstruction of the stronghold of the Zaporizhzhian Cossacks, and contains features of the military camp life and their lifestyle.
Each of the smaller islands between the dam and the island Khortytsia has its own legend. On one of them, Durnya Scala ("Rock of the Fool"), Tzar Peter the Great flogged the Cossacks for their betrayal of the Russians during the Great Northern War between Russia and Sweden. Another small island, Stolb ("Pillar"), has a geological feature, which looks like a large bowl in granite slabs, the Cossack's Bowl. It is said that in summer days, water can be boiled in this "bowl", and the Cossacks used it for cooking galushki (boiled dough in a spicy broth).
Zaporizhzhia is an important transportation hub in Ukraine that includes roads, as well as rail, river and air links for passenger and freight transport. Zaporizhzhia International Airport, located to the east of the city on the left-bank of the Dnieper, serves domestic and international flights. Shyroke Airfield is to the west of the city on the right-bank of the Dnieper.
Zaporizhzhia is bypassed beyond its eastern outskirts by a major national highway M18, which connects Kharkiv with Simferopol. The H08, which starts just outside Kyiv and travels southeast along the Dnieper through Kremenchuk, Kamianske, Dnipro, passes through Zaporizhzhia on the way to Mariupol. The H15 from Donetsk and the H23 from Kropyvnytskyi via Kryvyi Rih, both end in Zaporizhzhia.
There are four road bridges and two rail bridges over the Dnieper, nearly all of which bridges cross Khortytsia Island. President Volodymyr Zelenskyy opened the first stage of the New Zaporizhzhia Dniper Bridge early in 2022.
The city has two rail stations, Zaporizhzhia-1 Railway Station and Zaporizhzhia-the-Second. The First is the central station, located in the southern part of the city and is a part of Simferopol-Kharkiv, the "north-south" transit route. The line of the Zaporizhzhia-the-Second station connects the Donbas coalfield with Kryvyi Rih. The city has an extensive tram network with 7 lines called the Zaporizhzhia Tram.
The city's two river ports are part of the national water transportation infrastructure that connects Kyiv to Kherson along the Dnieper. Freight ships and cutter boats travel between Zaporizhzhia and nearby villages. The island of Khortytsia splits the Dnieper into two; the main channel passes the island on its eastern side, with the Staryi Dnipro (Old Dnieper) flowing past the island on the western side.
- Alyosha (born 1986), Ukrainian singer, stage name of Olena Oleksandrivna Kucher
- Vasiliy Bebko, (1932-2022), Russian diplomat
- Tamara Bulat (1933-2004), Ukrainian-American musicologist
- Victoria Bulitko (born 1983), a Ukrainian film, TV and theatre actress.
- Evgeniy Chernyak (born 1969), Ukrainian businessman
- Evgeniy Chuikov (1924-2000) Ukrainian landscape painter working in the Russian realist and French Impressionist traditions.
- Volodymyr Dakhno (1932-2006) Ukrainian animator and animation film director.
- Valentyna Danishevska (born 1957), Ukrainian lawyer and judge
- Gerhard Ens (1863–1952), farmer, immigration agent and politician in Saskatchewan
- Igor Fesunenko (1933-2016), Russian journalist and foreign affairs writer
- Arkady Gendler (1921–2017), Yiddish singer
- Sergey Glazyev (born 1961), Russian politician and economist
- Alina Gorlova (born 1992), a Ukrainian filmmaker, director, and screenwriter
- Konstantin Grigorishin (born 1965), a Russian-Ukrainian businessman and billionaire.
- Volodymyr Horbulin (born 1939), Ukrainian politician
- Valeriy Ivaschenko (born 1956), Ukrainian former Deputy Minister of Defence
- Boris Ivchenko, (1941-1990) Ukrainian actor and film director
- Igor P. Kaidashev (born 1969), Ukrainian immunologist and allergist
- Valeriy Kostyuk (born 1940), Russian scientist
- Maxim Ksenzov (born 1973), Russian statesman
- Valery Kulikov (born 1956), Ukrainian-born Russian politician
- Gosha Kutsenko (born 1967), Russian actor, producer, singer, poet and screenwriter
- Arsen Mirzoyan (born 1978), Ukrainian singer and songwriter
- Valentyn Nalyvaichenko (born 1966), Ukrainian diplomat and politician.
- Eva Neymann (born 1974), Ukrainian film director
- Maria Nikiforova (1885–1919), revolutionary insurgent and Anarchist partisan leader.
- Anna October (born 1991), Ukrainian fashion designer
- Aleksandr Panayotov (born 1984), Russian-Ukrainian singer and songwriter
- Mykhailo Papiyev (born 1960), Ukrainian engineer and politician
- Oleksandr Peklushenko, (1954-2015) Ukrainian politician
- Max Polyakov (born 1977), an international technology entrepreneur, economist and philanthropist
- Georgy Shchokin (born 1954), businessman, sociologist, psychologist and politician
- Boris Shtein, (1892–1961) Soviet diplomat
- Oleksandr Sin (born 1961), Ukrainian politician former mayor of Zaporizhzhia
- Serhiy Sobolyev (born 1961), Ukrainian politician
- Yanina Sokolova (born 1984) a journalist, TV presenter and actress.
- Naum Sorkin, (1899–1980) a Soviet military officer and diplomat.
- Oleksandr Starukh (born 1973), Ukrainian historian and politician
- Liudmyla Suprun (born 1965), a Ukrainian politician
- Yevhen Synelnykov (born 1981), a Ukrainian TV presenter, director and actor
- Estas Tonne (born 1975), a musician, plays guitar and flute
- Vladyslav Yama (born 1982), a Ukrainian dancer and educator
- Maksym Ostapenko (born 1971), Ukrainian scientist, archaeologist, cultural activist, and a soldier
- Polina Astakhova (1936–2005) an artistic gymnast; won ten medals at the 1956, 1960 and 1964 Summer Olympics.
- Anastasia Bliznyuk (born 1994), a Russian group rhythmic gymnast.
- Maksym Dolhov (born 1996), Ukrainian diver
- Yan Kovalevskyi (born 1993), Ukrainian footballer
- Tanja Logwin (born 1974), Ukrainian-born Austrian handball player
- Alina Maksymenko (born 1991), Ukrainian rhythmic gymnast
- Oleksii Pashkov (born 1981), silver medallist in the discus at the 2012 Summer Paralympics
- Volodymyr Polikarpenko (born 1972), Ukrainian former trialthon athlete
- Yakiv Punkin (1921–1994) wrestler, gold medallist at the 1952 Summer Olympics.
- Oksana Skaldina (born 1972) gymnast; bronze medallist at the 1992 Summer Olympics
- Ganna Sorokina (born 1976) diver; team bronze medallist at the 2000 Summer Olympics
- Olga Strazheva (born 1972) gymnast; team gold medallist at the 1988 Summer Olympics
- Vita Styopina (born 1976) high jumper; bronze medallist at the 2004 Summer Olympics
- Denys Sylantyev (born 1976) politician and swimmer; four time Olympian, silver medallist at the 2000 Summer Olympics and national flag bearer at the 2004 Summer Olympics.
- Razmik Tonoyan (born 1988), Ukrainian sambist, (a Soviet-origin Russian martial art)
- Roman Volod'kov (born 1973), Ukrainian former diver
- Sergiusz Wołczaniecki (born 1964) a Polish weightlifter; bronze medallist at the 1992 Summer Olympics
- Olena Zhupina (born 1973), Ukrainian diver
In popular culture
Twin towns – sister cities
In 1969, the city renamed one of its streets after the city of Wrocław. The Wrocław authorities reciprocated, and a part of the Sudecka – Grabiszyńska Street towards the Square of the Silesian Insurgents was renamed Zaporoska Street.
- Also spelled as Zaporizhzhya or Zaporizhia
- Russian: Александровск; Ukrainian: Олександрівськ
- Since modern Zaporizhiazhia was greatly enlarged in the Soviet Union, many typography in the city had to be renamed. In the year of the fall of the Russian Empire (1917), the population of Alexandrovsk was about 60,000 people. In the year of Ukraine's declaration of independence (1991), the city's population reached almost 1 million people.
- Мера Запоріжжя звільнили з посади [The mayor of Zaporizhzhia was fired]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 8 July 2023.
- "Про затвердження транслітерації написання географічної назви міста Запоріжжя латиницею. Рішення виконавчого комітету №476". Zaporizhzhia city council. Executive committee. 28 August 2017.
- (in Ukrainian) 
- Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
- Pospelov, pp. 25–26
- Я. П. Новицкий. История города Александровска, (Екатеринославской губ.) в связи с историей возникновения крепостей Днепровской линии 1770–1806 г. – Екатеринослав: Типография Губернского Земства, 1905. – 176 с. (in Russian)
- The bridges of Zaporizhzhia (Мосты Запорожья), by L. Adelberg (Адельберг Л), pub RA Tandem st, Zaporizhzhia, 2005. (in Russian)
- Official Portal Zaporizhzhia city authorities, History (Офіційний портал, Запорізької міської влади, Історія міста) Archived 21 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 11 April 2011. (in Ukrainian)
- "Sovetskai︠a︡ arkhitektura". Искусство. 27 October 1969 – via Google Books.
- Меерович М. Г. Соцгород – базовое понятие советской градостроительной теории первых пятилеток Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "История Запорожья". photoalbum.zp.ua.
- The Soviet economy and the Red Army, 1930–1945, by Walter Scott Dunn, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995 ISBN 0-275-94893-5, page 13.
- The Great Patriotic War on the territory of Zaporizhzhia (Великая Отечественная война на территории Запорожья) (in Russian)
- Germany and the Second World War, Volume IV The Attack on the Soviet Union, by Horst Boog, Jürgen Förster, Joachim Hoffmann, Ernst Klink, Rolf-Dieter Müller, Gerd R. Ueberschär, pub Clarendon Press, 1998, ISBN 0-19-822886-4, p. 909.
- "The Eastern Front, Timeline 1941". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty, Ukrainian Activists Draw Attention To Little-Known WWII Tragedy , by Dmytro Moroz and Claire Bigg, 23 August 2013.
- Germany and the Second World War, Volume IV The Attack on the Soviet Union, p. 607, says that Zaporizhzhia was captured on 1 October 1941.
- Lost Victories, by Field Marshal Eric von Manstein, translated by Anthony G Powell, pdf version p267-270.
- Lost Victories, by Field Marshal Eric von Manstein, pdf version p290-2.
- Lost Victories, by Field Marshal Eric von Manstein, says that the Germans finished repairing the railway bridge only a few months before they lost the city in October 1943.
- "The Eastern Front, Timeline 1943". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Moscow-Stalingrad-Berlin-Prague, Memories of Army Commander ("Москва-Сталінград-Берлін-Прага". Записки командарма), by Dmitri Danilovich Lelyushenko (Лелюшенко Дмитро Данилович), pub Nauka, Moscow, 1987, chapter 4.
- Почему мосты строят по 14 лет – и что говорит Укравтодор
- Buckley, Neil (26 January 2014). "Ukraine protests spread to Yanukovich heartland". Financial Times.
- "В Запорожье участники Майдана опечатали кабинеты руководства Запорожской ОГА : Новости УНИАН". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Ukraine Tensions Escalate as Russia, U.S. Exchange Barbs Archived 15 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Poroshenko signed the laws about decommunization. Ukrainska Pravda. 15 May 2015
Poroshenko signs laws on denouncing Communist, Nazi regimes, Interfax-Ukraine. 15 May 20
Goodbye, Lenin: Ukraine moves to ban communist symbols, BBC News (14 April 2015)
- Vitaly Shevchenko (1 June 2016), In pictures: Ukraine removes communist-era symbols, BBC News
- Полный перечень переименованных в Запорожье улиц
- (in Ukrainian) In Zaporizhzhia began to "dekomunize" DniproGES, Radio Free Europe (4 April 2016)
- Свобода, Радіо (27 February 2022). "Техніка росіян зайшла до Бердянська, в Запоріжжі зброю дають усім готовим захищати обласний центр". Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- "Жителів Запоріжжя просять не покидати укриття: Обстрілюють аеродром – новини Запоріжжя". www.depo.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- "Video analysis reveals Russian attack on Ukrainian nuclear plant veered near disaster". NPR. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "Update 1-Ukraine nuclear power plant Zaporizhzhia on fire, town mayor says". Reuters. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- "Invaders fire missiles on Zaporizhzhia, Sumy region at night". 13 May 2022.
- "Ukraine war: Survivors speak of horror as Zaporizhzhia convoy hit". BBC News. 30 September 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
- "At least 17 are killed in Zaporizhzhia". The New York Times. 9 October 2022. Archived from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 9 October 2022.
- "Паспорт города Запорожье". photoalbum.zp.ua.
- "The interactive map of island of Khortitsa (Russian)". Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- ПОГОДА в Запорожье (in Russian). Погода и климат. Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2021.. Snow days have been taken to mean days on which it snowed, not days with snow cover on the ground.
- "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- Головне управління статистики в Запорізькій області — Чисельність населення м. Запоріжжя Archived 13 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine на 1 листопада 2015 року]
- "Zaporizhzhia · Population". population.city.
- "Держстат України" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Natalia Ostasheva Venger (2003). "The Mennonite Industrial Dynasties in Alexandrovsk". Journal of Mennonite Studies. Vol. V21. Dnipropetrovsk National University. pp. 89–110.
- Collection of scientific works of graduate students (Збiрник наукових праць аспірантів), by T H Shevchenka, pub Vyd-vo Kyïvsʹkoho University, 1963, p87 gives the 1861 population as 3,729. (in Ukrainian)
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A. (Charles Anderson) (27 October 1879). "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana". New York D. Appleton – via Internet Archive.
- Brockhaus and Efron's Encyclopedia (Энциклопедический Словарь Ф.А.Брокгауза и И.А.Ефрона), edited by Professor IE Andreevskago, and K. Arseniev, pub FA Brockhaus (Leipzig) and IA Efron (St Petersburg), 1890–1907, entry for Aleksandrovsk in Yekaterinoslavskaya province (Александровск, уездный город Екатеринославской губернии). (in Russian)
- Universal Calendar for 1898 (Всеобщий календарь на 1898 год), pub Hermann Hoppe (St Petersburg), 1898, p217 List of the populated areas of the Russian Empire, Abakan – Alekseevskoe (Роспись населённых местностей Российской империи, Абаканское – Алексеевское). (in Russian)
- Large Encyclopedia (Большая Знциклопедія) Volume I, pub Prosveshechenie (St Petersburg), 1903, p323. pdf version (in Russian)
- Russian Calendar for 1906 (Русский календарь на 1906 г.), pub A. Suvorina (St Petersburg), 1906, p108 List of the populated areas of the Russian Empire, Abbas-Tuman – Belev (Список городов и других населённых пунктов Российской империи, Аббас-Туман – Белев). (in Russian)
- Ukrainian SSR (Украинская ССР), pub Economic Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 1958, p87.
- Sergina V. "City Z:1921-199", film "Year 1926" Сергина В. Город Z: 1921–1991 (Невыдуманные истории): Исторически–познавательный ТВ проект для любой зрительской аудитории. – К., 2005. – 1 компакт – диск. Фильм "Год 1926"
- Economic geography of the USSR by S S Balźak, V F Vasyutin, Ya G Feigin, pub Macmillan, 1956.
- Half a century classified as 'Secret': All-Union census in 1937 (Полвека под грифом 'секретно': Всесоюзная перепись населения 1937 года) Archived 25 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, by Valentina B Zhiromskaya, I Kiselev, Yu A Polyakov, pub Nauka, 1996. This gives the 1926 population as 55,295.(DJV-ZIP – requires DjVu viewer software) (in Russian)
- The emergency evacuation of cities: a cross-national historical and geographical study, by Wilbur Zelinsky, Leszek A. Kosiński, pub Rowman & Littlefield, 1991, ISBN 0-8476-7673-0.
- The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Большая Советская Энциклопедия), entry for Zaporizhzhia – Zaporizhzhia oblast centre (Запорожье – центр Запорізької обл.), 3rd edition, pub 1969 to 1978. (in Russian)
- Sergina V. "City Z:1921-199", film "Year 1942" (Сергина В. Город Z: 1921–1991 (Невыдуманные истории): Исторически–познавательный ТВ проект для любой зрительской аудитории. – К., 2005.- 1 компакт – диск. Фильм "Год 1942") said the population for 1942 was 103,400.
- The Ukrainian quarterly, Volumes 26–27, pub Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, 1970, p223.
- The population of the USSR: According to the Proc. Census 1979 (Население СССР: По данным Всесоюзной переписи населения 1979 г.), pub Politizdat (Moscow), 1980 – table: USSR, the Soviet population in 1979, cities with a population of 100 thousand and more people (СССР, население СССР на 1979 год, Население союзных и автономных республик). (in Russian)
- www.larousse.fr/encyclopedie L’Encyclopédie en ligne entry for Zaporojie. (in French)
- Rand McNally atlas of world geography, pub Rand McNally Company, 1996, p38.
- The size and composition of the population of Zaporizhzhia region up to the Ukrainian population census 2001 (Численность и состав населения Запорожской области по итогам Всеукраинской переписи населения 2001 года). (in Russian)
- Population on 1 August 2010 (Чисельність населення на 1 серпня 2010 року), press release No 1377 issued by the State Department of Statistics in the Zaporizhzhia oblast (Держкомстат. Головне управління статистики у Запорізькій області), 16 September 2010[dead link]. (in Ukrainian)
- Population on 1 March 2011 (Чисельність населення на 1 березня 2011 року), press release No 1163 issued by the State Department of Statistics in the Zaporizhzhia oblast (Держкомстат. Головне управління статистики у Запорізькій області), 18 April 2011. (in Ukrainian)
- [permanent dead link]
- "ЧИСЕЛЬНІСТЬ НАЯВНОГО НАСЕЛЕННЯ УКРАЇНИ" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). 1 January 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Лозовой Н. (17 January 2011). "Этнические войны: украинская версия". Истеблишмент. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011.
- "Demoskop Weekly: Prilozhenie. Spravochnik statisticheskikh pokazateleĭ" Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей. [Demoscope Weekly: appendix. Digest of statistical indicators.]. www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- Vsesoi͡uznai͡a perepisʹ naselenii͡a 1926 goda Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 года [All-union census of population 1926]. Moscow: Издание ЦСУ Союза ССР. 1928–29.
- Romant͡sov, V. O. "Населення України і його рідна мова за часів радянської влади та незалежності" Naselenni͡a Ukraïny i ĭoho ridna mova za chasiv radi͡ansʹkoï vlady ta nezalez͡hnosti [The population of Ukraine and its native language in the periods of the Soviet régime and independence]. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- "Vseukraïnsʹkyĭ perepys naselenni͡a 2001 roku: Rozpodil naselenni͡a za ridnoi͡u movoi͡u, Zaporizʹka oblastʹ" Всеукраїнський перепис населення 2001 року. Розподіл населення за рідною мовою, Запорізька область [All-Ukrainian census of population 2001: Distribution of population by native language, Zaporizka oblast.]. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "Религиозная карта области". Остров Свободы (in Russian). Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- Helena Krasowska,The Polish Minority in South-Eastern Ukraine, pub Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2017, ISBN 978-83-64031-65-6, p. 50-52.
- Galina and Maxim Ostapenko, History of our Khortytsia (Галина и Максим Остапенко История нашей Хортицы) Archived 31 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Города-побратимы". zp.gov.ua (in Russian). Zaporizhzhia. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
- "Steinbach Becomes Twin City With Zaporizhzhia". Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "Wrocław, ul. Zaporoska – Dolny.Slask.org.pl". Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Е. М. Поспелов (Ye. M. Pospelov). "Имена городов: вчера и сегодня (1917–1992). Топонимический словарь." (City Names: Yesterday and Today (1917–1992). Toponymic Dictionary." Москва, "Русские словари", 1993.
- Official portal of Zaporizhzhia City (in Ukrainian)
- One of the portals of Zaporizhzhia City (in Russian)
- Another one of the portals of Zaporizhzhia City (in Russian)
- Zaporizhzhia seven ways to adventure
- One of the few external reports on the city in English is the BBC report "Ukraine: Why the Orange Revolution ran out of steam", Daniel Sandford, Moscow correspondent, BBC News 10 March 2011.