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This article is about the year 1565.
|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s|
|Years:||1562 1563 1564 – 1565 – 1566 1567 1568|
|1565 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2318|
|Bahá'í calendar||−279 – −278|
|English Regnal year||7 Eliz. 1 – 8 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲子年 (Wood Rat)
4261 or 4201
— to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4262 or 4202
|- Vikram Samvat||1621–1622|
|- Shaka Samvat||1487–1488|
|- Kali Yuga||4666–4667|
|Japanese calendar||Eiroku 8
|Minguo calendar||347 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2108|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1565.|
- January – In Russia, it is the beginning of the Oprichnina under Ivan the Terrible.
- January 26 – The Battle of Talikota, a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanates, ends the last Hindu kingdom in South India.
- February 13 – Spanish Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi lands with his troops on the shores of Cebu Island in the Philippines.
- March 1 – The city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is founded as São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro by the Portuguese.
- April 27 – Cebu City is established as San Miguel by López de Legazpi, becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines.
- May 18 – Ottoman troops land on the island of Malta, beginning the Siege of Malta.
- June 17 – Matsunaga Hisahide assassinates the 13th Ashikaga shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiteru.
- July 29 – Mary, Queen of Scots, widowed, marries Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
- August 28 – St. Augustine, Florida (named after St. Augustine), is established. It is the oldest remaining European settlement in the United States.
- September 4 – The Spanish fleet of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés lands on modern-day Florida to oust the French under Jean Ribault. He later destroys the French colony of Fort Caroline.
- September 8 – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés settles in St. Augustine, Florida.
- September 11 – The Knights of Malta lift the Siege of Malta after four months.
- October – The first Martello tower, the Tour de Mortella, designed by Giovan Giacomo Paleari Fratino (el Fratin), is completed as part of the Genovese defence system at Mortella (Myrtle) Point in Upper Corsica.
- The pencil is first documented by Conrad Gesner; it is becoming common in England.
- John Beddoes School is founded at Presteigne in Wales.
- April 2 – Cornelis de Houtman, Dutch explorer (d. 1599)
- May 15 – Hendrick de Keyser, Dutch architect and sculptor (d. 1621)
- August 16 – Christina, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (d. 1637)
- September 28 – Alessandro Tassoni, Italian poet and writer (d. 1635)
- October 6 – Marie de Gournay, French writer (d. 1645)
- November 10
- date unknown
- Reza Abbasi, Persian painter and calligrapher (d. 1635)
- Edward Blount, English printer
- Ferdinando Gorges, English colonial entrepreneur (d. 1647)
- John Davies of Hereford, Welsh poet (d. 1618)
- Francis Meres, English churchman and author (d. 1647)
- Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, Portuguese seaman and explorer (d. 1614)
- John Spottiswoode, Archbishop of St. Andrews (d. 1639)
- Francis Tanfield, Governor of the South Falkland colony
- Edmund Whitelocke, English soldier and courtier (d. 1608)
- Robert Wintour, English conspirator (d. 1606)
- January 19 – Diego Laynez, Jesuit theologian (b. 1512)
- March 17 – Alexander Ales, Scottish theologian (b. 1500)
- May 14 – Nicolaus von Amsdorf, German Protestant reformer (b. 1483)
- May 28 – Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł, Polish magnate (b. 1515)
- June 12 – Adrianus Turnebus, French classical scholar (b. 1512)
- June 17 – Ashikaga Yoshiteru, Japanese shogun (b. 1536)
- August – Jacques Buus, Flemish composer and organist (b. 1500)
- June 25 – Herluf Trolle, Danish Admiral of Fleet and co-founder of Herlufsholm School (b. 1516)
- September 13 – William Farel, French evangelist (b. 1489)
- September 20 – Cipriano de Rore, Flemish composer and teacher (b. 1515)
- October 4 – Pier Paolo Vergerio, Italian reformer (b. 1498)
- October 5 – Lodovico Ferrari, Italian mathematician (b. 1522)
- October 12 – Jean Ribault, French explorer and colonizer (b. 1520)
- October 14 – Thomas Chaloner, English statesman and poet (b. 1521)
- October 22 – Jean, Vicomte d'Aguisy Grolier de Servieres, French bibliophile (b. 1479)
- December 9 – Pope Pius IV (b. 1499)
- December 13 – Conrad Gessner, Swiss naturalist (b. 1516)
- date unknown
- Vigano, Marino (2001). "Giovan Giacomo Paleari Fratino and the Tower at Mortella Point, Corsica (1563)". Fort (Fortress Study Group) 29: 41–57.