Andrew Jackson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Andrew jackson)
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation).
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop.jpg
Photographic copy of an 1845 daguerreotype
7th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837
Vice President John C. Calhoun (1829–1832)
None (1832–1833)
Martin Van Buren (1833–1837)
Preceded by John Quincy Adams
Succeeded by Martin Van Buren
Military Governor of Florida
In office
March 10, 1821 – December 31, 1821
Appointed by James Monroe
Preceded by José María Coppinger
as Governor of Spanish East Florida
Succeeded by William Pope Duval
United States Senator
from Tennessee
In office
March 4, 1823 – October 14, 1825
Preceded by John Williams
Succeeded by Hugh Lawson White
In office
September 26, 1797 – April 1, 1798
Preceded by William Cocke
Succeeded by Daniel Smith
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's At-Large district
In office
December 4, 1796 – September 26, 1797
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by William Claiborne
Personal details
Born (1767-03-15)March 15, 1767
Waxhaws border region between The Carolinas (exact location disputed)
Died June 8, 1845(1845-06-08) (aged 78)
Nashville, Tennessee
Resting place The Hermitage
Nashville, Tennessee
Political party Democratic (1828–1845)
Other political
affiliations
Democratic-Republican (Before 1828)
Spouse(s) Rachel Donelson
(1791–1794; 1794–1828)
Children Andrew Jackson
Lyncoya Jackson
John Samuel Donelson
Daniel Smith Donelson
Andrew Jackson Donelson
Andrew Jackson Hutchings
Carolina Butler
Eliza Butler
Edward Butler
Anthony Butler
Profession Planter
Lawyer
General
Religion Presbyterianism
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Military service
Service/branch Tennessee Militia
United States Army
Rank Colonel
Major general
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
 • Battle of Hobkirk's Hill
Creek War
 • Battle of Talladega
 • Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek
 • Battle of Horseshoe Bend
War of 1812
 • Battle of Pensacola
 • Battle of New Orleans
First Seminole War
Conquest of Florida
 • Battle of Fort Negro
 • Siege of Fort Barrancas
Awards Thanks of Congress

Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837). He was born into a recently-immigrated Scotts-Irish (Protestant) farming family of relatively modest means, near the end of the Colonial-era. He was born somewhere near the then-unmarked border between North and South Carolina. During the American Revolutionary War Jackson, whose family supported the revolutionary cause, acted as a courier. He was captured, at age 13, and mistreated by his British captors. He later became a lawyer, and in 1796 he was in Nashville and helped found the state of Tennessee. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and then to the U. S. Senate, Jackson was in 1801 appointed colonel in the Tennessee militia, which became his political as well as military base. Jackson owned hundreds of slaves who worked on the Hermitage plantation which he acquired in 1804. Jackson killed a man in a duel in 1806, over a matter of "honour" regarding his wife Rachel. Jackson gained national fame through his role in the War of 1812, where he won decisive victories over the Indians and then over the main British invasion army at the Battle of New Orleans. Jackson's army was sent to Florida where, without orders, he deposed the small Spanish garrison. This led directly to the treaty which formally transferred Florida from Spain to the United States.

Nominated for president in 1824, Jackson narrowly lost to John Quincy Adams. Jackson's supporters then founded what became the Democratic Party. Nominated again in 1828, Jackson crusaded against Adams and the "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay he said cost him the 1824 election. Building on his base in the West and new support from Virginia and New York, he won by a landslide. The Adams campaigners called him and his wife Rachel Jackson "bigamists"; she died just after the election and he called the slanderers "murderers," swearing never to forgive them. His struggles with Congress were personified in his personal rivalry with Henry Clay, whom Jackson deeply disliked, and who led the opposition (the emerging Whig Party). As president, he faced a threat of secession from South Carolina over the "Tariff of Abominations" which Congress had enacted under Adams. In contrast to several of his immediate successors, he denied the right of a state to secede from the union, or to nullify federal law. The Nullification Crisis was defused when the tariff was amended and Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina (or any other state) attempted to secede.

Congress attempted to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States several years before the expiration of its charter, which he opposed. He vetoed the renewal of its charter in 1832, and dismantled it by the time its charter expired in 1836. Jackson's presidency marked the beginning of the ascendency of the "spoils system" in American politics. Also, he supported, signed, and enforced the Indian Removal Act, which unilaterally and forcibly relocated a number of native tribes to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma); disregarding previous treaty-agreements, and dispossessing and displacing native communities, including those which had previously been integrated into "Western" civilization. He faced and defeated Henry Clay in the 1832 Presidential Election, and opposed Clay generally. Jackson supported his vice president Martin Van Buren who was elected president in 1836. He worked to bolster the Democratic Party and helped his friend James K. Polk win the 1844 presidential election.

Early life and education

Jackson was born on March 15, 1767. His parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from Ireland two years earlier.[1][2] Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern Ireland, around 1738.[3] Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore, also in County Antrim.

When they emigrated to America in 1765, Jackson's parents probably landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They would have traveled overland down through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws region, straddling the border between North and South Carolina.[4] They brought two children from Ireland, Hugh (born 1763) and Robert (born 1764).

Jackson's father died in an accident in February 1767, at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born in the Waxhaws area. His exact birth site is unclear because he was born about the time his mother was making a difficult trip home from burying Jackson's father. The area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not been officially surveyed.[5]

In 1824, Jackson wrote a letter saying that he was born at an uncle's plantation in Lancaster County, South Carolina. But he may have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which Jackson opposed. In the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he may have been born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.[5]

Jackson received a sporadic education in the local "old-field" school.[6] In 1781, he worked for a time in a saddle-maker's shop.[7] Later, he taught school and studied law in Salisbury, North Carolina. In 1787, he was admitted to the bar, and moved to Jonesborough, in what was then the Western District of North Carolina. This area later became the Southwest Territory (1790), the precursor to the state of Tennessee.

Revolutionary War service

Young Jackson Refusing to Clean Major Coffin's Boots (1876 lithograph).

During the Revolutionary War, Jackson, at age thirteen, informally helped the local militia as a courier.[8] His eldest brother, Hugh, died from heat exhaustion during the Battle of Stono Ferry, on June 20, 1779. Jackson and his brother Robert were captured by the British and held as prisoners; they nearly starved to death in captivity. When Jackson refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the officer slashed at the youth with a sword, leaving Jackson with scars on his left hand and head, as well as an intense hatred for the British.[9] While imprisoned, the brothers contracted smallpox.

Robert Jackson died on April 27, 1781, a few days after their mother Elizabeth secured the brothers' release. After being assured Andrew would recover, Elizabeth Jackson volunteered to nurse prisoners of war on board two ships in Charleston harbor, where there had been an outbreak of cholera. She died from the disease in November 1781, and was buried in an unmarked grave. Jackson became an orphan at age 14.[10] Following the deaths of his brothers and mother during the war, Jackson blamed the British for his losses.

Legal and political career

Jackson began his legal career in Jonesborough, now northeastern Tennessee. Though his legal education was scanty, he knew enough to be a country lawyer on the frontier. Since he was not from a distinguished family, he had to make his career by his own merits; soon he began to prosper in the rough-and-tumble world of frontier law. Most of the actions grew out of disputed land-claims, or from assault and battery. In 1788, he was appointed Solicitor (prosecutor) of the Western District and held the same position in the government of the Territory South of the River Ohio after 1791.

Jackson was elected as a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention in 1796. When Tennessee achieved statehood that year, Jackson was elected its U.S. Representative. The following year, he was elected U.S. Senator as a Democratic-Republican, but he resigned within a year. (His return to the U.S. Senate in 1823, after 24 years, 11 months, 3 days out of office, marks the second longest gap in service to the chamber in history.)[11] In 1798, he was appointed a judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court, serving until 1804.[12]

Hermitage plantation

In addition to his legal and political career, Jackson prospered as planter, slave owner, and merchant. He built a home and the first general store in Gallatin, Tennessee in 1803. The next year he acquired the Hermitage , a 640-acre (259 ha) plantation in Davidson County, near Nashville. Jackson later added 360 acres (146 ha) to the plantation, which eventually grew to 1,050 acres (425 ha). The primary crop was cotton, grown by enslaved workers. Starting with nine slaves, Jackson held as many as 44 by 1820, and later held up to 150 slaves, making him among the planter elite. Throughout his lifetime Jackson may have owned as many as 300 slaves.[13][14]

African American men, women, and children were enslaved on three sections of the Hermitage plantation.[14] Slaves lived in extended family units between five and ten persons quartered in 20 foot square cabins made either of brick or logs. The size and quality of Jackson's Hermitage slave quarters exceeded the standards of his times. To help slaves aquire food staples, in addition to Jackson's rations, Jackson supplied slaves with guns, knives, and fishing equipment for hunting and fishing.[14] At times Jackson paid his slaves with monies and coins to trade in local markets. The Hermitage plantation was a profit making enterprise and Jackson, who demanded slave loyalty, permitted slaves to be whipped to increase productivity or if he believed his slaves' offensses were severe enough. Jackson at various times posted advertisements for his furgitive slaves. For the standards of his times Jackson was considered a humane slave owner who furnished his slaves food, housing, and the ability of his female slaves to reproduce children.[14]

Land speculation and founding of Memphis

In 1794, Jackson formed a business with John Overton "for the purpose of purchasing lands as well those lands without as within military bounds"—overtly buying and selling land which had been reserved by treaty for the Cherokee and Chickasaw.[15]

Upon his return from Florida, Jackson negotiated the sale of the land from the Chickasaw Nation in 1818 (termed the Jackson Purchase). He was one of the three original investors who founded Memphis, Tennessee in 1819 (see History of Memphis, Tennessee).[16]

Military career

Jackson was appointed commander of the Tennessee militia in 1801, with the rank of colonel. He was later elected major general of the Tennessee militia in 1802.[17]

War of 1812

Main articles: Creek War and Battle of New Orleans

Creek campaign and treaty

Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814
Jackson imposed severe terms on the Creek Indians Treaty with the Creeks 1846

During the War of 1812, the Shawnee chief Tecumseh encouraged the "Red Stick" Creek Indians of northern Alabama and Georgia to attack white settlements. He had unified tribes in the Northwest to rise up against the Americans, trying to repel American settlers from those lands north of the Ohio. Four hundred settlers were killed in the Fort Mims massacre—one of the few instances of Native Americans killing a large number of American settlers and their African-American slaves.[18]—which brought the United States into the internal Creek campaign. Occurring at the same time as the War of 1812, the Creek campaign saw Jackson command the U.S. forces, which included the Tennessee militia, U.S. regulars, and Cherokee, Choctaw, and Lower Creek warriors. Sam Houston and David Crockett served under Jackson in this campaign.

Jackson defeated the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. US forces and their allies killed 800 Red Stick warriors in this battle, but spared the chief Red Eagle, a mixed-race man also known as William Weatherford. After the victory, Madison's Secretary of War Armstrong ordered Major General Thomas Pinckney in April 1814 to make the surrender treaty. [19] Pinckney made moderate terms of surrender including handing over an unspecified amount of land, the construction of U.S. forts, turning over warriors who instigated hostilities, and agreeing to stop trade with foreign countries. Jackson opposed the unpopular Pinckney treaty desiring to completely destroy the Creek nation. Jackson was promoted Major General and given charge of the Seventh Military District, replacing Major General Thomas Flournoy. Jackson, now commanding general, immediately threw out Pinckney's treaty and forced severe terms upon both the Upper Creek enemies and the Lower Creek allies, wresting twenty-two million acres in present-day Georgia and Alabama from all the Creek for European-American settlement. [19] Jackson also confiscated land from Indians who had sided with the Americans. Jackson stated that the terms must be accepted or the tribe would be forcefully removed to Florida. On August 9, 1814 35 Indian elder leaders signed Jackson's Treaty of Fort Jackson. The warrior faction of the Creek nation and the British, however, did not formally recognize the treaty. [19]

According to author Gloria Jahoda, the Creeks coined their own name for him, Jacksa Chula Harjo "Jackson, old and fierce".[20]

Battle of New Orleans

The Battle of New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.

Jackson's service in the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom was conspicuous for bravery and success. When British forces threatened New Orleans, Jackson took command of the defenses, including militia from several western states and territories. He was a strict officer but was popular with his troops. They said he was "tough as old hickory" wood on the battlefield, and he acquired the nickname of "Old Hickory". In the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815, Jackson's 5,000 soldiers won a decisive victory over 7,500 British. At the end of the battle, the British had 2,037 casualties: 291 dead (including three senior generals), 1,262 wounded, and 484 captured or missing. The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead, 39 wounded, and 19 missing.[21]

Enforced martial law New Orleans

Jackson ordered the arrest of U. S. District Court Judge Dominick Hall in March 1815, after the judge signed a writ of habeas corpus on behalf of a Louisiana legislator that Jackson had arrested.[22] Louis Louaillier had written an anonymous piece in the New Orleans newspaper, challenging Jackson's refusal to release the militia, after the British ceded the field of battle.[23] Jackson had claimed the authority to declare martial law over the entire City of New Orleans, not merely his "camp."[24] After ordering the arrest of a Louisiana legislator, a federal judge, a lawyer and after intervention of Joshua Lewis, a State Judge, who was simultaneously serving under Jackson in the militia, and who also signed a writ of habeas corpus against Jackson, his commanding officer, seeking Judge Hall's release, Jackson relented.[25]

Civilian authorities in New Orleans had reason to fear Jackson. But they fared better than did the six members of the militia whose executions, ordered by Jackson, would surface as the Coffin Handbills during his 1828 Presidential campaign. Nonetheless, Jackson became a national hero for his actions in this battle and the War of 1812.[26] By a resolution on February 27, 1815, Jackson received the Thanks of Congress as well as a Congressional Gold Medal.[27] Alexis de Tocqueville, "underwhelmed" by Jackson, later commented in Democracy in America that Jackson "... was raised to the Presidency, and has been maintained there, solely by the recollection of a victory which he gained, twenty years ago, under the walls of New Orleans."[28]

First Seminole War

Main article: Seminole Wars
Trial of Robert Ambrister during the Seminole War. Ambrister was one of two British subjects executed by General Jackson.
1848

Jackson served in the military again during the First Seminole War. He was ordered by President James Monroe in December 1817 to lead a campaign in Georgia against the Seminole and Creek Indians. Jackson was also charged with preventing Spanish Florida from becoming a refuge for runaway slaves. Critics later alleged that Jackson exceeded orders in his Florida actions. His directions were to "terminate the conflict".[29] Jackson believed the best way to do this was to seize Florida. Before going, Jackson wrote to Monroe, "Let it be signified to me through any channel ... that the possession of the Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished."[30] Monroe gave Jackson orders that were purposely ambiguous, sufficient for international denials.

The Seminole attacked Jackson's Tennessee volunteers. The Seminole attack left their villages vulnerable, and Jackson burned their houses and the crops. He found letters that indicated that the Spanish and British were secretly assisting the Indians. Jackson believed that the United States could not be secure as long as Spain and the United Kingdom encouraged Indians to fight, and argued that his actions were undertaken in self-defense. Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida, with little more than some warning shots, and deposed the Spanish governor. He captured and then tried and executed two British subjects, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot, who had been supplying and advising the Indians. Jackson's actions struck fear into the Seminole tribes as word spread of his ruthlessness in battle (he became known as "Sharp Knife").

The executions, and Jackson's invasion of territory belonging to Spain, a country with which the U.S. was not at war, created an international incident. Many in the Monroe administration called for Jackson to be censured. The Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, an early believer in Manifest Destiny, defended Jackson. When the Spanish minister demanded a "suitable punishment" for Jackson, Adams wrote back, "Spain must immediately [decide] either to place a force in Florida adequate at once to the protection of her territory ... or cede to the United States a province, of which she retains nothing but the nominal possession, but which is, in fact ... a post of annoyance to them."[31] Adams used Jackson's conquest, and Spain's own weakness, to get Spain to cede Florida to the United States by the Adams–Onís Treaty. Jackson was subsequently named Florida's military governor and served from March 10, 1821, to December 31, 1821.

Election of 1824

The Tennessee legislature nominated Jackson for President in 1822. It also elected him U.S. Senator again. By 1824, the Democratic-Republican Party had become the only functioning national party. Its Presidential candidates had been chosen by an informal Congressional nominating caucus, but this had become unpopular. In 1824, most of the Democratic-Republicans in Congress boycotted the caucus. Those who attended backed Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford for President and Albert Gallatin for Vice President. A Pennsylvania convention nominated Jackson for President a month later, stating that the irregular caucus ignored the "voice of the people" and was a "vain hope that the American people might be thus deceived into a belief that he [Crawford] was the regular democratic candidate".[32] Gallatin criticized Jackson as "an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether unfit for the office".[33]

Besides Jackson and Crawford, the Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and House Speaker Henry Clay were also candidates. Jackson received the most popular votes (but not a majority, and four states had no popular ballot). The electoral votes were split four ways, with Jackson having a plurality. Because no candidate received a majority, the election was decided by the House of Representatives, which chose Adams. Jackson supporters denounced this result as a "corrupt bargain" because Clay gave his state's support to Adams, who subsequently appointed Clay as Secretary of State. As none of Kentucky's electors had initially voted for Adams, and Jackson had won the popular vote, some Kentucky politicians criticized Clay for violating the will of the people in return for personal political favors. Jackson's defeat burnished his political credentials, however; many voters believed the "man of the people" had been robbed by the "corrupt aristocrats of the East".

Election of 1828

Jackson denounced the "corrupt bargain" that put Adams in the White House and laid plans for a crusade to oust that evil man from office.[34] After resigning the Senate in October 1825, he continued his quest for the Presidency. The Tennessee legislature again nominated Jackson for President. He attracted Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie into his camp (Van Buren and Ritchie were previous supporters of Crawford). Van Buren, with help from his friends in Philadelphia and Richmond, revived the old Republican Party, gave it a new name as the Democratic Party, "restored party rivalries", and forged a national organization of durability.[35] The Jackson coalition handily defeated Adams in 1828.

During the election, Jackson's opponents referred to him as a "jackass". Jackson liked the name and used the jackass as a symbol for a while, but it died out. However, it later became the symbol for the Democratic Party when cartoonist Thomas Nast popularized it.[36]

The campaign was very much a personal one. As was the custom at the time, neither candidate personally campaigned, but their political followers organized many campaign events. Both candidates were rhetorically attacked in the press, which reached a low point when the press accused Jackson's wife Rachel of bigamy. Though the accusation was true, as were most personal attacks leveled against him during the campaign, it was based on events that occurred many years prior (1791 to 1794). Jackson said he would forgive those who insulted him, but he would never forgive the ones who attacked his wife. Rachel died suddenly on December 22, 1828, before his inauguration, and was buried on Christmas Eve. He blamed the Adams campaigners for her death. "May God Almighty forgive her murderers," he swore at her funeral. "I never can."[37]

Presidency 1829–1837

President Andrew Jackson
New York: Ritchie & Co. 1860

Jackson's name has been associated with the spread of democracy in terms of the passing of political power from established elites to ordinary voters based in political parties. "The Age of Jackson" shaped the national agenda and American politics. [38] Jackson's philosophy as President followed much in the same line as Thomas Jefferson, advocating Republican values held by the Revolutionary War generation. [39] Jackson's presidency held a high moralistic tone; having as a planter himself agrarian sympathies, a limited view of states rights and the federal government. [39] Jackson feared that monied and business interests would corrupt republican values. When South Carolina opposed the tariff law he took a strong line in favor of nationalism and against secession.

Jackson was the first President to invite the public to attend the White House ball honoring his first inauguration. Many poor people came to the inaugural ball in their homemade clothes. The crowd became so large that Jackson's guards could not keep them out of the White House, which became so crowded with people that dishes and decorative pieces inside were eventually broken. Some people stood on good chairs in muddied boots just to get a look at the President. The crowd had become so wild that the attendants poured punch in tubs and put it on the White House lawn to lure people outside. Jackson's raucous populism earned him the nickname "King Mob".

Jackson believed that the president's authority was derived from the people and the presidential office was above party politics. [39] Instead of choosing party favorites, Jackson chose "plain, businessmen" whom he intended to control.[39] Jackson chose Martin Van Buren as Secretary of State, John Eaton Secretary of War, Samuel Ingham Secretary of Treasury, John Branch Secretary of Navy, John Berrien as Attorney General, and William T. Barry as postmaster general. [40] Jackson's first choice of Cabinet proved to be unsuccessful, full of bitter partisanship and gossip, especially between Eaton, Vice President John C. Calhoun, and Van Buren. [40] By the Spring of 1831, only Barry remained, while the rest of Jackson's cabinet had been discharged.[41] Jackson's following cabinet selections worked better together.[40]

Eaton affair

Secretry of War
John H. Eaton

Jackson devoted a considerable amount of his presidential time during his first years in office responding to what came to be known as the Eaton affair. [42] Viscious Washington D.C. gossip circulated among Jackson's Cabinet members and their wives including Vice President John C. Calhoun's wife Floride concerning Secretary of War John H. Eaton and his wife Peggy.[42] Bitter rumors spread that Peggy was loose in her morals while working at her father's tavern when her naval officer husband was away at sea.[42] After Peggy's husband died at sea, both Eaton and Peggy were criticized for their perceived early marriage. Initially Jackson thought that Henry Clay was behind the gossip, but then he eventually concluded Calhoun was responsible for spreading the rumors.[42] Both Jackson and Van Buren defended Eaton and his wife Peggy, however Calhoun's wife Floride and the wives of Jackson's pro-Calhoun Cabinet members publically shunned both Eaton and Peggy.[42]

Both Van Buren, Eaton, and Calhoun resigned office over the affair while Jackson dismissed the rest of his pro-Calhoun cabinet members except Postmaster William T. Barry. [43] Jackson nominated Van Buren to be Minister to England, however, Calhoun's supporters in the Senate blocked the nomination giving Calhoun the deciding vote against Van Buren.[43] Calhoun publically castigated and boasted that Van Buren's political career was over stating the defeated nomination would "...kill him, sir, kill dead. He will never kick, sir, never kick." [43] This rumor however proved to be false as Van Buren, who played a leading role in the Jackson's unofficial Kitchen Cabinet, allied with Jackson and became Jackson's successor and Vice Presidential candidate in 1832. Jackson also aquired the Globe paper that was sympathetic with the Jackson administration. [44] [43]

Indian removal

Main article: Indian removal

Perhaps the most controversial aspect of Jackson's presidency was his Indian policy.[45][46][47] Jackson was a major advocate of a policy known as Indian removal. Jackson had been negotiating and implementing treaties and removal policies with Indian leaders for years before his election as president. Many tribes and portions of tribes had been removed to Arkansas Territory and further west of the Mississippi River with different degrees of acquiescence on the part of the Indians. Further, many white Americans advocated total extermination of the "savages", particularly those who had experienced frontier wars. Violence, both on the part of the white settlers and the Indians, had been increasing in recent decades as white settlers were pushing further west.

In his December 8, 1829, First Annual Message to Congress, Jackson stated:

This emigration should be voluntary, for it would be as cruel as unjust to compel the aborigines to abandon the graves of their fathers and seek a home in a distant land. But they should be distinctly informed that if they remain within the limits of the States they must be subject to their laws. In return for their obedience as individuals they will without doubt be protected in the enjoyment of those possessions which they have improved by their industry.[48]

Before his election as president, Jackson had been involved with the issue of Indian removal. The relocation of the Indians to west of the Mississippi River had been a major part of his political agenda in both the 1824 and 1828 presidential elections.[49] In 1830, congress passed the Indian Removal Act, and Jackson signed it into law. The Act authorized the President to negotiate treaties to buy tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands further west, outside of existing U.S. state borders.

While frequently frowned upon in the North, and opposed by Jeremiah Evarts and Theodore Frelinghuysen, the Removal Act was popular in the South, where population growth and the discovery of gold on Cherokee land had increased pressure on tribal lands. The state of Georgia became involved in a contentious jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokees, culminating in the 1832 U.S. Supreme Court decision (Worcester v. Georgia), which ruled that Georgia could not impose its laws upon Cherokee tribal lands. Jackson is often incorrectly quoted (regarding the decision) as having said, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!" Jackson never said this, and historian Robert Remini notes that the quote first appeared in Horace Greeley's The American Conflict in 1864.[50][51]

In any case, Jackson used the Georgia crisis to pressure Cherokee leaders to sign a removal treaty. A small faction of Cherokees led by John Ridge negotiated the Treaty of New Echota with Jackson's representatives. Ridge was not a recognized leader of the Cherokee Nation, and this document was rejected by most Cherokees as illegitimate.[52] Over 15,000 Cherokees signed a petition in protest of the proposed removal; the list was ignored by the Supreme Court and the U.S. Congress, in part due to delays and timing.[53] The treaty was enforced by Jackson's successor, Van Buren, who ordered 7,000 armed troops to remove the Cherokees. Due to the infighting between political factions, many Cherokees thought their appeals were still being considered until troops arrived.[54] This abrupt and forced removal resulted in the deaths of over 4,000 Cherokees on the "Trail of Tears".

By the 1830s, under constant pressure from settlers, each of the five southern tribes had ceded most of its lands, but sizable self-government groups lived in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. All of these (except the Seminoles) had moved far in the coexistence with whites, and they resisted suggestions that they should voluntarily remove themselves. Their nonviolent methods earned them the title the Five Civilized Tribes.[53]

More than 45,000 American Indians were relocated to the West during Jackson's administration. A few Cherokees escaped forced relocation, or walked back afterwards, escaping to the high Smoky Mountains along the North Carolina and Tennessee border.[55] Jackson's administration bought about 100 million acres (400,000 km²) of Indian land for about $68 million and 32 million acres (130,000 km²) of western land.

Initiated reforms

In an effort to purge the government from corruption of previous administrations, Jackson launched presidential investigations into all executive Cabinet offices and departments. [56] During Jackson's tenure in office, large amounts of public money were put in the hands of public officials. Jackson, who believed appointees should be hired by merit, withdrew many candidates he believed were lax in their handling of monies. [56] Jackson asked Congress to reform embezzlement laws, reduce fraudulent applications for federal pensions, revenue laws to prevent evasion of custom duties, and laws to improve government accounting. Jackson's Postmaster Barry resigned after a Congressional investigation into the postal service revealed mismanagement of mail services, collusion and favortism in awarding lucrative contracts, failure to audit accounts and supervise contract performances. Jackson replaced Barry with Amos Kendall, who went on to implement much needed reforms in the Postal Service. [57]

Jackson repeatedly called for the abolition of the Electoral College by constitutional amendment in his annual messages to Congress as President.[48][58] In his third annual message to Congress, he expressed the view "I have heretofore recommended amendments of the Federal Constitution giving the election of President and Vice-President to the people and limiting the service of the former to a single term. So important do I consider these changes in our fundamental law that I can not, in accordance with my sense of duty, omit to press them upon the consideration of a new Congress."[59]

Spoils system

Main article: Spoils system

When Jackson became President, he implemented the theory of rotation in office for political appointments, declaring it "a leading principle in the republican creed";[48] many of the individuals in government offices were holdovers from the Presidency of George Washington, whom Jackson thought were corrupt. He noted, "In a country where offices are created solely for the benefit of the people no one man has any more intrinsic right to official station than another."[60] He believed that rotation in office would prevent the development of a corrupt bureaucracy. Opposed to this view however, were Jackson's supporters who in order to strengthen party loyalty wanted to give the posts to other party members. In practice, this would have meant the continuation of the patronage system by replacing federal employees with friends or party loyalists.[61] By the end of his first four years, Jackson had dismissed nearly 20% of the Federal employees who were working at the start of his first term, replacing them with political appointees from his party. This resulted in the appointment of many functionaries who had no training or experience in the fields for which they were now responsible for administering.[62]

"Jackson used his image and personal power to buttress the developing party system by rewarding loyal followers of his Democratic Party with presidential appointments ... for example (Jackson) was once asked to give a postmastership to a soldier who had lost his leg on the battlefield and needed the job to support his family ... Jackson responded: 'If he lost his leg fighting for his country, that is ... enough for me.'"

—Excerpt from American Government: Continuity and Change (2006), p. 293[63]

While Jackson did not start the "spoils system", the political realities of Washington did in the end force him to encourage its growth despite personal reservations.[64] Historians believe that Jackson's presidency marked the beginning of an era of decline in public ethics. [65] Supervision of bureaus and departments whose operations were outside of Washington proved to be difficult such as the New York Customs House, the Postal Service, the Departments of Navy and War, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, whose budget had enormously increased in the past two decades. [65]

Nullification crisis

Main article: Nullification Crisis

Another notable crisis during Jackson's period of office was the "Nullification Crisis", or "secession crisis", of 1828 – 1832, which merged issues of sectional strife with disagreements over tariffs. Critics alleged that high tariffs (the "Tariff of Abominations") on imports of common manufactured goods made in Europe made those goods more expensive than ones from the northern U.S., raising the prices paid by planters in the South. Southern politicians argued that tariffs benefited northern industrialists at the expense of southern farmers.

The issue came to a head when Vice President Calhoun, in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest of 1828, supported the claim of his home state, South Carolina, that it had the right to "nullify"—declare void—the tariff legislation of 1828, and more generally the right of a state to nullify any Federal laws that went against its interests. Although Jackson sympathized with the South in the tariff debate, he also vigorously supported a strong union, with effective powers for the central government. Jackson attempted to face down Calhoun over the issue, which developed into a bitter rivalry between the two men.

Particularly notable was an incident at the April 13, 1830, Jefferson Day dinner, involving after-dinner toasts. Robert Hayne began by toasting to "The Union of the States, and the Sovereignty of the States". Jackson then rose, and in a booming voice added "Our federal Union: It must be preserved!" – a clear challenge to Calhoun. Calhoun clarified his position by responding "The Union: Next to our Liberty, the most dear!"[66]

At the first Democratic National Convention, which was privately engineered by members of the Kitchen Cabinet, Calhoun and Jackson broke from each other politically and Van Buren replaced Calhoun as Jackson's running mate in the 1832 presidential election.[67] In December 1832, Calhoun resigned as Vice President to become a U.S. Senator for South Carolina.

In response to South Carolina's nullification claim, Jackson vowed to send troops to South Carolina to enforce the laws. In December 1832, he issued a resounding proclamation against the "nullifiers", stating that he considered "the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object for which it was formed". South Carolina, the President declared, stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason", and he appealed to the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for which their ancestors had fought. Jackson also denied the right of secession: "The Constitution ... forms a government not a league ... To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States is not a nation."[68]

Jackson asked Congress to pass a "Force Bill" explicitly authorizing the use of military force to enforce the tariff, but its passage was delayed until protectionists led by Clay agreed to a reduced Compromise Tariff. The Force Bill and Compromise Tariff passed on March 1, 1833, and Jackson signed both. The South Carolina Convention then met and rescinded its nullification ordinance. The Force Bill became moot because it was no longer needed. On May 1, 1833, Jackson wrote, "the tariff was only the pretext, and disunion and southern confederacy the real object. The next pretext will be the negro, or slavery question."[69]

Foreign affairs

Jackson's Minister to France William C. Rives successfully negotiated a reparations treaty with France in 1831.

When Jackson took office in 1829 spoliation claims (confiscating American ships and sailors) dating from the Napoleonic era caused strained relations between the U.S. and French governments. [70] The French Navy had captured and sent American ships to Spanish ports while holding their crews captive forcing them to labor without any charges or judicial rules. According to Secretary of State Martin Van Buren the relations between the U.S. and France was "hopeless".[70] Jackson's Minister to France William C. Rives, however, through diplomacy was able to convince the French government to sign a reparations treaty on July 4, 1831 that would award the U.S. ₣ 25,000,000 ($5,000,000) in damages.[71] The French government became delinquent in payment due to internal financial and political difficulties. The French king Louis Philippe I and his ministers blamed the French Chamber of Deputies. [70] By 1834 the non-payment of reparations by the French government drew Jackson's ire and he became impatient. In his December State of the Union address Jackson castigated the French government for non-payment and demanded Congress authorize reprisals. [70] Feeling insulted by Jackson's words the French people demanded an apology. Jackson refused to apologize, but in his December 1835 State of the Union Address he stated that he had a good opinion of the French people and his intentions were peaceful. The French government accepted Jackson's statements as sincere and in February 1836 American reparations were finally paid. [70]

In addition to France, the Jackson administration successfully settled spoliation claims with Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. [72] Jackson's state department was active and successful at making trade agreements with Russia, Spain, Turkey, Great Britain, and Siam. Under the treaty of Great Britain American trade was reopened in the West Indies. [72] The trade agreement with Siam was Americas first treaty between the United States and an Asiatic country. As a result, American exports increased 75% while imports increased 250%. [72]

Jackson, however, was unsuccessful in opening trade with China and Japan. [72] Jackson was unsuccessful at thwarting Great Britain's presence and power in South America. Jackson's attempt to purchase Texas from Mexico for $5,000,000 failed. [72] Jackson's agent in Texas, Colonel Anthony Butler, suggested to take Texas over militarily but Jackson refused. Butler was later replaced toward the end of Jackson's presidency. [72]

Election of 1832

In the 1832 Presidential Election, Jackson faced opposition from Republican Henry Clay, who was a senator from Kentucky and former Speaker of the House, as well as Anti-Mason William Wirt, an attorney from Maryland.[73] For the first time in American history, all political parties nominated their candidates via a nominating convention.[74] Jackson easily won re-election, amassing 219 electoral votes, and 54.7% of the popular vote.[75] The Anti-Masonic Party used Northern sentiment against Freemasonry, which they asserted was infiltrating the federal government, to attack Jackson, who was a Mason.[76] John C. Calhoun, Vice President under John Quincy Adams and during part of Jackson's first term, had resigned over differences with Jackson, particularly over nullification and the Eaton affair;[77] Jackson replaced him with longtime confidant Martin Van Buren of New York.[78]

The predominant issue in the 1832 election was the Bank War – a debate over whether or not to recharter the Second Bank of the United States.[79] Though the bank need not be rechartered until 1836 (its 20-year charter began in 1816),[80] bank president Nicholas Biddle and Clay, both political rivals of Jackson, sought to recharter the bank four years early. Clay hoped to "ride the probank [sic] bandwagon into the White House in 1832."[81] Clay was wrong, however, as Jackson's veto of the bank recharter furthered his persona as an advocate for the common man, and he won re-election.[82] Upon his re-election, Jackson held to his veto, and deposited federal monies in to state banks, which also helped him further a states' rights platform;[83] eventually, these deposits brought about a congressional censure.[79]

Opposition to the National Bank

Main article: Bank War
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the devil's Bank

The Second Bank of the United States was authorized for a 20-year period during James Madison's tenure in 1816. In 1832, the issue materialized as part of a campaign strategy orchestrated by Henry Clay that ultimately failed, but signaled the end for the bank – four years before it was necessary, the bank applied for a recharter. Jackson vetoed the bill.[79] In Jackson's veto message, he conceded that a national bank may be "convenient", it is "subversive of the rights of the States, and dangerous to the liberties of the people." He went on to call the bank a "monopoly" that hindered the common man, whom he strived to represent as president.[84] Moreover, Jackson thought America should be an "agricultural republic", and that the bank hindered that notion, as it favored northeastern states over southern and western ones, and that it "improved the fortunes of commercial and industrial businesses at the expense of farmers and laborers."[85]

In 1833, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank, whose money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of local and state banks that materialized across America, thus drastically increasing credit and speculation.[86] Three years later, Jackson issued the Specie Circular, an executive order that required buyers of government lands to pay in "specie" (gold or silver coins). The result was a great demand for specie, which many banks did not have enough of to exchange for their notes, causing the Panic of 1837, which threw the national economy into a deep depression. It took years for the economy to recover from the damage, however the bulk of the damage was blamed on Martin Van Buren, who took office in 1837.[87] Whitehouse.gov notes,

Basically the trouble was the 19th-century cyclical economy of "boom and bust," which was following its regular pattern, but Jackson's financial measures contributed to the crash. His destruction of the Second Bank of the United States had removed restrictions upon the inflationary practices of some state banks; wild speculation in lands, based on easy bank credit, had swept the West. To end this speculation, Jackson in 1836 had issued a Specie Circular requiring that lands be purchased with hard money--gold or silver. In 1837 the panic began. Hundreds of banks and businesses failed. Thousands lost their lands. For about five years the United States was wracked by the worst depression thus far in its history.

Whitehouse.gov official biography of Martin Van Buren[88]

The U.S. Senate censured Jackson on March 28, 1834, for his action in removing U.S. funds from the Bank of the United States.[89] The censure was a political maneuver spearheaded by Jackson-rival Senator Henry Clay, which served only to perpetuate the animosity between him and Jackson.[79] During the proceedings preceding the censure, Jackson called Clay "reckless and as full of fury as a drunken man in a brothel", and the issue was highly divisive within the Senate, however the censure was approved 26–20 on March 28.[79] When the Jacksonians had a majority in the Senate, the censure was expunged after years of effort by Jackson supporters, led by Thomas Hart Benton, who though he had once shot Jackson in a street fight, eventually became an ardent supporter of the president.[79][90]

Western and oceanic exploration expeditions

During 1820's and early 1830's the American West was explored by private trappers who formed fur trading companies originating from St. Louis. One of these privateer trappers and explorers was Jedediah Smith who led expeditions into the American West. On October 29, 1830 Smith sent Jackson's Secretary of War John H. Eaton a letter and map containing information that he had gathered from 1824 to 1830 of his explorations into the Rockies, the South Pass, and Pacific Northwest. [91] Smith recommended that Jackson terminate the Treaty of 1818 that allowed the British have free reign over the Columbia River, and reported that the Indians favored the British over the Americans. [91]

Jackson initially opposed any federal exploration scientific expeditions during his first term in office. [92] The last scientific federally funded exploration expeditions took place from 1817 to 1823 led by Stephen H. Harriman on the Red River of the North. Jackson's predecessor John Q. Adams attempted to launch a scientific oceanic exploration expedition in 1828, but Congress was unwilling to fund the effort. When Jackson assumed office in 1829 he pocketed Adam's expedition plans. However, wanting to establish his presidential legacy, similar to Thomas Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Jackson finally sponsored scientific exploration during his second term.[92] On May 18, 1836 Jackson signed a law creating and funding the oceanic United States Exploring Expedition. Jackson put Secretary of Navy Mahlon Dickerson in charge, to assemble suitable ships, officers, and scientific staff for the expedition; with a planned launch before Jackson's term of office expired. Mahlon however proved unfit for the task, preparations stalled and the expedition was not launched until 1838, under the next President, Martin Van Buren. [92]

Slavery controversies

Anti-slavery tracts

During the summer of 1835, controvery over slavery was rekindled throughout the nation, as had similarly taken place during the divisive 1819-1820 Missouri Compromise debates. [93] Northern abolitionsists were sending anti-slavery tracts through the U.S. Postal system into the South. [93] Pro slavery Southerners objected believing the tracts were "incendiary literature" and demanded that the postal service unconditionally ban the sending of any anti-slavery tracts into the South. On July 29, a mob of 300 conservatives broke into the Post Office in Charleston, South Carolina and proceeded to seize and destroy abolitionist tracts. The Jackson Administration had Southern sympathies over slavery and was hostile to abolitionism. [93] However, Jackson, who demanded sectional peace, desired to placate Southerners; at the same time resisting antislavery demands without ignoring interests of Northern Democrats. Jackson's Postmaster General Amos Kendall gave Southern postmasters discretionary powers to either send or detain the anti-slavery tracts. Jackson angrily denounced Northern abolitionists and suggested that abolitionist authors names be published. Jackson, who wanted the matter quickly resolved, also suggested the tracts be mailed only to subscribers. [93] In February 1836, Senator John C. Calhoun, Jackson's former Vice President, authored a bill that would prohibit the sending of any anti-slavery tracts via the federal mail service. The bill however failed to gain enough votes to pass in the House. Many Southern postmasters, however, disregarded matters of federal law and simply refused to send the anti-slavery tracts. [93]

Anti-slavery Congressional petitions

In the same year another controversy took place, when abolitionsists sent the U.S. House of Representatives petitions to end the slave trade and slavery in Washington D.C. [94] This infuriated pro-slavery Southerners, who attempted to prevent acknowledgement or discussion of the petitions. On December 18, 1835 South Carolina congressman James H. Hammond strongly denounced that abolitionists as "ignorant fanatics". Northern Whigs objected that anti-slavery petitions were constitutional and should not be forbidden. [94] Jackson wanted the issue of these petitions resolved quickly. South Carolina Representative Henry L. Pinckney drafted and introduced a resolution that denounced the petitions as "sickly sentimentality", declared that Congress had no right to interfere with slavery, and tabled (gag rule) all further anti-slavery petitions. Jackson leaders in Congress supported the measure, which was passed quickly and without any debate; temporarily suppressing pro-abolitionist activities in Congress. [94]

Recognition of Republic of Texas

In 1835 proslavery American settlers in Texas fought the Mexican government and by 1836 had routed the Mexican military establishing an independent Republic of Texas. [72] The new Texas government legalized slavery and demanded recognition from President Jackson and annexation into the United States. However, Jackson was hesitant at recognizing Texas, unconvinced that the new republic could maintain independence from Mexico, and not wanting to make Texas an anti-slavery issue during the 1836 election. [72] The strategy worked, the Democratic party and national loyalties were held in tact, while Democratic candidate Van Buren was elected President. Jackson formally recognized the Republic of Texas, nominating a chargé d'affaires on the last day of his Presidency March 3, 1837. [72]

Panic of 1837

See also: Panic of 1837

The national economy during the 1830's was booming and the federal government through duty revenues and sale of public lands was able to pay all bills. In January 1835, Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U.S. history that has been accomplished.[95][96] However, wreckless speculation in land and railroads caused what became known as the Panic of 1837.[97] The roots of the Panic began in 1833 when Jackson withdrew federal money from the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson transferred these federal monies to state pet banks who speculated the money by making easy loans and chartering under-capitalized banks.[97] In 1836 Jackson gave state banks more money and launched a second speculation frenzy. To counter the panic, Jackson signed into law the Specie Circular Act of 1836, that required public domain lands to be purchase with gold and silver or paper currency backed by gold and silver. [97] The same year there was a downturn in Great Britain's economy that stopped investment in the United States. The result was the U.S. economy went into a tailspin, banks became insolvent, the national debt (previously paid off) increased, business failures rose, cotton prices dropped, and unemployment dramatically increased.[97] The depression that followed lasted for four years until 1841 when the economy began to rebound.[98][99]

Attack and assassination attempt

Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching.

The first recorded physical attack on a U.S. president was directed at Jackson. Jackson had ordered the dismissal of Robert B. Randolph from the Navy for embezzlement. On May 6, 1833, Jackson sailed on USS Cygnet to Fredericksburg, Virginia, where he was to lay the cornerstone on a monument near the grave of Mary Ball Washington, George Washington's mother. During a stopover near Alexandria, Randolph appeared and struck the President. He fled the scene chased by several members of Jackson's party, including the well-known writer Washington Irving. Jackson decided not to press charges.[7]

On January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol. When Jackson was leaving through the East Portico after the funeral of South Carolina Representative Warren R. Davis, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed house painter from England, aimed a pistol at Jackson, which misfired. Lawrence pulled out a second pistol, which also misfired. Historians believe the humid weather contributed to the double misfiring.[100] Lawrence was restrained, and legend says that Jackson attacked Lawrence with his cane. Others present, including David Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence.

Lawrence told doctors later his reasons for the shooting. He blamed Jackson for the loss of his job. He claimed that with the President dead, "money would be more plenty" (a reference to Jackson's struggle with the Bank of the United States) and that he "could not rise until the President fell". Finally, he told his interrogators that he was a deposed English King—specifically, Richard III, dead since 1485—and that Jackson was his clerk. He was deemed insane and institutionalized.

Afterwards, due to public curiosity concerning the double misfires, the pistols were tested and retested. Each time they performed perfectly. Many believed that Jackson had been protected by the same Providence that they believed also protected their young nation. The incident became a part of the Jacksonian mythos.

Administration and Cabinet

Andrew Jackson
Official White House Portrait
Ralph E.W. Earl 1835
The Jackson Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Andrew Jackson 1829–1837
Vice President John C. Calhoun 1829–1832
None 1832–1833
Martin Van Buren 1833–1837
Secretary of State Martin Van Buren 1829–1831
Edward Livingston 1831–1833
Louis McLane 1833–1834
John Forsyth 1834–1837
Secretary of Treasury Samuel D. Ingham 1829–1831
Louis McLane 1831–1833
William J. Duane 1833
Roger B. Taney 1833–1834
Levi Woodbury 1834–1837
Secretary of War John H. Eaton 1829–1831
Lewis Cass 1831–1836
Attorney General John M. Berrien 1829–1831
Roger B. Taney 1831–1833
Benjamin F. Butler 1833–1837
Postmaster General William T. Barry 1829–1835
Amos Kendall 1835–1837
Secretary of the Navy John Branch 1829–1831
Levi Woodbury 1831–1834
Mahlon Dickerson 1834–1837

Judicial appointments

In total Jackson appointed 24 federal judges: six Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States and eighteen judges to the United States district courts.

Supreme Court appointments

Major Supreme Court cases

States admitted to the Union

Later life and death

Photographic copy of an 1845 daguerreotype

Jackson remained influential in both national and state politics after retiring to The Hermitage in 1837. Jackson remained a firm advocate of the federal union of the states, and rejected any talk of secession. "I will die with the Union", he always insisted.[101]

Jackson died at The Hermitage on June 8, 1845, at the age of 78, of chronic tuberculosis, dropsy, and heart failure. According to a primary source newspaper account from the Boon Lick Times read, "(he) fainted whilst being removed from his chair to the bed ... but he subsequently revived ... Gen. Jackson died at the Hermitage at 6 o'clock P.M. on Sunday the 8th instance. When the messenger finally came, the old soldier, patriot and Christian was looking out for his approach. He is gone, but his memory lives, and will continue to live."[102]

In his will, Jackson left his entire estate to his adopted son, Andrew Jackson Jr., except for specifically enumerated items that were left to various other friends and family members.[103]

Family and personal life

Shortly after Jackson first arrived in Nashville in 1788, he lived as a boarder with Rachel Stockley Donelson, the widow of John Donelson. Here Jackson became acquainted with their daughter, Rachel Donelson Robards. At the time, Rachel was in an unhappy marriage with Captain Lewis Robards; he was subject to fits of jealous rage.[104] The two were separated in 1790. According to Jackson, he married Rachel after hearing that Robards had obtained a divorce. However, the divorce had never been completed, making Rachel's marriage to Jackson bigamous and therefore invalid. After the divorce was officially completed, Rachel and Jackson remarried in 1794.[105] To complicate matters further, evidence shows that Rachel had been living with Jackson and referred to herself as Mrs. Jackson before the petition for divorce was ever made.[106] It was not uncommon on the frontier for relationships to be formed and dissolved unofficially, as long as they were recognized by the community.

The controversy surrounding their marriage remained a sore point for Jackson, who deeply resented attacks on his wife's honor. By May 1806, Charles Dickinson had published an attack on Jackson in the local newspaper, and it resulted in a written challenge from Jackson to a duel. Since Dickinson was considered an expert shot, Jackson determined it would be best to let Dickinson turn and fire first, hoping that his aim might be spoiled in his quickness; Jackson would wait and take careful aim at Dickinson. Dickinson did fire first, hitting Jackson in the chest. Under the rules of dueling, Dickinson had to remain still as Jackson took aim and shot and killed him. However, the bullet that struck Jackson was so close to his heart that it could never be safely removed. Jackson's behavior in the duel outraged men of honor in Tennessee, who called it a brutal, cold-blooded killing and saddled Jackson with a reputation as a fearful, violent, vengeful man. He became a social outcast.[107]

Rachel died of a heart attack on December 22, 1828, two weeks after her husband's victory in the election and two months before Jackson took office as President. Jackson described her symptoms as "excruciating pain in the left shoulder, arm, and breast."[108] After struggling for three days, Rachel finally died; so great was her husband's love that Jackson had to be pulled from her so the undertaker could prepare the body.[108] She had been under extreme stress during the election, and she never did well when Jackson was away at war or work. Jackson blamed John Quincy Adams for Rachel's death because the Whig campaign of 1828 had repeatedly attacked the circumstances for Jackson's wedding to Rachel. He felt that this had hastened her death and never forgave Adams.[109]

Jackson had three adopted sons: Theodore, an Indian about whom little is known,[110] Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of Rachel's brother Severn Donelson, and Lyncoya, a Creek Indian orphan adopted by Jackson after the Creek War. Lyncoya died of tuberculosis in 1828, at the age of sixteen.[111]

The Jacksons also acted as guardians for eight other children. John Samuel Donelson, Daniel Smith Donelson and Andrew Jackson Donelson were the sons of Rachel's brother Samuel Donelson, who died in 1804. Andrew Jackson Hutchings was Rachel's orphaned grand nephew. Caroline Butler, Eliza Butler, Edward Butler, and Anthony Butler were the orphaned children of Edward Butler, a family friend. They came to live with the Jacksons after the death of their father.[112]

The widower Jackson invited Rachel's niece Emily Donelson to serve as host at the White House. Emily was married to Andrew Jackson Donelson, who acted as Jackson's private secretary and in 1856 would run for Vice President on the American Party ticket. The relationship between the President and Emily became strained during the Petticoat affair, and the two became estranged for over a year. They eventually reconciled and she resumed her duties as White House host. Sarah Yorke Jackson, the wife of Andrew Jackson Jr., became co-host of the White House in 1834. It was the only time in history when two women simultaneously acted as unofficial First Lady. Sarah took over all hosting duties after Emily died from tuberculosis in 1836. Jackson used Rip Raps as a retreat, visiting between August 19, 1829 through August 16, 1835.[113]

Temperament

Jackson's quick temper was notorious. Brands says, "His audacity on behalf of the people earned him enemies who slandered him and defamed even his wife, Rachel. He dueled in her defense and his own, suffering grievous wounds that left him with bullet fragments lodged about his body."[108] However, Remini is of the opinion that Jackson was often in control of his rage, and used it (and his fearsome reputation) as a tool to get what he wanted in his public and private affairs.[114]

Brands also notes that his opponents were terrified of his temper:

Observers likened him to a volcano, and only the most intrepid or recklessly curious cared to see it erupt.... His close associates all had stories of his blood-curling oaths, his summoning of the Almighty to loose His wrath upon some miscreant, typically followed by his own vow to hang the villain or blow him to perdition. Given his record – in duels, brawls, mutiny trials, and summary hearings – listeners had to take his vows seriously.[115]

On the last day of the presidency, Jackson admitted that he had but two regrets, that he "had been unable to shoot Henry Clay or to hang John C. Calhoun."[116]

Physical appearance

Tennessee Gentleman, portrait of Jackson, ca. 1831, from the collection of The Hermitage.

Jackson was a lean figure standing at 6 feet, 1 inch (1.85 m) tall, and weighing between 130 and 140 pounds (64 kg) on average. Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair, which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age 61. He had penetrating deep blue eyes. Jackson was one of the more sickly presidents, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his lung that was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes made his whole body shake.

Religious faith

About a year after retiring the presidency,[117] Jackson became a member of the First Presbyterian Church in Nashville.

Jackson was a Freemason, having been initiated at Masonic Lodge, Harmony No. 1 in Tennessee; he also participated in chartering several other lodges in Tennessee. He was the only U.S. president to have been a Grandmaster of a State Lodge until Harry S. Truman in 1945. His Masonic apron is on display in the Tennessee State Museum. An obelisk and bronze Masonic plaque decorate his tomb at The Hermitage.[118][119][120]

Jackson on U.S. postage

Andrew Jackson is one of the few American presidents ever to appear on US Postage more than the usual two or three times. He died in 1845, but the U.S. Post Office did not release a postage stamp in his honor until 18 years after his death, with the issue of 1863, a 2-cent black issue, commonly referred to by collectors as the 'Black Jack'. In contrast, the first Warren G. Harding stamp was released only one month after his death, Lincoln, one year exactly. As Jackson was a controversial figure in his day there is speculation that officials in Washington chose to wait a period of time before issuing a stamp with his portrait. In all, Jackson has appeared on thirteen different U.S. postage stamps, more than that of most US presidents; only Washington, Lincoln, and Franklin (the last of whom was not a president) have appeared more often.[121][122] During the American Civil War the Confederate government also issued two Confederate postage stamps bearing Jackson's portrait, one a 2-cent red stamp and the other a 2-cent green stamp, both issued in 1863.[123]

Memorials

Equestrian statue of Gen. Jackson, Jackson County Courthouse, Kansas City, Missouri
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Donelson Jackson located at their home, The Hermitage.
Andrew Jackson portrait on obverse $20.00 bill circa 2006

Popular culture depictions

Movies

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Andrew Jackson". Information Services Branch, State Library of North Carolina. 
  2. ^ a b "Andrew Jackson Cottage and US Rangers Centre". Northern Ireland Tourist Board. 
  3. ^ Gullan, Harold I. (c. 2004). First fathers: the men who inspired our Presidents. Hoboken, N.J. : J: John Wiley & Sons. pp. xii, 308 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. ISBN 0-471-46597-6. LCCN 2003020625. OCLC 53090968. Retrieved January 14, 2010. 
  4. ^ Booraem, Hendrik (2001) Young Hickory : The Making of Andrew Jackson p.9
  5. ^ a b Collings, Jeffrey (March 7, 2011). "Old fight lingers over Old Hickory's roots". The Washington Post. 
  6. ^ In the antebellum South, rural schools were often built in exhausted cotton or tobacco fields, hence the name.
  7. ^ a b Paletta, Lu Ann; Worth, Fred L (1988). The World Almanac of Presidential Facts. World Almanac Books. ISBN 0-345-34888-5. 
  8. ^ Remini 1:15–17
  9. ^ Remini 1:21
  10. ^ Remini 1:13
  11. ^ Ostermeier, Eric (December 4, 2013). "Bob Smith and the 12-Year Itch". Smart Politics. 
  12. ^ Andrew Jackson at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 30, 2011
  13. ^ Remini (2000), p.51 cites 1820 census; mentions later figures up to 150 without noting a source.
  14. ^ a b c d "The Hermitage Slavery". thehermitage.com. 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  15. ^ Walter T. Durham, Before Tennessee: The Southwest Territory; Piney Flats, TN: Rocky Mount Historical Association, 1990; pp. 218–219. "In the Mero District, two young attorneys, John Overton and Andrew Jackson, entered into a formal partnership on May 12, 1794, 'for the purpose of purchasing lands as well as those lands without as within the military bounds.' Theirs was a frank avowal; they, like many of their contemporaries, would deal with lands within Indian territory. Most of the transactions involved grants made under the 'land grab' act of 1873 that briefly opened to claim by North Carolinians all of the Indian lands in that state's transmontane west. While the act was in force, citizens had staked claims to two or three million acres of Chickasaw and Cherokee land."
  16. ^ Blythe Semmer, "Jackson Purchase", Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
  17. ^ Buchanan, John. (2001). Jackson's Way: Andrew Jackson and the People of the Western Waters. New York: John Wiley & Son, Inc. p. 165–166.
  18. ^ Indian massacre#1500.E2.80.931830
  19. ^ a b c DSHeidler_JTHeidler 1997, p. 192.
  20. ^ Jahoda, Gloria. The Trail of Tears: The Story of the American Indian Removals 1813–1855. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York. 1975 ISBN 0-03-014871-5.
  21. ^ Remini, Robert V. (1999). The Battle of New Orleans. New York: Penguin Books. p. 285
  22. ^ Martin, François-Xavier The History of Louisiana, from the Earliest Period, Vol. 2 p. 387–495 (New Orleans, 1829).
  23. ^ Warshauer, Matthew, Andrew Jackson and the Politics of Martial Law, Univ. of Tenn. Press, 2006, p. 32 ff.
  24. ^ The Appeal of Louis Louaillier, Sen., Against the Charge of High Treason. New Orleans. 1827. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  25. ^ Eaton, Fernin F. "For Whom the Drone Tolls or What if Andrew Jackson had Drones at the Battle of New Orleans, A Bit of Bicentennial Mischief". Academia.edu. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Some account of some of the bloody deeds of General Jackson". Prints & Photographs Reading Room. Library of Congress. 1828. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  27. ^ "JACKSON, Andrew - Biographical Information". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Congress of the United States. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  28. ^ Leeden, Michael A. (2001). Tocqueville on American Character. New York: Macmillan. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-312-27451-1. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  29. ^ Remini, 118.
  30. ^ Ogg, 66.
  31. ^ Johnson, Allen (1920). "Jefferson and His Colleagues". Retrieved October 11, 2006. 
  32. ^ Rutland, Robert Allen (1995). The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton. University of Missouri Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0-8262-1034-1. 
  33. ^ Adams, Henry. The Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), 599.
  34. ^ Cheathem, Mark R. (2013). Andrew Jackson, Southerner. LSU Press ch 12. 
  35. ^ Rutland, Robert Allen (1995). The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton. University of Missouri Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 0-8262-1034-1. 
  36. ^ Nickels, Ilona (September 5, 2000). "How did Republicans pick the elephant, and Democrats the donkey, to represent their parties?". Capitol Questions. C-SPAN. Archived from the original on October 21, 2000. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  37. ^ Paul F. Boller Jr. (2004). Presidential Campaigns : From George Washington to George W. Bush. Oxford University Press. p. 46. 
  38. ^ Latner 2002, p. 101.
  39. ^ a b c d Latner 2002, p. 104.
  40. ^ a b c Latner 2002, p. 105.
  41. ^ Latner 2002, pp. 105, 108.
  42. ^ a b c d e Latner 2002, p. 107.
  43. ^ a b c d Latner 2002, p. 108.
  44. ^ Meacham, pages 171–175;
  45. ^ See Schama (2008) pp. 325–326
  46. ^ For an attack on Jackson see Cave (2003). 65(6): 1330–1353
  47. ^ For the defense of Jackson see Remini (2001), and F. P. Prucha, "Andrew Jackson's Indian Policy: A Reassessment", Journal of American History, (1969) 56(3): 527–539 JSTOR 1904204
  48. ^ a b c "Andrew Jackson's First Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2008. 
  49. ^ Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822–1832 pp. 117, 200
  50. ^ Robert V. Remini, The Life of Andrew Jackson (1988), p. 216
  51. ^ Cave (2003).
  52. ^ "Historical Documents – The Indian Removal Act of 1830". Historicaldocuments.com. Retrieved November 1, 2008. 
  53. ^ a b "Indian Removal". Judgment Day. PBS. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  54. ^ "Andrew Jackson Speaks: Indian Removal". The Nomadic Spirit. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  55. ^ "Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians – History". Cherokee-nc.com. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  56. ^ a b Ellis 1974, pp. 65-66.
  57. ^ Ellis 1974, p. 67.
  58. ^ "Andrew Jackson's Second Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on March 11, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2008. 
  59. ^ "Andrew Jackson's Third Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on March 11, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2008. 
  60. ^ "The Power of the Presidency: The Spoils System". Andrew Jackson - The Good, Evil & The Presidency - Special Features - PBS.org. Red Hill Productions and Community Television of Southern California. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  61. ^ The Spoils system, as the rotation in office system was called, did not originate with Jackson. It originated with New York governors in the late 18th and early 19th centuries (most notably George Clinton and DeWitt Clinton). Thomas Jefferson brought it to the Executive Branch when he replaced Federalist office-holders after becoming President. The Spoils System versus the Merit System. Retrieved on November 21, 2006.
  62. ^ Jacksonian Democracy: The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. Retrieved on November 21, 2006.
  63. ^ Sabato, Larry; O'Connor, Karen (2006). "8". American Government: Continuity and Change (Print) (2006 ed.). New York: Pearson Longman. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-321-31711-7. 
  64. ^ Howe, Daniel W. (2007). What hath God Wrought, The Transformation of America, 1815–1848. Oxford University Press, Inc. pp. 328–34. ISBN 978-0-19-507894-7. 
  65. ^ a b Ellis 1974, p. 65.
  66. ^ Ogg, 164.
  67. ^ Parton, James (2006). Life of Andrew Jackson 3. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 381–385. ISBN 1-4286-3929-2. . First published in 1860.
  68. ^ Syrett, 36. See also: "President Jackson's Proclamation Regarding Nullification, December 10, 1832". Archived from the original on August 24, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2006. 
  69. ^ Jon Meacham (2009), American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House, New York: Random House, p. 247; Correspondence of Andrew Jackson, Vol. V, p. 72.
  70. ^ a b c d e Latner 2002, pp. 119-120.
  71. ^ Cunningham, Hugo S. (1999). "Gold and Silver Standards France". Retrieved 2014-08-28. 
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i Latner 2002, p. 120.
  73. ^ Niles, Hezekiah (October 8, 1831). "Anti-Masonic Convention". Niles Weekly Register (Baltimore). Digitized in 2007 from a copy from the University of California. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  74. ^ "Elections from 1832 to 1872". Getting the Message Out: Presidential Campaign Memorabilia from the Collection of Allen A. Frey. Virginia Historical Society. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  75. ^ Drexler, Kenneth (June 11, 2013). "Presidential Election of 1832: A Resource Guide". Web Guides - Presidential Elections. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  76. ^ Katers, Nicholas (April 9, 2006). "Election of 1832: Jackson's Populist Appeal on Trial". Yahoo Voices. Yahoo News Network. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  77. ^ Gustavson, Robert. "A Biography of John Caldwell Calhoun (1782–1850)". Biographies - American History from Revolution to Reconstruction and beyond. University of Groningen - Humanities Computing. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  78. ^ Murrin, John; Johnson, Paul; McPherson, James; Gerstle, Gary; Fahs, Alice. Liberty, Equality, Power : A history of the American people (Concise 5th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-495-90382-6. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  79. ^ a b c d e f Brands, H. W. (March 21, 2006). "Be Sure Before You Censure". The New York Times. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  80. ^ Dangerfield, George (1965). The Awakening of American Nationalism: 1815–1828. New York: Harper & Row. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-88133-823-2. 
  81. ^ Boyer, Paul; Clark, Clifford; Hawley, Sandra; Kett, Joseph; Rieser, Andrew (2008). The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People, Concise (Concise 6th ed., Student ed. ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-547-22280-6. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  82. ^ D'Urso, Tony. "Henry Clay and the "Bank Wars"". Andrew Jackson 1767–1845, A Brief Biography - From Revolution to Reconstruction and beyond. University of Groningen. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  83. ^ "Conflict with the Executive: The Bank War". Treasures of Congress - National Archives. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  84. ^ "President Jackson's veto message regarding the Bank of the United States; July 10, 1832". Avalon Project - Yale Law School. Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  85. ^ Amper, Susan. "Andrew Jackson (1767–1845)". Continuum of Greatness - Bronx Community College. Bronx Community College, City University of New York. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  86. ^ Bogart, Ernest Ludlow (1907). The Economic History of the United States. Longmans, Green, and Company. pp. 219–21. ISBN 978-1-176-58679-6. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  87. ^ W. J. Rorabaugh, Donald T. Critchlow, Paula C. Baker (2004). "America's promise: a concise history of the United States". Rowman & Littlefield. p.210. ISBN 0-7425-1189-8
  88. ^ Friedel, Frank; Sidey, Hugh (2006). "Martin Van Buren". Our Presidents - The White House. White House Historical Association. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  89. ^ "Senate Censure President". U.S. Senate: Art & History - Historical Minutes - 1801-1850. United States Senate. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  90. ^ "Expunged Senate censure motion against President Andrew Jackson, January 16, 1837". Andrew Jackson - National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the U.S. Senate. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  91. ^ a b Morgan 1964, pp. 343.
  92. ^ a b c Mills 2003, p. 705.
  93. ^ a b c d e Latner 2002, p. 117.
  94. ^ a b c Latner 2002, p. 118.
  95. ^ When The U.S. Paid Off The Entire National Debt (And Why It Didn't Last) NPR.
  96. ^ Bureau of the Public Debt: Our History
  97. ^ a b c d Olson 2002, p. 190.
  98. ^ "Historical Debt Outstanding - Annual 1791–1849". Public Debt Reports. Treasury Direct. Retrieved November 25, 2007. 
  99. ^ Smith, Robert (April 15, 2011). "When the U.S. paid off the entire national debt (and why it didn't last)". Planet Money. NPR. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  100. ^ Jon Grinspan. "Trying to Assassinate Andrew Jackson". Archived from the original on October 24, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008. 
  101. ^ James C. Curtis, Andrew Jackson and the search for vindication (1976) p 145
  102. ^ "Death of Gen. Jackson". Boon's Lick Times (Fayette, Missouri). Archived by the Library of Congress. June 21, 1845. Retrieved March 25, 2014. 
  103. ^ Remini, Robert V. (2013). Andrew Jackson: The Course of American Democracy, 1833–1845 (Volume 3). Baltimore: JHU Press. p. 518. ISBN 978-1-4214-1330-3. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  104. ^ Kathleen Kennedy; Sharon Rena Ullman (2003). Sexual Borderlands: Constructing an American Sexual Past. Ohio State University Press. pp. 99–101. ISBN 9780814209271. 
  105. ^ Remini, 17–25
  106. ^ Meacham, Jon (2008). American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House. New York: Random House. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-1-4000-6325-3. 
  107. ^ H.W. Brands, Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (2005) pp 139–43
  108. ^ a b c Brands, H. W. (2005). Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-3072-9. 
  109. ^ Robert Remini, John Quincy Adams (2002) p. 119
  110. ^ Brands, H.W. (2005). Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times. Random House. p. 198. ISBN 1-4000-3072-2. 
  111. ^ Remini 1:194
  112. ^ The Papers of Andrew Jackson: 1821–1824 ed. Sam B. Smith, (1996) p 71
  113. ^ Meacham, page 109; 315
  114. ^ Remini, Robert (1969). Andrew Jackson. Harpercollins. ISBN 978-0-06-080132-8. 
  115. ^ Brands, p 297
  116. ^ Borneman, Walter R. Polk: The Man Who Transformed the Presidency and America. New York: Random House, 2008 ISBN 978-1-4000-6560-8, p. 36.
  117. ^ Wilentz, Sean (2005). Andrew Jackson. Macmillan. p. 160. 
  118. ^ Jackson, Andrew. "Tennessee History". Masonic Research. tennesseehistory.com. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  119. ^ Grand Lodge of British Columbia & Yukon's "A few famous freemasons" page
  120. ^ "Masonic Presidents, Andrew Jackson". Retrieved 28 July 2012. 
  121. ^ Scotts US Stamp Catalogue
  122. ^ Alexander T. Haimann, National Postal Museum (2006-05-16). "Smithsonian National Postal Museum". Arago.si.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  123. ^ Patricia Kaufmann (2006-05-09). "Smithsonian National Postal Museum". Arago.si.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  124. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 167. 
  125. ^ Virginia, Lodge. "Andrew Jackson No. 120". Lodge listings. Grand Lodge of Virginia. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 

References

Biographies

  • Brands, H. W. Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (2005), scholarly biography emphasizing military career excerpt and text search
  • Burstein, Andrew. The Passions of Andrew Jackson. (2003). online review by Donald B. Cole
  • Cheathem, Mark R. Andrew Jackson, Southerner (2013), scholarly biography emphasizing Jackson's southern identity
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition (1948), chapter on Jackson. online in ACLS e-books
  • James, Marquis. The Life of Andrew Jackson Combines two books: The Border Captain and Andrew Jackson: Portrait of a President, 1933, 1937; winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1938.
  • Meacham, Jon. American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House (2009), excerpt and text search
  • Parton, James. Life of Andrew Jackson (1860). Volume I, Volume III.
  • Remini, Robert V. The Life of Andrew Jackson. Abridgment of Remini's 3-volume monumental biography, (1988).
    • Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767–1821 (1977); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822–1832 (1981); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833–1845 (1984).
  • Remini, Robert V. The Legacy of Andrew Jackson: Essays on Democracy, Indian Removal, and Slavery (1988).
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and his Indian Wars (2001).
  • Remini, Robert V. "Andrew Jackson", American National Biography (2000).
  • Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson (2005), short biography, stressing Indian removal and slavery issues excerpt and text search

Historiography

  • Bugg Jr. James L. ed. Jacksonian Democracy: Myth or Reality? (1952), excerpts from scholars.
  • Cheathem, Mark R. "'The Shape of Democracy': Historical Interpretations of Jacksonian Democracy", in The Age of Andrew Jackson, ed. Brian D. McKnight and James S. Humphreys (2011).
  • Mabry, Donald J., Short Book Bibliography on Andrew Jackson, Historical Text Archive.
  • Sellers, Charles Grier, Jr. "Andrew Jackson versus the Historians", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 4. (March 1958), pp. 615–634. in JSTOR.
  • Taylor, George Rogers, ed. Jackson Versus Biddle: The Struggle over the Second Bank of the United States (1949), excerpts from primary and secondary sources.
  • Ward, John William. Andrew Jackson, Symbol for an Age (1962) how writers saw him.

Specialized studies

  • Cave, Alfred A.. Abuse of Power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (2003).
  • Ellis, Richard E. (1974). Woodward, C. Vann, ed. Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct. New York, New York: Delacorte Press. pp. 61–68. ISBN 0-440-05923-2. 
  • Gammon, Samuel Rhea. The Presidential Campaign of 1832 (1922).
  • Hammond, Bray. Andrew Jackson's Battle with the "Money Power" (1958) ch 8, of his Banks and Politics in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War (1954); Pulitzer prize.
  • David Stephen Heidler; Jeanne T. Heidler, eds. (1997). Encyclopedia of the War of 1812. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-362-4. 
  • Latner, Richard B. (2002). "Andrew Jackson". In Graff, Henry. The Presidents: A Reference History (7th ed.). pp. 101–123. ISBN 0-684-80551-0. 
  • Latner Richard B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson: White House Politics, 1820–1837 (1979), standard survey.
  • Meacham, Jon (2008). American Lion. Random House, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4000-6325-3. 
  • Mills, William J. (2003). Exploring Polar Frontiers: A Historical Encyclopedia 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN 1-57607-422-6. 
  • Morgan, Dale L. (1953, 1964). Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the American West. Lincoln, London: Bison Book University of Nebraska Books. ISBN 0-8032-5138-6. 
  • Ogg, Frederic Austin ; The Reign of Andrew Jackson: A Chronicle of the Frontier in Politics 1919. Short popular survey online at Gutenberg.
  • Olson, James Stuart (2002). Robert L. Shadle, ed. Encyclopedia of the Industrial Revolution in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30830-6. 
  • Parsons, Lynn H. The Birth of Modern Politics: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and the Election of 1828 (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Ratner, Lorman A. Andrew Jackson and His Tennessee Lieutenants: A Study in Political Culture (1997).
  • Rowland, Dunbar. Andrew Jackson's Campaign against the British, or, the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813–1815 (1926).
  • Schama, Simon. The American Future: A History (2008).
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. The Age of Jackson. (1945). Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for History. history of ideas of the era.
  • Syrett, Harold C. Andrew Jackson: His Contribution to the American Tradition (1953). on Jacksonian democracy

External links