|City of Golden, Colorado|
A view of downtown Golden
|Motto: Where the West Lives|
Location in Jefferson County and the State of Colorado
|County||Jefferson County Seat|
Golden City, K.T.
Golden City, C.T.
|Named for||Thomas L. Golden|
|• Type||Home Rule Municipality|
|• Mayor||Marjorie N. Sloan|
|• Total||9 sq mi (23.3 km2)|
|• Land||9 sq mi (23.3 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2)|
|Elevation||5,675 ft (1,729.74 m)|
|• Density||2,096.3/sq mi (809.7/km2)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC-6)|
|Area code(s)||Both 303 and 720|
|GNIS feature ID||0202837|
|Highways||I-70, US 6, US 40, SH 58, SH 93|
|Website||City of Golden|
The City of Golden is a home rule municipality and the county seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States. Golden lies along Clear Creek at the edge of the foothills of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Founded during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush on 16 June 1859, the mining camp was originally named Golden City in honor of Thomas L. Golden. Golden City served as the capital of the provisional Territory of Jefferson from 1860 to 1861, and capital of the official Territory of Colorado from 1862 to 1867. In 1867, the territorial capital was moved about 12 miles (19 km) east to Denver City. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the city population was 18,867 in 2010.
The Colorado School of Mines, offering programs in engineering and science, is located in Golden. Also there are the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the National Earthquake Information Center, the Coors Brewing Company, CoorsTek, Spyderco, the American Mountaineering Center, and the Colorado Railroad Museum. It is the birthplace of the Jolly Rancher, a candy bought out by the Hershey Foods Corporation. Famous western showman William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody is buried nearby on Lookout Mountain.
Golden lies just north of I-70 and west of Denver at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Situated between Lookout Mountain and the two Table Mountains, Golden lies within a sheltered valley fed by Clear Creek. Clear Creek flows through town from the northwest, out of its canyon shared by US 6, and exits the valley it carved between North Table Mountain and South Table Mountain and in which is located the Coors Brewery.
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Established as a gold-rush town, Golden City quickly became a leading economic and political center of the region, being a center of trade between the gold fields and the east, a crossroads and gateway of important roads leading to the mountains, and a center of area industry. By the end of 1860, Golden City had been popularly elected the seat of Jefferson County and was capital of the provisional Jefferson Territory. While the town lost much of its populace and leading citizenry during the American Civil War for several reasons (ranging from military to economic), Golden City became capital of the federally recognized Colorado Territory in 1862, continuing as such until 1867.
Golden City became the "Lowell of the West", a regional center of trade and industry that boasted at certain points in time three flour mills, five smelters, the first railroad into the Colorado mountains, the Coors Brewery, brick works, the only paper mill west of Missouri, clay and coal mines, and more. During the 1870s it became home to three institutions of higher education, the Colorado University Schools of which the Colorado School of Mines remains today. Golden was also home to an opera house and seven churches including Colorado's third (Methodist) church, oldest Baptist church, likely oldest Christian (Disciples of Christ) church, and first Swedish immigrant (Lutheran) church. The town was home to sizable populations of German, Swedish, Italian and Chinese immigrants; five immigrants became mayors of Golden.
Until the early 20th century Golden maintained a small town population of around 2,500 people. Several industries faded or were destroyed by tragic events, but others flourished to continue Golden's industrial legacy including its brewing, brick making, clay mining and porcelain industries. Golden became even more connected through mass transit, with two trolley lines extending to Denver, while the movie theater gradually took the place of the opera house for downtown entertainment. Downtown revitalization efforts began in the 1920s with its first streetscape and ornamental lighting project and urban renewal on its north and east, anchored by new senior high and grade schools. The historic cultural tension between the city's north and south sides gradually eased, and the town successfully endured additional major economic depressions including the Silver Crash of 1893 and the Great Depression. The School of Mines gained a worldwide academic reputation, Coors rapidly came to the forefront of the national and international brewing and ceramics industries, and the city modernized with a recreation center, paved streets and more.
After World War II Golden boomed, rapidly gaining population, size and economy. In 1959 the town nearly tripled in geographic size overnight when it annexed large properties to the south including the new Magic Mountain theme park, one of the earliest entertainment attractions of its kind. A number of new subdivisions were built and public infrastructure was modernized including new buildings for the senior high school, city hall, recreation center, library, museum and central fire and police stations. Also built were new downtown anchors including department stores and grocery stores, several new church buildings, new county offices, and the Horizon Plan which transformed the School of Mines.
The decline in the price of petroleum and near simultaneous failure of several downtown anchors placed the central business district into recession in the 1980s, and the downtown was revitalized again through various initiatives including its second streetscaping project in 1992. In 1993 the old Golden High School building was converted into the American Mountaineering Center, making Golden a research and education hub for mountaineering. The Coors Brewery had become the largest single site brewery in the world, its Porcelain subsidiary among the foremost of its kind in the world, and Golden became home to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Today Golden has a population of over 18,000 people and is home to more people and businesses of national and international influence than ever before, yet maintains a small-town historic identity. A Golden mailing address may also represent one of several communities in unincorporated Jefferson County to the north and west of Golden, communities undergoing continual residential development of former farm, ranch and mining land and which possess a considerable population.
As of the census of 2010, there were 18,867 people, 7,394 households, and 3,985 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,096.3 inhabitants per square mile (809.7/km²). There were 7,748 housing units at an average density of 860.9 per square mile (332.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 90.6% White, 1.2% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, and 2.3% from two or more races. 8.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,394 households out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.1% were non-families. 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.8.
In the city the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 20, 13% from 20 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 25% from 45 to 64, and 10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.9 years. The population was 56.6% male and 43.4% female.
As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $49,115, and the median income for a family was $67,414. Males had a median income of $41,822 versus $32,413 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,257. About 3.5% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.
Golden is a home rule municipality of the city form of statutory government in Colorado. Its government is a city council/city manager form of leadership which consists of a popularly elected mayor elected by the entire citizenry, two councilors each representing a district comprising one half of the city, and four councilors each representing a ward of which each district is divided into two. These seven members of the city council are each popularly elected from their ward/district/at large and they serve as the governing body of the city. The council hires and supervises the city manager, who hires and supervises the city staff, which handles the daily operations of the city.
Golden's current elected officials are:
- Mayor - Marjorie N. Sloan
- Councilor (District 1) - Saoirse Charis-Graves
- Councilor (District 2) - Marcie Miller
- Councilor (Ward 1) - Marcia Claxton
- Councilor (Ward 2) - Joseph G. Behm
- Councilor (Ward 3) - Pamela Gould
- Councilor (Ward 4) - Laura Weinberg
The current City Manager is Michael C. Bestor.
Golden was among the first municipally governed cities in Colorado and has one of the oldest continuously functioning governments in the state. To date Golden has held 91 popular elections for municipal officials since its first such election in 1860, including 85 regular elections and 6 special elections in 1860, 1879, 1882, 2005, 2006 and 2008.
The main part of Golden is laid out upon a historic street grid system running on an approximately northwest-southeast axis, aligned with Clear Creek upon which the heart of the city was established. Most of these are paved streets with a total 66-foot right of way, including area for sidewalks which in older areas are often separated by a landscaped strip from the street featuring beautiful and historic trees. The only historic street in the grid not named "street" is the main thoroughfare, Washington Avenue, an 80-foot right of way featuring a downtown care streetscape with trees, planters, brick, flagstone and ornamental street lights. Golden's streets are generally numbered on the east-west streets, and named on the north-south streets, and are named after pioneers, American Indian tribes and trees. The streets of the southeasterly part of town are aligned with the Denver metropolitan street grid, which are aligned directly with the true directions of the compass, and they share the names of the Denver grid. Outlying subdivisions of Golden consist of their own, often curvilinear street systems, of various degrees of connection with the rest of the city. Golden has several main thoroughfare street connections to the east which date to the Gold Rush times, including West 44th Avenue, West 32nd Avenue and South Golden Road.
Since its beginning, Golden has been at a crossroads of major Colorado thoroughfares. Today Interstate 70 (I-70) runs through the southern part of the city, which connects to the northern terminus of SH 470 which runs to the south. U.S. Highway 6 (US 6), which turns into 6th Avenue, is a historic thoroughfare (built in 1950) which runs east-west through the southern part of the city then curves northward through the western part of Golden, ultimately arriving at the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon. State Highway 93 (SH 93), which traces its roots to the 1860s, continues north through the western part of the city from the canyon and northward towards Boulder. SH 58 bisects Golden on an east-west route between 6th and 7th Streets, and ultimately joins to go up Clear Creek Canyon. West Colfax Avenue, the historic US 40, runs on an approximately northeast-southwest route through the southern end of the city and turns westward up Mt. Vernon Canyon and parallels I-70.
The city of Golden is part of the network of the Regional Transportation District which provides bus and light rail service throughout the Denver metropolitan area. Its bus routes 16, 44L and GS connect the city with other points of the Denver metropolitan area and Boulder. The West Corridor(W line) of the FasTracks light rail line, which parallels 6th Avenue into Golden to its terminal at the Jefferson County Government Center, opened to the public April 26, 2013, a modern version of the historic trolley line which Golden interests spearheaded in the 1890s. Although passengers are no longer served by heavy rail, Golden continues to be served by railroad transportation for cargo, and has been continuously since 1870. These lines are owned by the BNSF railroad and serve business interests in the northeastern end of the city. Within the Coors Brewery grounds it becomes the brewery's own in-house railroad. The recreational miniature gauge Rio Golden Railroad serves passengers at Heritage Square.
The closest airport to Golden is nearby Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport, a general aviation air transport facility located in northeastern Jefferson County. Passenger traffic generally uses Denver International Airport in northeastern Denver.
Golden, originally home to the second school in Colorado, is today part of the Jefferson County R-1 School District which provides public education throughout Jefferson County, Colorado. The city has five elementary schools, Mitchell, Kyffin, Shelton, Pleasant View and Ralston Elementary in the foothills to the west; one middle school, Bell Middle School; and Colorado's oldest senior high school, Golden High School.
In higher education, Golden features the oldest public university in the state, the Colorado School of Mines, which can be found a few blocks south of downtown Golden situated on a hill overlooking the city. Near Mines is the Mountain Language Institute, an English language school providing classes both in Golden and online.
Golden is home to the Jefferson Symphony Orchestra, which performs seasonally at Bunker Auditorium in the Green Center at the Colorado School of Mines, and has performed continuously since 1953. The city is also home to the Foothills Art Center, an art exhibition venue housed in a historic church. Two live theater groups are housed in Golden, including one of only two Denver metro area dinner theater groups, the Heritage Square Music Hall, which has performed since 1986; and the dramatic live theater venue of the Miners Alley Playhouse in downtown Golden, which has performed there since 2001. The 150-year old Buffalo Rose Bar and Grill is the longest surviving Colorado gold rush-era business and remains a popular music venue for touring rock and blues bands. Golden is home to possibly the most museums per capita of any place in Colorado, including the Rocky Mountain Quilt Museum, Colorado Railroad Museum, Colorado School of Mines Geology Museum, Bradford Washburn American Mountaineering Museum, Golden History Center, Astor House Hotel Museum, and the Clear Creek History Park. There is also the Mother Cabrini Shrine.
Golden has several annual events, which include Heart & Soul Month in February, E-Days of the Colorado School of Mines in April (since 1927), two Independence Day fireworks shows sponsored by Heritage Square (since 1971) and the Golden Lions Club (since 1972), the largest event of the year is Buffalo Bill Days in late July (since 1946); the Golden Fine Arts Festival in August (since 1990), Goldenfest in September (since 1978, originally Oktoberfest), and Olde Golden Christmas (since 1972) in November to December.
The American Mountaineering Center is home to the American Alpine Club, The Colorado Mountain Club, and Outward Bound. The Henry S. Hall, Jr. American Alpine Club Library and Colorado Mountain Club Collection is the world's largest repository of mountaineering literature and is internationally known. The American Mountaineering Center is also home to the Bradford Washburn American Mountaineering Museum and hosts many programs and events each year. This premier facility and the town's location near plenty of world class rock climbing, skiing and mountaineering make Golden a center for mountaineering culture.
Golden's competitive athletics go back for well over a century and feature public school and collegiate teams and athletes. Golden High School competes in various sports in 4A competition in Colorado, and its football program dates as far back as the 1890s. The Colorado School of Mines competes primarily in NCAA Division II athletics in a variety of sports including football (dating to 1888), baseball and basketball. Clear Creek is also home to a nationally renowned kayak course, and the city is home to the American Mountaineering Center and features noteworthy rock climbing, mountain biking, hiking, and hang gliding opportunities in close proximity. Golden has to date generated three Major League Baseball players, four Olympic competitors and two Olympic medalists.
People of historical interest
Golden has had a long, rich history spanning nearly one and a half centuries, which includes many who were important in Colorado and American History.
A few people that have been born, lived, or died in the Golden area are:
- Edward L. Berthoud (1830–1910), Colorado engineer, historian, geologist
- Ward Bond (actor) briefly attended the Colorado School of Mines in the early 1920s.
- Leroy Taylor Brown, Olympic silver medalist, men's high jump, Paris 1924
- Frances Xavier Cabrini (Mother Cabrini), American-Italian saint
- Dutch Clark (Pro football hall of fame) was the football coach at Mines in 1933.
- Adolph Coors (1847–1929), co-founder of the Adolph Coors Company
- Alexander Cummings (1810–1879), Territorial Governor of Colorado
- James Darden (Coach of original Denver Nuggets, member Colorado Sports Hall of Fame)
- William L. Douglas (Founder Douglas Shoe Company, Governor of Massachusetts)
- Douglas Fairbanks (Movie actor)
- John Frullo (Member of the Texas House of Representatives and former Golden resident
- George A. Grosvenor (National Football League player, Chicago Bears, Chicago Cardinals)
- Bill and Dorothy Harmsen (Founders of Jolly Rancher)
- Roy Hartzell (Major League Baseball utility player, St. Louis Browns, New York Highlanders/Yankees)
- Edgar Watson Howe (Author, newspaper editor)
- Albert E. Jones (Major League Baseball pitcher, Cleveland Spiders, St. Louis Perfectos/Cardinals)
- Gertrude Kasebier (Photographic artist)
- Ron Kiefel (bicycle racer) was a student at Mines in the early 1980s.
- Arthur Lakes (Geologist and paleontologist, discoverer of Brontosaurus and Stegosaurus near Golden)
- William A. H. Loveland (Colorado railroad pioneer and industrialist)
- Keli McGregor (President Colorado Rockies, National Football League player)
- Mark Melancon (Major League Baseball pitcher, New York Yankees, Houston Astros, Boston Red Sox, Pittsburgh Pirates)
- Chick Morrison (Movie actor)
- Frank B. Morrison (Governor of Nebraska)
- Pete Morrison (Movie actor)
- George Alexander Parks (Territorial Governor of Alaska)
- George M. Pullman (Railroad industrialist)
- Steve Reed (Major League Baseball pitcher)
- Elwood Romney (Brigham Young University hall of fame basketball star, All-American, cousin of Mitt Romney)
- Roger Rueff, playwright, earned three degrees in Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering at Mines in 1978, '83 and '85.
- George Eliphaz Spencer (Founder of Breckenridge, Colorado, Alabama Senator)
- Charles David Spivak (Founder Jewish Consumptives Relief Society)
- Robert Williamson Steele (Nebraska Territorial Senator, popularly elected Governor of provisional Jefferson Territory)
- J.J. Thomas (Olympic bronze medalist, men's halfpipe snowboarding, Salt Lake City 2002)
- John Charles Vivian (Governor of Colorado)
- Robert H. Waterman Jr., co-author of In Search of Excellence, earned a degree in geophysics from Mines in 1958.
- Shane Carwin, Heavyweight contender in the UFC, received a degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines.
- Outline of Colorado
- State of Colorado
- Colorado cities and towns
- Colorado counties
- Colorado metropolitan areas
- Colorado geography
- Colorado history
- Colorado School of Mines
- Golden Expressway
- Golden Gate Canyon State Park
- Jefferson Parkway
- Coors Golden Brewery
- Mother Cabrini Shrine
- "Active Colorado Municipalities". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. Retrieved 2007-12-06.
- Western Mountaineer, December 7, 1859 and Colorado Transcript, May 30, 1894 and June 15, 1905.
- Colorado Transcript, May 19, 1904.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- . Bufffalo Rose Bar and Grill http://www.buffalorose.net/. Retrieved 9 May 2013. Missing or empty
- "Golden's Oldest Business Turns 150". Denver News Agency. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Mother Cabrini Shrine.
- City of Golden website
- Official Golden Tourism website
- Mile High Newspapers (Based in Golden)
- Colorado School of Mines
- Golden Chamber of Commerce