Mughal king Muhammad Shah appointed a Turani noble Asaf Jah I as the wazir of Mughal Empire in 1722, but in 1724 he left for the Deccan to start his own kingdom and took the title Nizam-ul-Mulk.. Marathwada become a part of Nizam’s domain, which later came to be known as the princely state of Hyderabad outside but under the suzerainty of British India. (“Nizam” became the title of the ruling descendants of Nizam-ul-Mulk.)
On August 15, 1947, British India was partitioned into two independent states, the Union of India and Pakistan, and the Nizam ruling Hyderabad State at that time chose not to merge Hyderabad state into either country. Subsequently, through Operation Polo, a “police action” on September 17, 1948, the Indian army annexed Hyderabad to India.
On November 1, 1956, Marathwada was transferred from Hyderabad state to Bombay state. On May 1, 1960, Bombay state was divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat states, Marathwada becoming a part of the former. Aurangabad is the headquarters of Marathwada. It derived its name from Aurangzeb, who ruled it for a brief period.
The other cities in the region with significant population include district towns such as Beed and Osmanabad, and places of Hindu pilgrimage such as Parli Vaijnath,Aundha Nagnath Ambejogai and Tuljapur. Other smaller cities in the region are Basmat, Degloor, Jintur,Dharmabad,Majalgaon, Bhokar, Akhada Balapur,Sonpeth, kinwat, and Udgir.
Marathwada is home to important Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, and Jain monuments and places of pilgrimage. These include in Aurangabad district , the Buddist caves of Ajanta and the Hindu, Jain and Buddist temples and caves of Ellora. The region also has important places of Hindu pilgrimage such as Shaktipeeth temple of Renuka in Mahur, Maharashtra,in Nanded District, Tulja Bhavani temple of Tuljapur and Yogeshwari in Ambejogai in Osmanabad district. The region also has three of twelve Jyotirlingas Grishneshwar at (Verul), Nagnath (Aundha), and Vaijanath (Parali).
Dnyaneshwar and his siblings Niwruttinath, Sopandev, and Muktabai hailed from Apegaon in Aurangabad District. Eknath hailed from Paithan in the same district. Samarth Ramdas hailed from Jamb in Jalna District, while Namdev hailed from Narsi in Hingoli District.
Urdu and Persian-language poets and scholars such as Siraj Aurangabadi, Wali Dakhni and Azad Bilgrami lived in the city of Aurangabad. The town of Khuldabad contains the shrines some of the earliest Sufi saints of the Deccan.
Historically, Marathwada has lagged behind the rest of Maharashtra in economic prosperity. Human Development Index (HDI) using the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) methodology highlighted that situation in 2000.
There has, however, been accelerated industrial growth in Marathwada in the past few years. Skoda and Audi have automobile manufacturing plants at Aurangabad. Hindalco, Parle, Siemens, and Radico have started their major projects in Marathwada. Videocon manufactures TVs, air conditioning units, refrigerators, and washing machines, while Sterlite manufactures fibre optic cables in this region.
Marathwada Regional Information technology Initiative
IT companies in this region contribute towards development of I.T. in local sectors/companies. More than 15 Engineering colleges and about 60 Polytechnic Colleges are educating future I.T.professionals. There is no dearth of manpower for ITindustry in this region. Telecom Infrastructure/ Internet Connectivity(Fiber Optics)band width up to 100 Mbit/s available at many places in the region. To set up IT industry State Govt declares many incentives to the IT unit as per IT Policy 2009. As per IT Policy 2009, MIDC plots are available for IT industry at very concessional rate(25 % of regular rates). Nanded D.I.CAurangabad D.I.C and all DICs in the region are ready to help development of IT industry in this region. All IT Associations in this region are ready for helping new IT units. 
MARATHWADA has its own open source directory where major informations are posted for people round the globe to know more in detail about marathwada and communities in Marathwada region, you can get the information on Marathwada region HERE
- Human Development Report 2002 - Maharashtra (India)
- History of Modern India, Bipin Chandra, Orient Blackswan, 2009