History of Maharashtra
|Outline of South Asian history
History of Indian subcontinent
The antiquity of this region can be traced to approximately the 3rd century BC. Marathi, which evolved from Maharastri-Prakrit, has been the lingua franca of the people of this area from the 10th century onwards. The oldest stone inscriptions in Marathi language can be seen at Shravana Belgola in Karnataka at the foot of the Bahubali Statue (Jain). And, in the course of time, the term 'Maharashtra' was used to describe a region which consisted of Aparanta, Vidarbha, Mulak, Ashmak and Kuntal. The tribal communities of Nags, Munds and Bhills inhabited this area, also known as Dandakaranya, in ancient times. They were joined by the Aryas, the Shakas and the Huns, who came from the North, as well as by foreigners, who arrived by sea.
Maharashtra in the First Milinium CE
The region that is present day Maharashtra was part of a number of empires in the first milinium. These include the Saka Western Satraps, Satavahana, the Chalukya and the Rashtrakuta. N=Most of these empires extended over a large swathes of Indian territory. Some of the greatest monuments in Maharashtra such as the Ajantha and Ellora Caves were built during the time of these empires.
Islamic rule came to the region with the Khilji dynasty in the 13th century. The Tughlaq Dynasty that followed the Khiljis tried to move their capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Central Maharashtra with disastrous consequences. Later from 15th century, the Bahamani Sultanate and its offshoots, the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, Adilshahi of Bijapur and the Qutubshahi of Govalkonda ruled different parts of the region until they were either swallowed by the Moghul empire or by the emerging Maratha forces in the second half of 17th Century.
The Marathas dominated the political scene in Maharashtra from the middle of the 17th century to the early 19th century. Although for historical purposes the term 'Maratha' is used in a comprehensive sense to include all Marathi-speaking people, actually the word signifies the distinct community which has dominated the political scene of Maharashtra since medieval times.
References to the Marathas and their country are found in accounts by the Arab geographer, Al Biruni (1030 AD), Friar Jordanus (c. 1326) and Ibn Batuta (1340), the African traveller. The Marathas came into political prominence only in the 17th century under Shivaji.
Shivaji was an able warrior and established a government that included such modern concepts as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal), foreign affairs (Dabir) and internal intelligence. Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch till Maratha internal conflict brought their downfall in 1756.
Shivaji is well known for his fatherly attitude towards his subjects. He believed that the state belonged to the people. He encouraged all socio-economic groups to participate in the ongoing political changes. To this day he is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military, fort architecture, society and politics. Because of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of freedom fighters (along with the Rani of Jhansi) in the Indian independence struggle that followed two centuries later. He is remembered as a just and wise king and his rule is called one of the six golden pages in Indian history.
School texts in Maharashtra glorify Shivaji's period and he is considered the founder of the modern Marathi nation; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity. Indeed, Marathi Hindus, Dalits, Muslims, Christians and Buddhists, all consider him as a hero. A popular quotation,
"Maratha tituka milavava
Maharashtra Dharma vadhavava"
translates as, "Bring as many people into Maratha domain as possible and grow the Maharashtra Nation".
Expansion of Maratha Influence under Shahu 1 rule
The death of Aurangzeb in 1707 after an exhausting 27 years of war against Marathss led to the swift decline of the Moghul empire. The Marathas, under the leadership the Bhat family of Peshwas, rapidly filled the power vacuum and occupied much of the subcontinent in the following decades.
Maharashtra under British rule and The Freedom Movement
The British East India Company slowly expanded areas under its rule during the 18th century. Their conquests of what is Maharashtra was completed in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II in the Third Anglo-Maratha War.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, the first Law Minister of India, an erudite scholar with a number of doctorates, and a Barrister, championed the cause of Depressed Classes of India, the lower caste population who were oppressed for centuries. Dr. Ambedkar disagreed with mainstream leaders like Gandhi on issues including untouchability, government system and Partition of India. This did not prevent him from struggling for the rights of his brethren among the lower castes of the country. His leadership of Dalit or Depressed Classes, lead to the Dalit movement that still endures. Dr. Ambedkar most importantly played the pivotal role in writing the constitution of India and hence he is considered as the father of the Indian Constitution.
Lokmanya Tilak played a major role in the Indian independence movement. He was widely recognised as a leader of national importance & a man of method. Being a person with an extremist attitude, he was instrumental in encouraging the Indian masses in participating in the freedom struggle.
A popular quotation:
Swarajya ha majha janmasiddha hakka ahe, ।
ani toh mi milavnarach! ।।
Swaraj (self-rule) is my birthright & I will achieve it!
The ultimatum in 1942 to the British to "Quit India" was given in Mumbai, and culminated in the transfer of power and the independence of India in 1947. Raosaheb and Achutrao Patwardhan, Nanasaheb Gore, S.M. Joshi, Yeshwantrao Chavan, Swami Ramanand Bharti, Nana Patil, Dhulappa Navale, V.S. Page, Vasant Patil, Dhondiram Mali, Aruna Asif Ali, Ashfaqulla Khan and several others leaders from Maharashtra played a prominent role in this struggle. BG Kher was the first Chief Minister of the tri-lingual Bombay Presidency in 1937.
- महाराष्ट्राचा गौरवशाली इतिहास / The History of Maharashtra.....
- James Grant Duff, History of the Mahrattas, 3 vols. London, Longmans, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green (1826) ISBN 81-7020-956-0
- Mahadev Govind Ranade, Rise of the Maratha Power (1900); reprint (1999) ISBN 81-7117-181-8