||This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
|— City and District Headquarters (Mumbai Metropolitan Region) —|
|• Mayor||MR. H. S. PATIL|
|• Municipal Commissioner||R. Rajeev|
|• Total||147 km2 (57 sq mi)|
|• Density||12,000/km2 ( 32,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Thane|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Thane|
Thane (IPA: [ˈʈʰaːɳeː]) is a city in Maharashtra, India, at the head of the Thane Creek. It is the administrative headquarters of Thane district. On 16 April 1853, the G.I.P. Railway’s first train ever to run in India rolled out from "Boree Bunder" (now the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) to "Thane" (previously pronounced and written as "Thana"), 34 kilometers away. This marked the dawn of the Railway Age in Asia. Thane covers an area of 147 km2 and has a population of more than 1.8 million within its municipal limits, according to the 2011 census. Thane comes under Mumbai Metropolitan Region and also the proximity with Mumbai has made it culturally a part of it.
It is located to the northeast of Mumbai (it shares that island with the Mumbai City District, with Mumbai Suburban District and with Mira-Bhayandar Municipal Corporation), and partly on the mainland across Thane Creek. Spanning an area of about 147 km², the city is located at an elevation of 7 meters above sea level. It is surrounded by hills, including the hill of Yeoor and Parsik Hill. It is divided politically into two parts by the Thane Creek, a stream that courses from the Ulhas River to the Arabian Sea. Two road bridges and one rail bridge connect the two parts of the city. It is one of the oldest cities of India, with its history dating back to about 2,000 years. Thane Municipal Corporation City's limits includes Kopri to the south, Wagle estate Naupada, Pachpakhadi to the west, Kalwa, Mumbra and Diva to the east and Manpada, Bramand, Kasarwadavli, Kapurbawdi to the north.
Thane is also known as the City of Lakes. The city has around 35 lakes. The most beautiful of them is the Masunda Talao, also known as Talao Pali. The lake offers boating and water scooter facilities. The lake is near Gadkari Rangayatan, a drama theatre which is a very popular hub for entertainment in Thane. The Upvan Lake is located at the foot-hills of the Yeoor hills and is a scenic spot. It is flanked by the Yeoor hills on one side and the tall Neelkanth Heights on one side, and is a common spot for recreation. Other lakes include:
- Masunda Lake Talao Pali.
- Kachrali Lake, Pachpakhadi.
- Makhmali Lake
- Ambe Ghonsali Lake
- Siddheshwar Lake
- Jail Lake
- Joshi Lake
- Wagle Lake
- Upvan Lake
- Yashasvi Nagar Lake
- Kausa Lake
- Kharegaon Lake
- Raila Devi Lake
- Rewale Lake
- Bramhala-Kolbad Lake
- Haryali-Chendani Koliwada Lake
Thane has a tropical monsoon climate that borders on a tropical wet and dry climate. Overall climate is equable with high rainfall days and very few days of extreme temperatures. Thane temperature varies from 22°C to 36°C. In winter temperature is between 12°C to 20°C while summer temperature ranges from 36°C to 41°C. Out of total rainfall, 80% rainfall is experienced during June to October. Average annual rainfall is 2000–2500 mm and humidity is 61-86%, making it a humid-perhumid zone. The driest days are in winter while the wettest days are experienced in July.
|Climate data for Thane|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.6
|Average low °C (°F)||16.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||3.1
|Source: Government of Maharashtra|
The population of thane according to 2011 census is 2,486,941. Average literacy rate of Thane city is 91.36 percent of which male and female literacy was 94.19 and 88.14 percent. The sex ratio of Thane city is 882 per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 900 per 1000 boys.Total children (0-6) in Thane city are 186,259 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 98,017 boys while 88,242 are girls. The child forms 10.24% of total population of Thane City.
Thane was inhabited with people of the Agri, Koli and Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu communities, and their villages still exist today as "Chendani Koliwada", "Kopari Goan", and "Uthalsar". It also includes Majiwade, Balkum, Dhokali, Kolshet, Wadavli, and others. Most of the landlords and officers of Maratha Empire in Thane were from Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu community. The Karkhanis or the chief officer of Thane Fort was Kesha Ramji Gupte. In 1825, the British explored their newly annexed territories in Bassein. The local villagers, like Kolis (fishermen), are converted into indigenous Catholics mostly from villages of Chendani, Koliwada, and Majiwada. The Agri and Koli community people had their own culture. Some of the upper class East Indian families in the Khatri ward of Thane still speak Portuguese.
Thane has a predominantly Maharashtrian culture, although, like its neighbouring city Mumbai, it has a cosmopolitan culture as well. Because of the huge residential boom, the city has witnessed a large number of immigrants from the nearby city of Mumbai as well as from other pockets of state and country. The face of the city is nowadays becoming increasingly cosmopolitan. Beside Marathi, sizable populations of North Indians, South Indians, Sindhis, Gujaratis and Marwari and other people from different regions including Pakistan live in Thane, mainly because of its proximity to Mumbai. Thane is bordered by the Yeoor Hills on one side and is dotted with numerous beautiful lakes, which are a cause of cooler weather than that of Mumbai. Festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Gudhi Padwa, Holi, Durga Puja, Mahashivratri and Shivaji Jayanti are celebrated with great zest in the city. Thane offers high rewards amounting to 1 million rupees (US$ 25,000) for winners of Dahi Handi sport during the Gokulashtami festival.
Throughout recorded history the city has left its mark under various names. The earliest evidence of Thane appears in the works of the Greek geographer, Ptolemy, who, in his writings ( 135 – 150 AD) refers to a place called Chersonesus, which, according to researches, is the area around Thane creek. The city crops up again in the Middle Ages and slabs and copper plates dating back to the period have been discovered in Thane. One of them, dug up from the foundations of Thane Fort in 1787, dated 1078 AD, is apparently a land grant from Arikesara Devaraja, sovereign of the city of Tagara, wherein he address the inhabitants of a city called Sri Sthanaka. Friar Jordanus, a great traveler, who visited the Bombay city between AD 1321 and 1324, describes it as being under a Muslim governor. He leaves a detailed sketch of early converted Christians in Bombay and refers to the martyrdom of four Christian priests in the region, more than 200 years before the Portuguese ever set foot in India. The celebrated Ibn Batuta and Abul Feda, contemporaries of Friar Jordanus, also came here. They refer to Thane as Kukin Tana and speak of its fame as a port from which ships sailed to the gulf carrying a kind of cloth called 'Tanasi' which was produced in Thane. Duarte Barbosa, a noted traveler, described Thane by the name Tana Mayambu 25 years before the Portuguese conquest. He paints a vivid picture of the town as one of Moorish mosques and temples, with many pleasant gardens. The Portuguese came to Thane about 1530 and ruled for over 200 years till 1739. Thane was then known as Cacabe de Tana. Work on the Thane Fort began in 1730. The Marathas, who conquered Bassein and Thane in 1737 and 1739, held sway over the region till 1784, when the British captured the Fort and ruled Thane, then also called Tana. They made it the headquarters of the district administration with a district collector stationed in Thane. The Thane Municipal Council was formed in 1863 when the city's population reached above 9000.
Thane was the terminus for the first ever passenger train in India. On 16 April 1853, the first passenger train service was inaugurated between Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) and Thane. Covering a distance of 34 kilometres (21 mi), it was hauled by three locomotives – Sahib, Sindh and Sultan.
Thane is well connected with neighbouring suburbs through central railways suburban railway network. It is also a starting point for Thane-Panvel line. Thane is also one of the halts for many outstation trains moving in and out of Mumbai. It is one of the major railway station of Mumbai Suburban Railway.
Thane Municipal Transport (TMT), Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT), State Transport (ST) corporations provide public bus service to the city. Auto rickshaws on meter is available to travel within city along with taxis. The fares of taxis and auto rickshaws are same that of Mumbai.
The public transport on newly developed Ghodbunder road area is not satisfactory at the moment and needs lot of improvement .The newly constructed Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS) has however given good results. The series of flyover bridges are being constructed on the Ghodbunder road to overcome the traffic issues at Kapurbawadi, Patlipada, Waghbil and Manpada junctions of which the 3 flyovers (Patlipada, Waghbil and Manpada)has been opened.There are also plans for introducing L.R.T. and tramways for local transport.The first L.R.T. line will run from Anandnagar(Thane east) to Ovala village on Ghodbandar road. There are plans of extending the Ghatkopar-Mulund Metro line upto Thane. So there will be a metro corridor from Wadala to Kasarvadavali on Ghodbunder Road.
Thane contains both a few cinema multiplexes in the city, and two theaters, namely, Gadkari Rangayatan, and the newer one Dr. Kashinath Ghanekar auditorium located near Hiranandani Meadows. Both are owned and managed by Thane Municipal Corporation. The following is a list of multiplexes/ movie theaters in Thane.
- Inox Multiplex, Korum Mall
- Cinema Star Multiplex, High Street Mall
- CineMAX Multiplex, Eternity Mall
- CineMAX Multiplex, Wondermall
- Gold Digital, Prabhat Mall
- Vandana Talkies
- Malhar Talkies
- Anand Talkies (Thane East)
- Ganesh Talkies
Thane has a botanical garden which was inaugurated in 2011. The garden is a joint initiative of TMC and Forest Department. It is located at Kopri near Bara Bunglow area and is named after late Shiv Sena leader Dattaji Salvi. There are a few other gardens and open spaces for children's recreation purposes.
For the elite, The Blue Roof Club at Ovala, The Golden Swan Club at Yeoor and United 21 are three full fledged clubs with facilities such as swimming, gymnasium, sports and restaurant facilities. United 21 also has a discotheque, which is the first in Thane.
For Eating and Stay Facilities, Thane has 4-star Hotel like United-21 and Spices & Sauces Restaurant, Oriental Spice, Blue Flame, Discotheque.
Several Lakes are present here that has started acquiring lots of crowd in the evening time.
List of Schools 
- Alpha Academy
- Saraswati Education Society's High School and Junior College
- Smt.Sulochanadevi Singhania School
- Billabong High Intl School
- Hiranandani Foundation School
- Vasant Vihar School
- ST John The Baptist High School And Junior College
- Holy Cross Convent High School
- Lodha World School
- Lokpuram Public School
- New English School
- New Girls School
- S.V.P.T. Saraswati Vidyalaya High School and Junior College
- Little Flower High School
- Little Angel English Medium High School
- A K Joshi English Medium High School
- Bedekar Vidyala
- B.S.M's English Medium School
See also 
- "Masunda Talao, Thane". Native Planet. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Thane Gazetteer: Ppolation: Christians – Speech. Maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved on 2012-01-21.
- Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural and Political encyclopedia By Melvin Eugene Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg, page 135
- Aphale, Apoorv. "State-of-the-art botanical garden inaugurated". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Thaneweb.com – The city portal
- Thanecity.in – Thane community portal
- ThaneMahapailika.com - Thane Municipal Corporation (Local Body)