|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
City and District Headquarters(Mumbai Metropolitan Region)
Hiranandani Meadows in Thane
|• Mayor||Sanjay Bhaurao More|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Aseem Gupta|
|• Total||147 km2 (57 sq mi)|
|• Density||12,000/km2 (32,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Thane|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Thane|
Thane (IPA: [ˈʈʰaːɳeː]) is a city in Maharashtra, India, at the head of the Thane Creek. The name comes from corruption of its ancient name Shri Sthanak in Maharashtri Prakrit language, its earlier name based on a temple of Ganesha. Thane known as 'the city of lakes' and is the administrative headquarters of Thane district. On 16 April 1854, the G.I.P. Railway’s first train to run in India rolled out from "Boree Bunder" (now the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) to "Thane" (previously pronounced and written as "Thana"), 34 kilometers away. This marked the dawn of the railway age in Asia. Thane covers an area of 147 km2 and has a population of more than 1.8 million in its municipal limits, according to the 2011 census. Thane comes under Mumbai Metropolitan Region. The proximity to Mumbai has made it culturally a part of it.
Thane is to the northeast of Mumbai, partly on Salsette Island (it shares that island with the Mumbai City District, with Mumbai Suburban District and with Mira-Bhayandar Municipal Corporation), and partly on the mainland across Thane Creek. Spanning an area of about 147 km², the city is 7 meters above sea level. It is surrounded by hills, including the hill of Yeoor and Parsik Hill. It is divided politically into two parts by the Thane Creek, a stream that courses from the Ulhas River to the Arabian Sea. Two road bridges and one rail bridge connect the two parts of the city. It is one of the oldest cities of India, with its history dating back about 2,000 years.
Thane Municipal Corporation City's limits includes Kopri to the south, Wagle estate, Lokmanya Nagar Naupada, Pachpakhadi to the west, Kalwa, Mumbra and Diva to the east and Manpada, Bramand, Kolshet, Dhokali, Kasarwadavli, Owala, Gaimukh, Kapurbawdi to the north.
City of Lakes
Thane is known as the City of Lakes. It has around 35 lakes.
The most famous is the Masunda Lake, also known as Talao Pali. It offers boating and water scooter facilities. On the lakefront stands the Gadkari Rangayatan, a drama theatre which is a very popular hub for entertainment. The Kopineshwar Temple on the banks is the oldest temple in the entire district of Thane. It was built and renovated in about 1750 AD by Chimajji Appa.
Upvan Lake is at the foothills of the Yeoor hills and is a scenic spot. It is flanked by the Yeoor hills and is a common spot for recreation. Other lakes include:
In Thane, temperature varies from 22 °C to 36 °C. Winter temperatures can fall to 12 °C at night while summer temperatures can rise to over 40 °C at noon. The lowest day time temperatures are witnessed during the peak of summer monsoon in July and August when temperatures can drop to about 25 °C. Out of total rainfall, 80% rainfall is experienced during June to October. Average annual rainfall is 2000–2500 mm and humidity is 61-86%, making it a humid-perhumid zone. City may experience multiple days at stretch without direct sunshine due to continuous cloud cover during the peak summer monsoon months of July and August. The driest days are in winter while the wettest days are experienced in July.
|Climate data for Thane|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.6
|Average low °C (°F)||16.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||3.1
|Source: Government of Maharashtra|
The population of Thane according to the 2011 census is 1,886,941;. Average literacy rate of Thane city is 91.36 percent of which male and female literacy was 94.19 and 88.14 percent. The sex ratio of Thane city is 882 per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 900 per 1000 boys. Total children (0-6) in Thane city are 186,259 as per Census India report on 2011. There were 98,017 boys while 88,242 are girls. Children form 10.24% of total population of Thane City.
Thane was inhabited with people of the Agri, Koli, Marathi and Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu communities. Their villages exist today as "Chendani Koliwada", "Kopari Goan", and "Uthalsar". It also includes Majiwade, Balkum, Dhokali, Kolshet, Wadavli, and others. Most of the landlords and officers of Maratha Empire in Thane were from the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu community. The Karkhanis or the chief officer of Thane Fort was Kesha Ramji Gupte. In 1825, the British explored their newly annexed territories in Bassein. Villagers, like Kolis (fishermen), were converted into Catholics mostly from villages of Chendani, Koliwada, and Majiwada. The Agri and Koli community people had their own culture. Some of the upper-class East Indian families in the Khatri ward of Thane still speak Portuguese.
The cultural fabric of Thane is predominantly Maharashtrian, although, like its neighbouring city Mumbai, it has a cosmopolitan culture as well. Because of the huge residential boom, the city has witnessed many immigrants from Mumbai as well as from other pockets of state and country. Beside Marathi, sizable populations of North Indians, South Indians, Sindhis, Gujaratis and Marwari and other people live in Thane, mainly because of its proximity to Mumbai.
Festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Gudhi Padwa, Holi, Durga Puja, Mahashivratri and Shivaji Jayanti are celebrated with great zest. Thane offers high rewards amounting to 1 million rupees (US$25,000) for winners of Dahi Handi sport during the Gokulashtami festival. Thane also hosts the Upvan Arts Festival at the scenic 15 acre Upvan Lake area. This TMC and MTDC supported festival hosts works of over 200 artists.
Thane hosts cottage industry/Swadeshi fairs, food and literary fests throughout the year.
Throughout recorded history the city has left its mark. The earliest evidence of Thane appears in the works of the Greek geographer Ptolemy, who, in his writings (135–150 AD) refers to a place called Chersonesus that, according to researchers, is the area around Thane creek. It is believed that this place was referred to as 'Sri Sthanaka', named after a temple of Lord Ganapati. Later it was baptized as 'Cacabe de Tana' by the Portuguese and then 'Thana' by the British.
The city crops up again in the Middle Ages and slabs and copper plates dating back to the period have been discovered in Thane. One of them, dug up from the foundations of Thane Fort in 1787, dated 1078 AD, is apparently a land grant from Arikesara Devaraja, sovereign of the city of Tagara, wherein he address the inhabitants of a city called Sri Sthanaka.
Friar Jordanus, a great traveler, visited Thane between AD 1321 and 1324, describes it as being under a Muslim governor. He left a detailed sketch of Nestorian Christians in Thane and refers to the martyrdom of four Christian (Franciscan) friars in the region, nearly 200 years before the Portuguese set foot in India. The celebrated Ibn Battuta and Abul Feda, contemporaries of Friar Jordanus, also came here. They refer to Thane as Kukin Tana and speak of its fame as a port from which ships sailed to the gulf carrying a kind of cloth called 'Tanasi' which was produced in Thane. Duarte Barbosa, a noted traveler, described Thane by the name Tana Mayambu 25 years before the Portuguese conquest. He paints a vivid picture of the town as one of Moorish mosques and temples, with many pleasant gardens.
The Portuguese came to Thane about 1530 and ruled for over 200 years till 1739. Work on the Thane Fort began in 1730. The Marathas, who conquered Bassein and Thane in 1737 and 1739, held sway over the region till 1784, when the British captured the Fort and ruled Thane. They made it the headquarters of the district administration with a district collector stationed in Thane. The Thane Municipal Council was formed in 1863 when the city's population reached above 9000.
Thane was the terminus for the first ever passenger train in India. On 16 April 1853, the passenger train service was inaugurated between Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) and Thane. Covering a distance of 34 km (21 mi), it was hauled by three locomotives: Sahib, Sindh and Sultan.
Thane is well connected with neighbouring suburbs through Central and Trans-Harbour Line Suburban railway network. Thane is a railway junction for the Thane-Vashi Harbour Line and Central Line. Also, it is a major halting point for many outstation trains moving in and out of Mumbai. It one of the major railway stations of Mumbai Suburban Railway. It has become the busiest suburban station in Mumbai which handles 6.54 lakh passengers daily. For the smooth flow of such a crowd, escalators have been launched recently in the 3rd and 4th platform. Another escalator is also being constructed on 5th and 6th platform.
Thane Municipal Transport (TMT), Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT), Mira Bhayander Municipal Transport (MBMT), State Transport (ST) corporations provide public bus service to the city. Auto rickshaws on meter is available to travel within city along with taxis. The fares of taxis and auto rickshaws are same that of Mumbai.
Thane has a botanical garden which was inaugurated in 2011. The garden is a joint initiative of TMC and Forest Department. It is located at Kopri near Bara Bunglow area and is named after late Shiv Sena leader Dattaji Salvi.
Tertiary care hospitals
- Vedant Super Speciality Hospitals
- Jupiter Hospital
- Bethany Hospital
- Kaushalya Medical foundation Hospital
List of Schools
- Alpha Academy
- Little Flower High School
- Smt. Sulochanadevi Singhania School
- St Xaviers English high school
- "Masunda Talao, Thane". Native Planet. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Census of India: Sub-District Details. Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- Thane City Population Census 2011 | Maharashtra. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- Thane Gazetteer: Ppolation: Christians – Speech. Maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved on 2012-01-21.
- Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- Notes on the History and Antiquities of Chaul and Bassein - J. Gerson Da Cunha - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural and Political encyclopedia By Melvin Eugene Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg, page 135
- Thane is busiest railway station in Mumbai - Times Of India. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (2013-05-19). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- Soon, take a metro from south Mumbai to Thane. Hindustan Times (2013-04-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- Aphale, Apoorv. "State-of-the-art botanical garden inaugurated". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 7 December 2012.