Mother

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"Motherly" redirects here. For the 2009 Belgian film, see Motherly (film).
Sweet Dreams, by Belgian artist Firmin Baes
There Comes Papa, by Indian artist Raja Ravi Varma

A mother (or mum/mom/mam) is a woman who has raised a child, given birth to a child, and/or supplied the egg which in union with a sperm grew into a child. The definition can also be extended to non-human animals and may then also include being the animal that donated a body cell which has resulted in a clone.[1][2][3][4] Because of the complexity and differences of a mother's social, cultural, and religious definitions and roles, it is challenging to specify a universally acceptable definition for the term.

The male parallel is father.

Etymology

Mother with her child

The modern English word is from Middle English moder, from Old English mōdor, from Proto-Germanic *mōdēr (cf. East Frisian muur, Dutch moeder, German Mutter), from Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr (cf. Irish máthair, Tocharian A mācar, B mācer, Lithuanian mótė). Other cognates include Latin māter, Greek μήτηρ, Common Slavic *mati (thence Russian мать (mat’)), Persian مادر (madar), and Sanskrit मातृ (mātṛ).

Biological mother

In the case of a mammal such as a human, a pregnant woman gestates a fertilized ovum (the "egg"). A fetus develops from the viable fertilized ovum, resulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus from conception until the fetus (assuming it is carried to term) is sufficiently developed to be born. The woman experiences labor and gives birth. Usually, once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process. The mother's breast milk is the source of anti-bodies for the infant's immune system and commonly the sole source of nutrition for the first year or more of the child's life.[5][6][7]

Non-biological mother

Mother can often apply to a woman other than the biological parent, especially if she fulfills the main social role in raising the child. This is commonly either an adoptive mother or a stepmother (the biologically unrelated wife of a child's father). The term "othermother" or "other mother" is also used in some contexts for women who provide care for a child not biologically their own in addition to the child's primary mother.

Adoption, in various forms, has been practiced throughout history.[8] Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations. In recent decades, international adoptions have become more and more common.

Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western countries).[9] In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the US accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide.[10]

Surrogate mother

Main article: Surrogacy

A surrogate mother is, commonly, a woman who bears an embryo, that is from another woman's fertilized ovum, to term for a couple biologically unable to have children. Thus, she carries and gives birth to a child that is she not the biological mother of. Note that this is different from a woman who becomes pregnant via in vitro fertilization.

Currently, with advances in reproductive technologies, the function of biological motherhood can be split between the genetic mother (who provides the ovum) and the gestational (commonly known as a surrogate) mother (who carries the pregnancy).

Motherhood in same-sex relationships

The possibility for lesbian and bisexual women in same-sex relationships (or without a partner) to become mothers has increased over the past few decades thanks to new technology. Modern lesbian parenting (a term that somewhat erases the bisexual case) originated with women who were in heterosexual relationships who later identified as lesbian or bisexual, as changing attitudes provided more acceptance for non-heterosexual relationships. Another way for such women to become mothers is through adopting and/or foster parenting. There is also the option of self-insemination and clinically assisted donor insemination, forms of artificial insemination. As fertility technology has advanced, more women not in a heterosexual relationship have become mothers through in vitro fertilization.[11][12]

Social role

Sikkimese mother with child
Monumento a la Madre in Mexico City. The inscription translates as "To her who loves us before she meets us".

Historically, the role of women was confined to some extent to being a mother and wife, with women being expected to dedicate most of their energy to these roles, and to spend most of their time taking care of the home. In many cultures, women received significant help in performing these tasks from older female relatives, such as mothers in law or their own mothers.[13]

Mother and child in Cambodia

Mothers have historically fulfilled the primary role in raising children, but since the late 20th century, the role of the father in child care has been given greater prominence and social acceptance in some Western countries.[14][15] The 20th century also saw more and more women entering paid work.

The social role and experience of motherhood varies greatly depending upon location. Mothers are more likely than fathers to encourage assimilative and communion-enhancing patterns in their children.[16] Mothers are more likely than fathers to acknowledge their children's contributions in conversation.[17][18][19][20] The way mothers speak to their children ("motherese") is better suited to support very young children in their efforts to understand speech (in context of the reference English) than fathers.[17]

Since the 1970s, in vitro fertilization has made pregnancy possible at ages well beyond "natural" limits, generating ethical controversy and forcing significant changes in the social meaning of motherhood.[21][22] This is, however a position highly biased by Western world locality: outside the Western world, in-vitro fertilization has far less prominence, importance or currency compared to primary, basic healthcare, women's basic health, reducing infant mortality and the prevention of life-threatening diseases such as polio, typhus and malaria.

Traditionally, and still in most parts of the world today, a mother was expected to be a married woman, with birth outside of marriage carrying a strong social stigma. Historically, this stigma not only applied to the mother, but also to her child. This continues to be the case in many parts of the developing world today, but in many Western countries the situation has changed radically, with single motherhood being much more socially acceptable now. For more details on these subjects, see legitimacy (law) and single parent.

The total fertility rate (TFR), that is, the number of children born per woman, differs greatly from country to country. The TFR in 2013 was estimated to be highest in Niger (7.03 children born per woman) and lowest in Singapore (0.79 children/woman).[23]

In the United States, the TFR was estimated for 2013 at 2.06 births per woman.[23] In 2011, the average age at first birth was 25.6 and 40.7% of births were to unmarried women.[24]

Health and safety issues

Main article: Maternal mortality
Sub-Saharan African countries carry the highest risks in terms of maternal and infant mortality and health.

A maternal death is defined by WHO as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes".[25]

About 56% of maternal deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and another 29% in South Asia.[26]

In 2006, the organization Save the Children has ranked the countries of the world, and found that Scandinavian countries are the safest places to give birth, whereas countries in sub-Saharan Africa are the least safe to give birth.[27] This study argues a mother in the bottom ten ranked countries is over 750 times more likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth, compared to a mother in the top ten ranked countries, and a mother in the bottom ten ranked countries is 28 times more likely to see her child die before reaching their first birthday.

The most recent data suggests that Italy, Sweden and Luxembourg are the safest countries in terms of maternal death and Afghanistan, Central African Republic and Malawi are the most dangerous.[28][29]

Childbirth is an inherently dangerous and risky procedure, subject to many complications. The "natural" mortality rate of childbirth—where nothing is done to avert maternal death—has been estimated as being 1500 deaths per 100,000 births.[30] Modern medicine has greatly alleviated the risk of childbirth. In modern Western countries the current maternal mortality rate is around 10 deaths per 100,000 births.[31]

Religious

The Hindu mother goddess Parvati feeding her son, the elephant-headed wisdom god Ganesha

Nearly all world religions define tasks or roles for mothers through either religious law or through the glorification of mothers who served in substantial religious events. There are many examples of religious law relating to mothers and women.

Major world religions which have specific religious law or scriptural canon regarding mothers include: Christianity,[32] Judaism,[33] and Islam.[34] Some examples of honoring motherhood include the Madonna or Blessed Virgin Mother Mary for Catholics, and the multiple positive references to active womanhood as a mother in the book of Proverbs.

Hindu's Mother Goddess and Demeter of ancient Greek pre-Christian belief are also mothers.

Mother-offspring conflict

Main article: Matricide

In early human history there have been many instances of mother-offspring conflicts. For example:

In modern history here have also been cases of mother-offspring conflicts. Mothers are more likely to commit filicide (murder of their offspring) than the father when the child is 8 years old or younger.[35] Examples of offspring killing their :

  • Kip Kinkel (1982- ), an Oregon boy who was convicted of killing both parents as well as killing two students at his school on May 20, 1998.
  • Dr. I. Kathleen Hagen, a prominent urologist, killed her mother and her father in August 2000 and was acquitted on the grounds of insanity.
  • Yukio Yamaji, a 16 year old living in Japan, killed his mother in 2000. After his release, he raped and murdered a woman and her sister in 2005. He was executed by hanging in 2009.
  • Dipendra of Nepal (1971–2001) reportedly massacred much of his family at a royal dinner on June 1, 2001, including his mother Queen Aiswarya, father, brother, and sister.
  • Erika di Nardo killed her mother and brother in 2001. See Novi Ligure Murder
  • Sarah Marie Johnson (1987- ), an Idaho girl who was convicted of killing both parents on the morning of 2 September 2003.

Mothers in art

Charity, by French painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau

Throughout history mothers with their children have often been the subject of artistic works, such as paintings, sculptures or writings.

Fourth century grave reliefs on the island of Rhodos depicted mothers with children.[36]

Paintings of mothers with their children have a long tradition in France. In the 18th century, these works embodied the Enlightenment's preoccupation with strong family bonds and the relation between mothers and children.[37]

At the end of the nineteenth century, Mary Cassatt was a painter well known for her portraits of mothers.

Many contemporary movies portray mothers.

Synonyms and translations

Amerindian woman with child in Peru
Main article: Mama and papa

The proverbial "first word" of an infant often sounds like "ma" or "mama". This strong association of that sound with "mother" has persisted in nearly every language on earth, countering the natural localization of language.

Familiar or colloquial terms for mother in English are:

In many other languages, similar pronunciations apply:

Famous motherhood figures

See also

References

  1. ^ "definition of mother from Oxford Dictionaries Online". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 
  2. ^ "mother n. & v.". The Oxford American Dictionary of Current English. Oxford University Press. 
  3. ^ "Define Mother at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. 
  4. ^ "Definition from". Allwords.com. 2007-04-04. Retrieved 2011-10-27. 
  5. ^ "Dhushara.com". Dhushara.com. Retrieved 2011-10-27. 
  6. ^ Growth and Development
  7. ^ Chapter 46 Animal Reproduction
  8. ^ Barbara Melosh, the American Way of Adoption page 10
  9. ^ Jardine, Cassandra (31 Oct 2007). "Why adoption is so easy in America". Telegraph. 
  10. ^ http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/policy/child-adoption.pdf
  11. ^ "Lesbian parenting: issues, strengths and challenges". Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  12. ^ Mezey, Nancy J (2008). New Choices, New Families: How Lesbians Decide about Motherhood. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9000-0. 
  13. ^ http://biology.unm.edu/fasmith/Web_Page_PDFs/Smith_Brown_1996.pdf
  14. ^ "In most Western countries the family model of a sole male breadwinner is in full retreat." Accessed 19 September 2007.
  15. ^ Why Are Fathers Important? Interview with Dr. Ross Parke, professor of psychology at the University of California at Riverside, author of Fatherhood (1966) and co-author of Throwaway Dads (1999). Accessed 19 September 2007.
  16. ^ Ann M. Berghout Austin1 and T.J. Braeger2 (1990-10-01). "Gendered differences in parents' encouragement of sibling interaction: implications for the construction of a personal premise system". Fla.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2011-10-27. 
  17. ^ a b "Fathers' speech to their children: perfect pitch or tin ear?". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2011-10-27. 
  18. ^ Hladik, E., & Edwards, H. (1984). A comparison of mother-father speech in the naturalistic home environment. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 13, 321–332.
  19. ^ Leaper, C., Anderson, K., & Sanders, P. (1998). Moderators of gender effects on parents' talk to their children: A meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 34, 3–27.
  20. ^ Mannle, S., & Tomasello, M. (1987). Fathers, siblings, and the bridge hypothesis. In K.E. Nelson & A. vanKleeck (Eds.), Children's language, Vol. 6, (pp. 23–42). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  21. ^ Motherhood: Is It Ever Too Late?, July 15, 2009
  22. ^ Getting Pregnant After 50: Risks, Rewards July 17, 2009
  23. ^ a b https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2127rank.html
  24. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/births.htm
  25. ^ http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/indmaternalmortality/en/
  26. ^ http://data.worldbank.org/news/over-99-percent-of-maternal-deaths-occur-in-developing-countries
  27. ^ Save the Children, State of the World's Mothers Report 2006.
  28. ^ http://www.newser.com/story/86023/safest-place-to-give-birth-italy.html
  29. ^ Rogers, Simon (2010-04-13). "Maternal mortality: how many women die in childbirth in your country?". The Guardian. 
  30. ^ Van Lerberghe W, De Brouwere V. Of blind alleys and things that have worked: history’s lessons on reducing maternal mortality. In: De Brouwere V, Van Lerberghe W, eds. Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence. Antwerp, ITG Press, 2001 (Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy, 17:7–33). "Where nothing effective is done to avert maternal death, “natural” mortality is probably of the order of magnitude of 1,500/100,000."
  31. ^ ibid, p10
  32. ^ "What The Bible Says About Mother". Mothers Day World. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  33. ^ Katz, Lisa. "Religious Obligations of Jewish women". About.com. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  34. ^ 'Ali Al-Hashimi, Muhammad. The Ideal Muslimah: The True Islâmic Personality of the Muslim Woman as Defined in the Qur'ân and Sunnah. Wisdom Enrichment Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2008-11-24. [dead link]
  35. ^ Greenfeld, Lawrence A., Snell, Tracy L. (1999-02-12, updated 2000-03-10). "Women Offenders". NCJ 175688. US Department of Justice
  36. ^ http://books.google.ro/books?id=3fnsWhZkq74C&pg=PA234&hl=ro&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false
  37. ^ http://books.google.ro/books?id=DQ_8S3iJPa4C&pg=PA87&hl=ro&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=3#v=onepage&q&f=false
  38. ^ "Prince Charles pays tribute to 'Mummy'". ITN website. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 

Further reading

External links

  • Media related to Mothers at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of mother at Wiktionary