||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (January 2013)|
|• Revised Romanization||Mokpo-si|
|Administrative divisions||22 dong|
|• Total||50.08 km2 (19.34 sq mi)|
|• Density||4,940.93/km2 (12,796.9/sq mi)|
Mokpo (Mokpo-si) is a city in South Jeolla Province, South Korea, located at the southwestern tip of the Korean Peninsula. Mokpo has frequent train service to Seoul and is the terminus for a number of ferry routes serving islands in the adjacent Yellow Sea and Dadohae National Maritime Park. The port of Mokpo is close to Yudal mountain.
During the Japanese Occupation (1910–1945), Mokpo served as a crucial port for both commercial ventures and transportation, due to its convenient location along the sea routes between the Japanese archipelago and the Chinese mainland. The large number of islands surrounding Mokpo have also served as a protective barrier, making the city less vulnerable to high tides and tsunamis. In the occupation era, the city had large residential areas, now the city's historic districts, which were built to accommodate the Japanese colonists. The end of World War II and Korea's independence in 1945 caused the city to slowly lose its position as a host to major government organizations and wartime industries. As a result, it was reduced to a mid-sized city of the Honam region.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Administration
- 4 Education
- 5 Economy
- 6 Geography
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Culture
- 9 Sister cities
- 10 Symbols of Mokpo
- 11 Images
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Notes
- 15 External links
The term Mokpo (木浦 in Hanja) literally translates as "the harbour with a large portion of forests". This terminology initially appeared in the Goryeosa (History of Goryeo). Therefore, some historians argue that the city's name referred to trees within the region of the port of Mokpo. Another theory suggests that the "mok" in the city's name refers to "the throat," implying that Mokpo is as important to the Yellow Sea as the throat is to a human being. This theory alludes to the region's large production of cotton, which was allotted by Japanese colonists for delivery to Tokyo.
The Mahan and Three Kingdoms Eras
Mokpo belonged to the Mahan confederacy during the early era of the "Three Han" confederacies (Samhan), and was later called Mul'ahye-gun while under the control of the Baekje kingdom. After the fall of Baekje, the region was amalgamated by Silla, and its name was changed to Myeonju. In 946, its name was once again changed to Mullyang-gun, and it became a portion of Muan prefecture, Naju-mok, Haeyang province. At the time, the prefecture of Muan referred to a much larger area, which incorporated not only Mokpo but also the area currently called Muan and several islands of Sinan county. According to a KBS documentary, coastal and offshore areas of Mokpo witnessed superior productivity of crops, owing partially to their proximity to China. Important shipping routes were also established along the Yeongsan River to Naju.
Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties
Strictly speaking, the terminology of Mokpo has its origins in the Goryeo period. That dynasty's founder, Wang Geon, was at the time serving as a general for Later Goguryeo (Taebong) ruled by Gung Ye. Taebong covered the central area of the Korean peninsula to include the current Gaeseong, which was then called Song'ak.
As a naval power, Wang Geon was ordered to attack Gyeon Hwon's Later Baekje, which similar to the later Goguryeo had also emerged with the disintegration of Unified Silla. The operation enjoyed fairly successful results. Wang Geon met his second queen, Janghwa, at this time. They had a son together, who eventually became Hyejong of Goryeo.
In 1439, 21 years after King Sejong of the Joseon Dynasty came to power, the Mokpo man-ho garrison (jin) was established, which was empowered to manage twelve offshore islands. During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598), Admiral Yi Sun-sin established a garrison of naval forces in Mokpo as well as on the island of Goha in order to secure a base for provisions and ship repairs, such as the "turtle ships" geobukseon and panokseon.
On October 1, 1897, Mokpo became an open port, fifteen years after the opening of the port of Incheon. For Japan, Mokpo held a geographical advantage in that it was located at the midpoint between Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chinese mainland. Japan also valued Mokpo for its close proximity to the abundant crops of the Jeolla provinces. After its opening, housing for Japanese settlers was rapidly developed in order to establish self-government. The Japanese settled predominantly in the current Yudal-dong neighborhood of the city, close to the main port. The Japanese consulate remained there until the Japanese protectorship over Korea.
The Japanese settlers gradually started to buy up farmland in the vicinity of Mokpo, something that had previously been illegal for them to do. These agricultural fields were desirable because they were inexpensive and not heavily taxed. The resulting harvests from these fields made rice cheaper in Japan, while the price of rice in Jeolla province doubled as a result.
After 1905, the influx of Japanese settlers increased to such an extent that their places of settlement expanded into Geumhwa-dong, where many cherry trees were planted along the street. Japanese called this area Sakuramachi, which means "the downtown of cherry blossom trees."
With Korea's full annexation by Japan in 1910, the city was given a new name, Mokpo-bu, with the construction of the colonial institution called the Oriental Development Company. Mokpo received its current name, Mokpo City (Mokpo-si), in 1949 after Korea's independence from Japan.
Under Japanese rule
- See also: Korea under Japanese rule
Mokpo's status as an open port made it a viable option to use Wando as a link to the region's many offshore islands. In 1914, the completion of the Honam railway line connected the city to Daejeon. On April 1, 1914, the county of Mokpo-bu was divided into several administrative sections. Only the county's urban downtown area, Bunae-myeon, became what is now Mokpo City. Following Order No. 11 of the General Japanese Government of Korea, Muan county incorporated Jido, Palguem, and Docho, which were the other sections formerly comprising Mokpo-bu. During the Japanese colonial period, Mokpo's harbor was used to deprive the local region of its crops in order to supply the Japanese home islands.
In 1932, the city incorporated parts of Muan, becoming the 6th largest city in the Korean peninsula with a population of 60,000. Indigenous products were cloth, rice and salt, with abundant coastal food. The harbor played an important role, supplying goods to Japan that had been exported from Korea, including large quantities of cotton. In 1918, the colonists established ginning facilities for manufacturing large amounts of goods in Mokpo and Iri (current Iksan in North Jeolla province).
The cotton industries became concentrated in Busan for Gyeongsang area and in Mokpo for Jeolla. (syncopation) Removing the opportunities for competition had built up the monopoly of certain economic powers whose center became the only ruler only to sacrifice all the industries in Joseon. Dong A Ilbo 1935.06.05 
In 1949, Mokpo Bu attained the title of Mokpo-si (si meaning "city"), after the SOC government altered the administrative region. In 1973 and 1987, large areas were added to Mokpo city, including one of the most famous tourist spots, Samhakdo (which means "three cranes laid above the sea"). Mokpo created the off-shore island of Samhakdo through a process of land reclamation that lasted until 1999. Other projects in Mokpo included a coastal filling process near the North Harbor and the building of a new port in Chungmu-dong.
Samhakdo was reclaimed by connecting a series of islands towards Mokpo, and then continuing landfill operations from 1968 to 1973. The island is divided into three major sections. In 2000, the city initiated a plan to restore a naturalized island for tourism, which brought tremendous criticism from environmental groups. Over six years, the city constructed five bridges to link the three parts of the island. On March 1, 2007, Samhakdo was opened to the public.
In 1980, the Gwangju Democratization Movement swept the area. In Mokpo, student movements were initiated by several people marching along the boulevard from Mokpo Station to the second plaza, carrying cards displaying the word "Freedom." Mokpo Station served as a hub for many groups supporting the people of Gwangju.
On October 1, 1997, Mokpo celebrated its centennial as a port city, and announced the second opening of the port. Mokpo has become famous as the hometown of former President Kim Dae-jung, who also received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001.
Mayor of Mokpo
Mokpo began its local government in 1994, and in July 1995 inaugurated its first Mayor, Gwon I Dam, who was the president of the Munhwa broadcasting corporation. The city's lack of water had been a nuisance in the past, so Mr. Gwon gave his full effort to improve the city's water supplies. In 2000, the mayor officially granted the aid of rice for North Korea However, Gwon came into sharp conflict with the leaders of the Democratic Party over fair election practices. Gwon eventually seceded from the party and filed a lawsuit against them, which the courts rejected.
Jeon Tae Hong, the next mayor, made some important contributions to Mokpo's government, but he died suddenly in 2005. Following his death, Jeong Jong Deuk was elected mayor, and promised protection of the tourism industry. Responding to concerns about the depressed condition of the old downtown, Mr. Jeong established the Office of Original City Replanning, and adopted the slogan city of light. Under his administration, the city named market streets according to the character of shops and the surrounding population, to take into account the 112 year-old commercial core. For example, the city designated the fishery market as the street of Hong-eo ("stake").
Jeong was re-elected in 2006. During his second term, the city received civil and tourism awards. However, a Mokpo civil newspaper asserted that the city council must find concrete and persuasive ways to draw people into the city and change the attitudes toward its imbalanced economy.
In 2009, non-governmental organizations based in Mokpo jointly sued the government to publicly disclose information about budgetary spending. Previously, the release of budget information was controlled by a committee chosen by the mayor. The courts sided with the organizations, saying that the budget should be reported and monitored via civil participation.
Disputes upon merge
In 2004, civil groups began to promote the campaign of merging the three adjacent areas; Sinan, Muan and Mokpo. On September 25, 2009, the city council of Mokpo officially submitted a plan for the merge to the central government. Due to civilian objection, the plan was voted down.
In 2007, Mokpo increased from 80,000 to 90,000 households, with an average of 2.7 people per household. The population density was the 10th highest in South Korea, and the second-fastest growing municipality after Gyeonggi province. In 2010, Mokpo's Bank of Korea reported that the population of western South Jeolla province was declining due to extended differentiation of income, weak industrial foundation, underdeveloped educational facilities, and poor welfare backup.
Government bureaus in Mokpo
Mokpo is home to several government branches and bureau offices. The regional offices of Sinan county set up many of its offices in Mokpo, including its educational office near the international shipping terminal. Here are some of the bureaus located in Mokpo:
Offices of Sinan county in Mokpo
County office of Sinan moved to Aphae island in April, 2011.
Mokpo has many different kinds of schools, including thirty elementary schools, fifteen secondary schools, three post-graduate schools and universities, a junior college, and a school for the physically challenged.
At first, education in Mokpo focused on instructing mostly Japanese civilians, and there were no distinctive Korean schools. The Bukgyo elementary school was one of the first schools established to meet the demands of local Japanese students. Bukgyo was established as an educational institute for aristocracy during the Joseon Dynasty, officially starting its class following Order No. 145 of the Gojong of the Korean Empire, at the same year of opening port in 1897.
Jeonnam Jeil high school was opened in 1920 as a commercial high school and the first secondary-level school. Its name was later changed to Jeil high school. Former president Kim Dae Jung graduated from Jeil.
In 1941, a wealthy local man named Moon Jae Cheol established the Moontae Foundation, which has their own middle and high schools in Mokpo. Since 2000, some newer middle and high schools have been established due to larger residential complexes in the area, especially within Hadang.
Mokpo National University (MNU) became a nationally-supported school in 1976, after 30 years of existence. The school has become regionally famous for its shipbuilding research and other culturally-related fields of study. A 2007 comparison of national universities ranked MNU highly, on the same level with Seoul National University and Jeonnam National University. Mokpo National Maritime University is a government-funded school that specializes in training students for maritime-related studies. Mokpo Catholic University was established in 1967 as Sungshin Nursing College, and later expanded its vocational training to include other fields.
Standardization of High school
|This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. (February 2013)|
Briefly, high-school system in South Korea is divided into several types while students compete to get the ticket for the well-known one in local areas. Under this circumstance, students are to bid for each school they want by their credits during middle school days, encouraging competition between students from a young age. Therefore, there have been some region which transformed this kind of education standard into free-way of entrance system: local authorities arrange each student at random, followed by students' application.
Formerly, the argument of standardization called for critically heated public polls, nearly reaching to the failure of the policy. However, inhabitant's poll in 2003 aggressively took majority of approval of 71.3% in 2003. Currently, the local issue of education is mainly problematic given the attention of parents that proceeding for prestigious school promotes serious competition among students. This systemical error hardened preference of specific school each year, instigating stronger expenses on private education. 
The port which was opened comparatively earlier than other port cities went through massive growth, whereas the post-independent development have deeply concentrated on Yeongnam area where Japan and Russia are viable within coast routes. The enhancement of Chinese economy shares huge possibility to raise the city's potential as the trade center via Yellow Sea,while the city was taken as for the major candidate of hub harbor, along with Incheon, Pyeongtaek/Dangjin and Gunsan.
In the meantime, the accessibility to central region was quite hard before Seonhaean expressway was constructed. It rapidly enhanced the accessibility toward Seoul and Gyeonggi province, where half the population live.
Inside the city, the old downtown has suffered from inevitable depression as the population largely moved to the new town called Hadang, losing its value as the heart of consumption for citizens since early 1900.
Farming and Fishing
Mokpo is made up of sparsely populated farmland, with 1,326 households under 0.5 ha. The area produces high quantities of rice, barley, and beans, with greens and fruits such as tomatoes, cucumbers, and oriental melons increasing in popularity since 2001.
Fishing ships from the harbor often travel to Heuksando to fish skate and hairtail. Mokpo's yield of marine products reached 26,862 tons in 2006, chiefly consisting of fish, with harvesting of crustaceans, mollusks, and seaweeds also contributing. Mokpo is known for its harvest of small octopus, which has declined in recent years. The number of fishermen recently dropped to fewer than 3,000, but has been rising since 2007.
The less predominant stream of industries in Mokpo caused the city to shape as consuming role. During Joseon Dynasty, the port worked as major harbour toward Hanyang via Yeongsan River of which role served as for caoyun system.
In modern scope, before Hadang area was built, every single function of the city became concentrated on the original downtown from cultural facilities to commerce. The large residential area was built in Yeonsan dong while the construction of Hadang was finalized in 1999 to bring about up-to-date fashioned streets with huge spill of population. As the faculty of original downtown has mostly disappeared for many of merchant houses moved to Hadang or shut down, city congress formulated the order for supporting the old downtown. The outward flow of people has been so enormous that the gap between former and letter has not been decreased.
For more than a century, the commercial power of the city has concentrated on Mokpo station and several markets nearby. The sole department store was closed within 1997 Asian financial crisis with several movie theaters shut, too. The dominance of economic power has been notably imbalanced by opening of Lotte Mart (2001) and E-Mart (2002). For large-scale market in Mokpo, Home plus is the solitary merchandising company resided in old downtown near Munhwa broadcasting corporation in Yongdang area.
Exceptionally, the fishery market of Dongmyeong and North Harbor Hoe center have vitalized for tourists and local people looking for octopus or indigenous products. The economic bureau of the city has issued the voucher for promoting consumption within the market since early 2009, reaching all disposal of the issue amounted as ₩300 million Korean won.
Vitality of regional economy refers to Daebul industrial complex and Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries located in near Yeongam. The imports of merchandise can give supports for Mokpo as those of products must pass through harbor. Daebul complex did not hold any company at the first stance, overthrowing vacancies toward massive parcel-out since 2000.
Initial owner of heavy industries had been Halla group, of which possession was taken over by Hyudai heavy industries to change its name adding regional term "Samho" meaning three lakes. The announcement of bankruptcy largely called for deep concerns over large-scale lay-off and loss of regional profits for shop owners. The serious worries was slided by the M&A to heighten stability of business. Meanwhile, profits of complex amounted to more than 460 million, accelerated about 25% from that of 2006.
South Jeolla province succeeded to attract series of investors for renewable energies like solar panels. In industrial complex, Innovation silicon ltd, overtook the projects for building silicon producing complex of 10bn won. The city required more investment for preparing for holding industrial factories in Daeyang dong area.
Business origin to Mokpo are mainly Bohae brewing company, Haengnam chinaware, Chosun refractories, etc. Bohae brewing company represents the brand of soju from Honam area, of which best merchandise is maple soju (잎새주), the first brewing soju from maples. In 2001, the products titled the prize of 5 million bottle exports from national government. Joint developed soju was also launched in Japan, with Asahi Breweries. Its wine made of Rubus coreanus has attained the confirmation for United States for the first time as a Korean brewing company in 2008 with a nickname of rugby ball wine.
Another major company is Haengnam chinaware, established May 1942. Its headquarter is located at this city with Seoul branch for design and public relations and Yeoju for production. The enterprise has the first record for developing coffee cup sets in 1953. In 1963, Hong Kong firstly accepted its export within its territory while current marketing is paying attention for Chinese markets for exporting profits to reach more than 2 million dollars in 2008. In 2011, its president signed MOU with Ministry of Environment of South Korea for designing less pollutant emitting process. The project tries to enhance public awareness on environmental issues for rare natural species.
Mokpo seats at the southern part of Muan peninsula, which actually lies within the tip with Sinan county consisting of 1004 islands. Its neighbor, Muan county takes northeastern part and Yeongam lies in front of the city by Yeongsan river. The geographical feature is Yudal mountain (228m) at the center of old downtown. Yudal mountain as a pride of the city holds its unique nickname as Gaegol (in hangul:개골) meaning weird-shaped rocks and peaks. The hilly side of the mountain caused upward roads around the downtown. Nojeokbong is historic site where General Yi soon shin made use of its shape making it like accumulated rice for soldiers during Japanese invasion. Throughout each direction of the city are there mountains like Mt. Ibam (121m) at the east, Yangeul (156m) and Daebak (156m) at the north. The mouth of Yeongsan river flows following the southern side of the city with 13 islands. The existence of natural seawall encouraged the promising place for accommodating several kinds of ship.
Most of land measure of Mokpo, however, have largely accomplished by land reclamation, including Samhakdo, North harbor (in Hangul : 북항) and new city of Hadang which roots the updated fashion of the downtown. According to the research by Mokpo national university, tributaries of Yeongsan river crossed the central area of old downtown. For instance, Mokone dong area was originally called as Namgyo (southern side of bridge) and Bukgyo (Northern side of bridge)-dong. Both names include gyo (in Hangul:교, in Hanja:橋) meaning the bridge, which indicates the bridge links the separated village. Tideland reclamation project removed large amounts of mud flat including Daebandong, Baekryundong and coastal shore around Gatbawi. Additionally, municipal range incorporates 7 desert islands.
The wall at the end of the Yeongsan river blocked flooding damage during harsh typhoon, whereas the side-effects have headed forward another portion of the city, chiefly the sea level along the coast have continued to rise. Meanwhile, the water quality of river have worsened to call for the ministry in charge to take environmental appreciation for reviewing impacts by man-made structure. In 2010, the reports became the pinpointed issue for environmental civil group in that widened seawall would be constructed by dirty water getting pumped out of the riverbeds and carrying the water into the beds of the harbor.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Mokpo's weather station was built with five other sites but firstly observed weather conditions on 25 March 1904 in the whole Korean peninsula[clarification needed]. Mokpo's climate features a short spring and autumn. It is cold and dry in the winter and warm and humid with seasonal winds in the summer. There is a lot of rain in the summer, with an average of 1,163 millimetres (45.8 in). Mokpo is usually quite windy and foggy in the spring and autumn due to its location near the ocean. Mokpo's long period (average of 223 days) without frost creates suitable conditions for rice farming. However, its seacoast location and the influence of the continental climate on the city often causes a great disparity between the rise and fall of daily and yearly temperatures. Another feature of local weather is the highest level of sunlight in Korea [clarify], allowing more efficient use of solar energy plants and related industries. The occurrence of yellow dust is quite similar to those of other cities like Seoul and Incheon at 10–11 days per year, but the figure for fine dust is relatively low.
The climate of Mokpo is a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). Depending on the seasonal patterns, different types of weather conditions appear, and unpredictable weather sometimes occurs. In particular, unexpected blizzards sweep the region with strong gusts during winter. There are more than a month of snowy days and 60 days below 0 °C (32 °F). Mokpo sometimes falls within the range of passing typhoons, and may be damaged by their peripheral impacts including heavy precipitation during summer and mostly early autumn. In 2004, Typhoon Mindulle gave Mokpo its highest ever precipitation with 64 millimetres (2.5 in) per hour.
|Climate data for Mokpo (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||33.2
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||11.6||9.5||9.7||8.4||9.4||10.4||13.5||12.4||8.9||6.5||8.4||10.2||118.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||143.3||154.5||184.1||204.9||216.3||171.3||158.0||204.5||179.5||209.4||166.4||143.2||2,135.4|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration|
Mokpo Station was become open in May 15, 1913 at the first timetable for Hampyeong, currently Hakgyo myun. As the final destination of Honam line with huge suffer during colonial period, it accommodates annually 1.2 million or more people and shipment.
The station is located at the near range with Yudal mountain, southwestern part of the city. The railroad ended inside the station while industrial rail transport no longer operate reached Samhakdo. For industrial purposes, the line played role to carry coals for factories as a branch proximity to the local citizens residence. Because of serious dangers, the city decided to remove the rail in 2011.
Before the operation of KTX bullet train, the road passed the center of the city through Yeon dong, whereas the double-track project managed rails penetrating the town to be removed. Instead, the circulating rail takes detouring course via Seokhyun area with underground tunnel.
On April 1, 2004, Korea Train Express took the opening ceremony with three hour range from Seoul to Mokpo, whereas actual time required was beyond expectations as Korean railroad service did not provide least stops within Honam Line. Three hour travel is only possible when stopping at four stops with Seodaejeon, Iksan, Gwangjusongjeong and then, to Mokpo, which is not available since 2008. 10 services are possible everyday from Yongsan station to Mokpo with 195 minutes. According to the further developing project of railroad, the high speed Honam line would help citizen go to Seoul within 100 minutes. In this case, the final arrival would reach at Imsungri station moving the role of Mokpo, meaning some of the railroads would stop in the long run. The basal plan says that Honam high speed rail would be divided from Osong with a range of 230.9 km In July 2010, Saemaul-ho and Mugunghwa-ho are operating round trip service of twice and six times each day, respectively. For Gwangju Station, Mugunghwa ho is working on twice in a day.
- See also :Roads and expressways in South Korea
Seohaean Expressway connects Mokpo to Seoul by car within 3 hour. Before the construction, the developing axis was eastern Yeongnam area without special concerns over western region more than 4.5~5 hour for Seoul. The new project from Gwangyang to Mokpo has worked on with a view to opening the road in the late 2011, which would finalize the linkage of Namhae Expressway starting from Busan. Additionally, Muan-Gwangju expressway was built and opened in 2007 and 2008 to boast the accommodation of Muan international airport.
National Routhe 1 was planned to connect Mokpo to Sineuju in North. After the Korean War, the section became stopped till Imjingak near Panmunjeom, later extent to Gaesung in 2000 which purpose is to provide convenience with industrial business in Gaesung Industrial complex.
In case of exterior transportation, Mokpo bus terminal plays critical role to move passengers for other regions while some of the far away services are still insufficient. Customers, in this option, transfer the bus terminal at Gwangju.
Buses around the local area are largely in charge of two companies to link several spots around. The last bases are Samhakdo, rear entrance of maritime university and Seokhyun dong. Some buses work till Samho (Yeongam), areas of Muan and Haenam and jointly operate for Aphae island as Aphae Bridge became open.
Since 2005, the enterprise and city council agreed to expand number of buses fueled by natural gas after 3 year long negotiation. The city has supported about 21,000 US dollar for each bus to equip with eco-friendly measure. As of 2006, 32 buses have started to operate its schedule by natural gas. The enlargement of bed towns around the city stimulated more demands to initiate other lines while the conflicts also happens owing to the profits and public servicing policy of the city.
Transfer with free of charge became applicable to every bus as of March 1, 2007. The lines are classified as inner circle, outer line and artery, which follows commuting service system of Seoul Buses. Buses with low-floor level firstly equipped in South Jeolla province in 2007, although chosen lines still limited until now. Campaigns have also included to support physically challenged by eliminating floors at the bus stop
Since 2008, the semi-public bus system have been pushed for, intending to expand the choice of city governing body for lining up routes with management by bus company. The core goal is to share the responsibility for operation and control over spending and income. Although the policy gained its first glance as breakthrough to cut off discomforts of civilians of far-most village, However, NGOs have opposed to the stuffy support only for transportation company, having own evidence of social agreement and balanced burdens. The policy has not been chosen yet owing to lack of discussions and objectives by several civil groups.
Muan International Airport is the airport serving Mokpo.
Previously Mokpo Airport operated as the region's airport. The crash of Asiana Airlines Flight 733 plane in 1993 escalated the worries over the airport but with only extension of 50m runway. Moreover, the site held fundamental drawbacks owing to common foggy weather and lack of related facilities such as linking roads for citizens. Korean Air abolished Gimpo-Mokpo line and Asiana airlines also started to slash services in 2004 with additional removal of Mokpo-Jeju line. The air companies announced they could not accept impregnable deficits because of speed railroad, which also include further development till 2017. The availability dropped to 49.7% from the past ratio of about 70%, bringing up the wipe-out of the airlines. The decision rebuked negative regional responses.
The construction of Muan International Airport was delayed for many times to call upon disappointment for the local people with more loss of the air transportation. The initial construction was announced in 1999, whereas the business project continued to stop or put off and the cost for the plan was measurably cut down. Because of the difficulty, municipal representatives urged to cancel the decision until new airport opens. Eventually Mokpo airport was decided to close its doors in November 8, 2007.
Mokpo holds mainly three harbors for several purposes such as ferry, trades and fishery. Main harbor takes customers and cargoes around nearby islands while North harbor regularly plies ferries of Nonghyup. Additionally, newly built harbor (in hangul : 목포신항 or 신외항) chiefly takes South Korea-China containers and other cargoes.
For accommodating customers, over 80 sea lines have been available, notably for Heuksando, Hongdo and Jeju and almost every linking ferries for Sinan county. In 2002, the first-ever achieved cruise for Shanghai was confirmed by disclosing official ceremony of operation. However, nearly bankrupted concerns stopped the continuance of cruise only after five months. In July 2004, the cruise company altered the scheme for shipping scale with less number of people by introducing newly designed ship from Greece but failed to last owing to rejection from China.
Mokpo coastal terminal was originally built during 1980s with old-fashioned facility. For this problem, government supported 30bn won for constructing 4-story terminal from 2003. The new building opened in February 2007, adorned with the design of fast-sailing ship under the umbrella of international harbor town to meet the demands of visiting guests and tourists. During construction, poor separation of ferries hardened discomfort for customers owing to intervention of Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries branch office. Bureaucrats classified three other gates within coastal area; 1, 2, 3 piers and North harbor per each ferry company. Mokpo coastal terminal under present circumstance is supposed to divide two waiting rooms into coastal and international range.
For newly built harbor, the lack of international cargo service, South Jeolla and Gwangju have had to borrow other region's habour to heighten transporting expenses. To cut down on those needless inconvenience, the harbor boasts as many efforts as possible for increasing the accommodation of cargoes since its open in 2004. The feature of the container is the first civil investment for harbor in South Korea with multifarious shipping ability. On the present level, sea routes have been opened for China, Japan, Thailand and Indonesia with municipal support for companies. In January 2011, Samsung electronics decided to choose Mokpo as a chief exporting harbor for merchandises from its factory in Gwangju.
Ferries at coastal terminal
|Heuksando, Hongdo, Gageodo||Namhae Express/Dongyang||Twice per day||Fastsailing|
|Jeju||Seaworld ferry||Twice per day|
|Eupdong (Anjwa), Palguem, Amtae, Jaeun, Bigeum, Docho||Daeheung||Also available to depart from Aphae harbour of Sinan|
|Bokho (Anjwa), Jangsan, Haui, Sinui, Sangtae||Joyang||Clippery Angel|
|Uidal, Dali, Yuledo and other islands||Sinjin, Johang||5 times per day||11 times during seawater pool in Uidal island|
Nonghyup ferry at North harbor
Songgong of Aphae
|Eupdong (Anjwa)||Nonghyup at Anjwa|
Songgong of Aphae
5 small islands of Amtae
|North Harbor||Biguem||Biguem Nonghyup|
|North Harbor||Docho||Docho Nonghyup|
Around Yudal mountain, flower festival at Yudal mountain opens every April and May. The name was actually representing the title of golden-bell flower but currently changed its title. The main stage is supposed to Nojeokbong and blossomed street along the mountain.
The festival of Largehead hairtail (in Hangul:목포사랑은빛갈치축제) takes place around Yeongsan lake to borrow fishing tools and ship for tourists. The service gained huge success from fishing fans and family tourists every October. Fishing contest calls for a great deal of people to take part in following huge flame-works at evening.
Nanyeong singing memorial celebrates famous singer, Lee Nan Young whose song named 'The Tear of Mokpo' gained public awareness with huge attention of civilians. The memorial have started since 1968 by Honam Maeil newspaper but stopped sometimes, whereas MBC Mokpo again hosted the celebration. Korea Broadcasting system Mokpo holds Mokpo singing festival every autumn.
Hoe markets are chief attraction for tourists with numerous dishes and diverse kinds of fish along the market. Normally the festivals are hosted by committee of merchants. Market at Dongmyeong and North harbor is most famous.
- See also : Yudal mountain
Yudal mountain is located at the central area of old downtown as a symbol and pride of the city. The nickname is Gaegol, of which byname indicates Geumgang mountain in North Korea during summer. The reference was occurred because all the summits becomes the naturalized scenery with strange shapes of summits and hills.
City of Light
The city has planned the scheme for enhancing tourism in old downtown. The transfer of the population caused the disappearance of several shops to remain not many to consume. In case of students, Sanjeong elementary school's alumni has dropped below 300 from above 3,000. The old town has lost the power of citizens to gather, calling for blueprints while South Jeolla province agreed to help the city for a boast. The project for encouraging tourism was possible to establish light entertaining facilities along the street next to the station since 2003. At night, the lights emit its decorative shapes from police office to Mokpo theater. The project "A City of Light" is supposed to make decorations along the monumental buildings and symbolic landscapes. The objection of environmentalists tremendously occurred to mention that irrevocable impact harms ecological ability for the mountainous terrain and the city must make the bills to enact environmentally concerned establishment of illumination.
For new downtown, it is possible to observe lights of fountain at night. As a recreational place for citizens, fountain is designed to shoot up following the beat of the song. The expansion of the facility was announced but confronted difficulty owing to the series of rejection by civil groups since 2009.
In front of harbors, thousands of islands float on the Yellow Sea, some of which pertain to the boundary of Mokpo. The municipal councils have backed up the program of vitalizing islands close to the city. These are island of Goha and Uaidal. With a slogan of "Lovely island, Uai-dal", Hanok residences have served as accommodation for tourists with seawater pool during summer.
Goha island shares its fame for station of naval forces directed by General Yi Sun Shin during Imjin war broken out in 1592. During Japanese colonial period, Japanese navy drilled artificial caves to conceal the armaments to avoid the attack of Allies during the second world war. Save the armaments, 2 air-raid shelters have found. The newly launched tourism project is supposed to establish commemorative plaza for General Yi, observatory, trails along the seashore under the title of historical experience. Mokpo Bridge is on the construction to link the island with the inland.
Gatbawi, which means a rock shaping like Gat, a traditional costume wearing like a hat is one of the most famous place to visit. The district has been nominated as "Culturally oriented Street" intended to exhibit several themes like natural history, ancient marinetime relics, ceramics and arts. Namnong Memorial Hall commemorates Heo Gun, calligrapher of fame in 20c. Series of works of him are still on exhibition with a Korean garden. National research institute of maritime heritages is aiming at organizing and researching the methodologies of ancient people for naval trade and movement. The institute holds special value as the only researching organ for maritime relics in South Korea.
The buses for city tour works everyday except for Mondays. The schedule starts from 9 am to 3 pm to turn around 11 major spots of history. During festivals, the buses operate more to seat tourists.
Museums in Mokpo are mostly located near Gatbawi street. The city concentrated its ability to invest researching and exhibiting space along this area. National maritime museum is one of the oldest and the only organ for having capacity to restore traditional way of navigation and types of Korean traditional ship. The official terminology of the organ was changed in 2009 as the Research institute for maritime history in 2009 to supplement some functions of the center. The reasons can be explicable in that Yellow sea has been the trade route between Chinese culture and Korean peninsula having large relics and stances of cultural exchange since three kingdoms period in early historic period.
Mokpo Natural history museum possesses the large number of relics having several exhibition rooms holding fossils from all over the world. Originally started as one building, it incorporated the cultural heritage hall as its wing to take local relics since prehistoric years. The museum has worked on collecting samples and data of organisms from the fossils of dinosaurs to insects and cetaceans found in Yellow sea. In terms of dinosaurs, the nest of eggs, found in Aphae island, was restored and disclosed to public in 2010. The length of egg reach more than 40 cm respectively, proved to be dated 80 million years ago, during Mesozoic period. Korea Forest Service chose the museum as the organ of recording its samples of insects in national database for biological resources in 2009.
Mokpo Ceramic Museum opened its hall in 2008 on the basis of supports from the government to set up ceramics, largely based on modern usuage and invited chinaware from the notable manufacturers. Meanwhile, Literature hall of Mokpo (in Hangul:목포문학관) is not far from the ceramic museum to host literature class for general public taking features writer or novels, helping growth of local demands for lifelong learning. The program of facility gains aides from Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism since 2010, visiting schools to inform local history of writing and literature.
Branches of KBS, MBC and several broadcasting studios exist in Mokpo. KBS Mokpo was firstly established in 1942, of which first location was close to Yeon dong area to move its base next to the current city hall in Yongdang. MBC Mokpo was not initially planned to work as a television studio but as a radio station in 1967 with a frequency of 1386 kHz. Its fame was served when the voices of citizens were reported during the demonstration for the democracy to face the attack by coup in 1980. The branch also shifted its station to Yongdang area.
The only station for religion is the branch of Far East Broadcasting Company opened in 1999 to work for Christian missions involving Honam area. For cable broadcasting, Honam Hanguk cable has its office in Hadang. The business for newspapers are only 2 of Mokpo Today and Civil paper of Mokpo.
For sports and cultural entertainment
The Yudal Stadium is located next to the 100 year memorial avenue, opening the site with indoor swimming pool. The stadium consists of ballpark and an eight lane track. Behind the stadium, local groups can gain support to use tennis court. The ground floor accommodates committees of diverse kinds of sports to initiate policies upon the citizens and services.
The city has run the bills for attracting training session of major teams in winter. The public relations have gained much boast for the contract to make deals with 127 teams of near 6,000 athletes in 2004 winter. Strength was found to be sunny and warm weather with numerous accommodating facilities to connect mountain, sea and stadium. Since 2005, National athletic events starts on the concentration of throwing sports to gain more visiting personnels.
Around Yudal mountain, recreational parks sparsely located along the trail, while the city is on the construction for additional park in Samhakdo area.
Mokpo Cultural Complex is located along the shore near to Gatbawi with a divided two buildings. The complex is divided into the hall for performance and for exhibition. The weakness is said to be limit of seating capacity ; 700 people for two-story building at most.
Mokpo Civil Culture & Sports Center was built to meet the satisfaction of new downtown living citizens in 2003. The tremendous operating fees have been major burdens the province to lead the responsibility of operation for Mokpo city at the end of the same year. Three halls are divided to take more than 1,200 people. 
There are two libraries in Mokpo. Civil library of Mokpo began its work in 1974 at the old consulate of Japan. Later in 1989, it moved to the close area of Yudal stadium with a scale of 4 story and 1,636 seats. The scale of possession is over 360 thousands of books in diverse subjects and internet-accessed research rooms. The argument of integrity has swept the bill of selecting companies to consign. Upon this concern, independent council selected the cultural institute of Mokpo for the right candidate in 2003. Public library of Mokpo is located at near North harbor with an initial status of dependent organ of Mokpo educational institute and gained independence.
The health care of the city is appreciated fairly high among other government autonomies. As of 2008, statistics office announced the number of doctor per one thousand population was amounted to be 11.41, from 10.45 of one year before. The council of doctor in Mokpo city stated the ongoing improvement of economic growth and populations's incoming brought stimuli toward continuous construction of middle-sized or larger hospitals and clinics.
Mokpo National hospital was established in 1962 for improving the medical care for tuberculosis. The hospital gained the management of city in 1970 and later became national status in 2002. Mokpo health center worked as a civil health center since 1962, of which branch has opened in Hadang residential area to share the sanitary activities.
Around the city, probabilities are high for emergency patients in coastal area resided in islands. To cut down on the danger of lives, the ministry of Health chose Mokpo and Incheon as a site for operating medical helicopter. Hankook hospital was designated the final candidate of the charge.
Public medical organ
The five delicacies of Mokpo are the famous three - Hongeo, Kimchi and Pyeonyuk (in Hangul: 홍어삼합); octopus with slender legs Yeonpotang: Hoe; and seasoned Portunus trituberculatus, all of which are found near the seaside. The city started a public market for those wishing to sell their own delicacies—on delicious food street downtown. 
- Beppu, Japan (1984.10.01)
- Hammerfest, Norway (1962.03.23)
- Lianyungang, China (1992.11.01)
- Changwon, South Korea (1998.12.24)
- Seodaemun-gu, South Korea (2005.04.18)
- Xiamen, China (2007.07.25)
Symbols of Mokpo
- (Korean) Park Yeong Su, Geoin Publishing 《우리나라 문화여행》
- "목포는 항구다…日帝 잔재는 근대 遺産으로…영산강의 눈물은 환희 되어 흘러" (in Korean) Hankyun Daily 2010-10-20
- Tour and Culture of Mokpo, Mokpo city hall
- KBS, p.48 《History Special 2 역사스페셜2》
- Lee Bong Soo, 이순신이 싸운 바다:한려수도, p. 217.
- Song Young Bae, 《Two thousand years of garbage in Korean peninsula 문지사 한국의 쓰레기 2천년사》
- KBS Documentary team, p.18, 20 《Liberation (20c Korean history based on themes) 해방(테마로 읽는 20세기 한국사)》
- Hong Seong Chul, p.101 《History of Prostitution》
- History of Mokpo from Encyber of Doosan in Korea (ko)
- History of Mokpo
- (Korean) 최낙연(Choi Nak Yeon), «지방경제의 이해» (Comprehension on local economy) p.118
- Kim Hyuk Phil "Practical profits in joint market policy in Joseon" 1935-06-05 Dong A Ilbo Retrieved in 2011-05-10 via news library service powered by NHN.
- 2005-11-25 "The picture of old Samhakdo"
- 2007-03-01 "Mokpo's Samhakdo restored in 35 years... Open on the first day of March"
- 5.18 Memorial Foundation
- The Nobel Peace Prize 2000
- "목포시, 밀가루 600t 북한 지원" (in Korean) Yonhap 2002-01-12
- "민주당 목포시장 경선 ‘전태홍’씨 당선" (in Korean) OhMyNews 2002-05-01
- 전태홍 목포 시장 뇌사, 인공호흡기로 연명 Nocut News 2005-01-12
- "전태홍 목포시장 돌연사" Seoul newspaper 2005-01-13
- " <4.30 당선자 인터뷰> 정종득 전남 목포시장 <4.30 당선자 인터뷰> - 정종득 전남 목포시장" Yonhap 2005-04-30
- "목포시장 민주당 정종득 후보 당선" Yonhap 2005-09-30
- Enlightenment of Luminarie street in Mokpo Yonhap 2005-12-29
- "목포 원도심 활기 되찾는다" (in Korean) Asiatoday 2009-10-23
- "목포시, '풀뿌리 경영 대상' 수상" (in Korean) Yonhap 2007-10-20
- "‘제1회 한국관광대상’에 목포시-울릉군" (in Korean) Asiatoday 2009-01-07
- 2008-05-26 "목포시민신문 원도심 활성화 실질적 지원책 시급" (in Korean)
- "원도심사업 보상업무 주먹구구" (in Korean) Newspaper of Mokpo civilians 2007-03-14
- "법원, 목포시장 업무추진비 지출증빙자료 공개 판결" CNB 2009-01-11
- 5th times failure for merging Muan peninsula
- Mokpo, suggesting self-merging of three areas for Ministry
- Fail to merge Muan pen., eastern area of South Jeolla - Superiority for objection 전남 무안반도.동부권 통합 무산…반대 우세
- "전남 서남부지역 인구 감소 '지속'" (in Korean) Yonhap 2010-11-02
- 신안 군청 42년만에 ‘내집 마련’ (in Korean) Seoul newspaper 2011-04-26
- Mokpo Insung school
- History of Bukgyo elementary school
- History of Mokpo Natl' Univ.
- Newsis 2004-09-18 Launch of Nuri in MNU
- Yonhap 2008-02-20 Superiority of MNU in innovative appreciation for national universities
- History of school
- History of Catholic University of Mokpo
- 2004-01-19 "Mokpo, Yeosu, Suncheon will be standardized next year" 목포·여수·순천 내년 고교 평준화 Hankyoreh
- 2009-01-30 "Are schools of South Jeolla equalized? .... 10 times gap between schools Yonhap
- 《South Korea! Look at the future, stepping up past》 p.369, Samsung Economic Research Institute
- "목포시, 전국 최초 '원도심 활성화 지원 조례' 제정"
- "원도심활성화, 또 하나의 신도시건설" 2009-02-19
- The profile of the E-mart at website
- "삼성 홈플러스 목포점 17일 개점" (in Korean) Newsis 2008-01-11
- "목포시 재래시장상품권 인기몰이 `왜?'" (in Korean) Yonhap 2009-02-18
- Hope when electronic lines be removed Donga Ilbo
- Gang Seon won,《100 options for land dealers 땅 투자자가 꼭 알아야 할 100가지》 p. 315
- 2009-01-15 Highliting strategic access for outdoor investment Moneytoday
- Full-dress construction for Mokpo Daeyang industrial complex (in Korean) Newsis 2009-02-04
- History of Bohae
- my 2008-12-15 Wines of Bohae takes preferrence of American customers as a rugby ball shaped design Maeil Business Newspaper
- History of the company
- 2008-10-28 Haengnam Chinaware Expansion for China twice in 2009 "2009년 中수출 2배 확대"
- 2011-04-14 "Heading for protection of endangered species by Haegnam chinaware; MOU with government" Financial News
- "Mou with Haengnam chinaware for promoting environmental protecion on rare-classified species" Korea.net
- Samsung Publishing, 2007. 《대한민국 웬만한곳 다있다》 in Korean
- http://www.mokpo.go.kr/open_content/administrative/organization/location/ Introduce the geographical features, CIty of Mokpo
- 영산강 하구둑 개선사업 환경영향평가 '부실' (in Korean) Yonhap 2010-05-23
- (Korean)Kim Dong Shik (김동식), Kim Jung Hyun (김정현) Maeil Economy, 2006. 《날씨경영 하늘에서 돈이 옵니다》p.173
- "전국은 지금 ‘태양의 도시’ 열풍" (in Korean) Hankyung Business, 2007-06-11
- "전남, 수도권비해 황사발생 적고 농도 낮다" (in Korean) Yonhap 2009-02-21
- The features of Mokpo at Mokpo Weather station (in Korean)
- "평년값자료 (1981–2010) 목포 (165)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
- Daos Railroad station
- "Going to get rid of ongoing railroad for Samhakdo in 2011" 2008-06-04 Mokpo Today
- "Construction of bullet train road from Osong to Mokpo next year" 오송∼목포 호남고속철 내년 착공"
- Explanation on Seohaean Exp. by Korea Expressway Corporation
- Muan-Gwangju and 88 Exp.
- "천연가스(CNG) 시내버스 운행" (in Korean) 2006-01-29
- "목포시 시내버스 무료환승 실시" 2007-03-02
- "목포시, 시내버스 저상버스 도입운행" Yonhap 2007-12-05
- "목포시 시내버스 준공영제 내년 시행" Yonhap 2008-01-07
- "목포경실련, 시내버스 준공영제 “사회적 합의가 우선" (in Korean) Dailian 2008-10-01
- "Mokpo airport shut down in 38 years of history..."
- "Managing to keep up Jeju airplane"
- "The crisis of Mokpo Airline; is it going to disappear?"
- "Harsh obstacle for Muan Int'l Airport" 2003-09-29
- "Int'l flights going to move for Muan from Gwangju airport" 2007-10-16 Kookmin Ilbo
- "목포~상하이 카페리 운항 .. 매주 2회 왕복" (in Korean) Korea Economy Daily 2002-11-20
- "목포-상하이 뱃길 9월 재개" (in Korean) Yonhap 2004-07-22
- "<지역경제시대> 올해를 빛낸 기업 : 목포여객터미널, 국제항만타운으로" (in Korean) 2004-11-24
- "섬 지역 나들이 너무 힘들어요" 주민, 관광객 불만 팽배 Newsis 2006-07-20
- "목포항~中 상하이 컨테이너 항로 추가 개설" (in Korean) Yonhap 2010-12-10
- 목포시, 국제정기항로 개설 인센티브 Donga Ilbo 2011-05-03
- 삼성전자 백색가전제품 목포신항 통해 수출 Prime Economy 2011-01-27
- '목포바다 은빛갈치축제' 화려한 밤 수놓는다 Starnews 2008-09-24
- 2010-11-30 Yonhap News
- "Provincial office agrees on backup for supporting old downtown in several areas Yonhap News 2005-03-30
- "Travel Memo- Yudal Mt. in Mokpo" 2007-02-03 Kookmin Ilbo
- Dark clouds on Mokpo's plan to become the light city" 2006-01-19 Hankook Ilbo
- "Why in front of the peace plaza ; New Geographical trends in Mokpo" 2009-02-23 Asia Economics
- History park in Mokpo Donga Ilbo 2008-10-04
- 2007-01-29 "Uaidal island with special food, mudfield, sunbath..." 2007-01-25 Hankyung Daily
- Seamuseum.go.kr E-book for work of museum
- "해양유물전시관, '문화재연구소'로 명칭 변경" (in Korean) Newsis 2009-04-28
- "8,000만 년 전 공룡알 둥지 화석 공개" (in Korean) YTN 2010-12-04 Video clip available
- "목포자연사박물관 소장 곤충표본 DB 구축" (in Korean) Newsis 2009-09-09
- 목포문학관, 찾아가는 문학교실 '인기' (in Korean) Yonhap 2010-07-14
- Company history at Mokpo MBC
- "Come to Mokpo for winter training 스포츠 동계훈련 목포로 오세요" 2004-11-23 Hankook Ilbo
- "2006 National athletic contest in Mokpo" 2006-02-03
- Official page of Mokpo city ; Mokpo cultural complex
- "Mokpo Sports center open at January" Segye Ilbo 2003-10-24
- Mokpo sports/culture center
- "Consignment heads to Mokpo culture institute" 2003-01-20
- Official website of Library
- Official website of Library
- 목포시 의료기관 의사 수 '전국 최고' Newsis 2008-10-14
- History of Mokpo Nat's Hospital
- "응급전용 헬기 7월부터 인천-목포서 운영" (in Korean) Donga Ilbo 2011-04-15
- "목포시, “맛 집 거리” 입주자 모이세요!" (Mokpo city, get together for collecting delicious food street (in Korean) Asiatoday
- Beppu City Official web: Sister City Introduction
- Masan City: Sister Cities - Mokpo
- Seodaemun-gu Office: Sister Cities - Domestic
- Two Jeolla provinces which Mokpo pertains to have been the critical base of the Democratic Party of South Korea. Before former president Kim took the presidency, he caught the strongest power in the reason as a root of his political supporting base. In this context, Mokpo and near area has been called the garden of Democrats.
- Nonghyup ferries refer to the regular ferry operated by Nonghyup which is kind of banking and cooperating organ for farmers. The ferry connects each branch in several islands in Sinan and Mokpo.
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