Norfolk Southern Railway

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Norfolk Southern Railway
Nsheadlogo.svg
Norfolk Southern Railway system map.svg
NS system map; trackage rights in purple
Reporting mark
  • NS


Locale Eastern United States
Dates of operation 1982 (1982)–Present
Predecessor
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge)
Length 21,500 miles (34,600 kilometres)
Headquarters Norfolk, Virginia
Website nscorp.com
NS building in Atlanta, Georgia

The Norfolk Southern Railway (reporting mark NS and others) is a Class I railroad in the United States, owned by the Norfolk Southern Corporation. With headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia, the company operates over 20,000 route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia,[1] and has rights in Canada from Buffalo to Toronto and over the Albany to Montreal route.[2][dubious ][3] The most common commodity hauled on the railroad is coal from mines in Indiana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The railroad also offers the most extensive intermodal network in eastern North America.

The current system was formed in 1982 with the creation of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, a holding company, and on December 31, 1990, the Southern Railway was renamed the Norfolk Southern Railway, and control of the Norfolk & Western Railway was transferred from the holding company to the Norfolk Southern Railway. In 1999, the system grew substantially with the acquisition of over half of Conrail.

History[edit]

Norfolk Southern's predecessor railroads date to the early 19th century. The three main branches of the current corporate family tree were systems for many years themselves:

Southern Railway[edit]

The SR's earliest predecessor line was the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road. Chartered in December 1827, the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road Company became the first in the nation to offer regularly scheduled passenger train service with the inaugural run of the Best Friend of Charleston on December 25, 1830.[5]

Another early predecessor, the Richmond & Danville Railroad (R&D), was formed in 1847 and expanded into a large system after the American Civil War under Algernon S. Buford. The R&D ultimately fell on hard times and in 1894, it became a major portion of the new Southern Railway (SOU). Financier J. P. Morgan selected veteran railroader Samuel Spencer as president. Profitable and innovative, Southern became in 1953 the first major U.S. railroad to completely switch to diesel-electric locomotives from steam.

Norfolk & Western[edit]

The City Point Railroad, established in 1838, was a 9-mile (14 km) railroad in Virginia that started just south of Richmond — specifically, City Point on the navigable portion of the James River, now part of the independent city of Hopewell — and ran to Petersburg. It was acquired by the South Side Railroad in 1854.

After the Civil War, it became part of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad (AM&O), a trunk line across Virginia's southern tier formed by mergers in 1870 by William Mahone, who had built the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad in the 1850s. The AM&O was the oldest portion of the Norfolk & Western (N&W) when it was formed in 1881, under new owners with a keen interest and financial investments in the coal fields of Western Virginia and West Virginia, a product which came to define and enrich the railroad.

In the second half of the 20th century, the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway (1959), the Wabash Railway, and the Nickel Plate Road, among others.[4]

1982 merger[edit]

NS was created in 1982 from the merger of N&W and SOU, both profitable companies. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line, acquired by SOU in 1974, that served primarily North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Norfolk, Virginia.

The merger aimed to compete in the eastern United States with CSX Transportation, formed after the Interstate Commerce Commission's 1980 approval of the merger of the Chessie System and the Seaboard System.

Conrail[edit]

Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) was a 11,000-mile (18,000 km) system formed in 1976 by bringing together several ailing northeastern railway systems into a government-owned corporation. Conrail had become profitable after the Staggers Act in 1980 largely deregulated the U.S. railroad industry.

In 1996, CSX bid to buy Conrail. Norfolk Southern, fearing that CSX would come to dominate rail traffic in the eastern U.S., responded with a bid of its own. On June 23, 1997, NS and CSX filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board (STB) for authority to purchase, divide, and operate the assets of Conrail. On June 6, 1998, the STB approved the NS-CSX application, effective August 22, 1998.

NS acquired 58% of Conrail assets, while CSX got the remaining 42%, including about 7,200 miles (11,600 km) of track, most of which was part of the former Pennsylvania Railroad. NS began operating its trains on its portion of the former Conrail network on June 1, 1999, closing out the 1990s merger era.

Operations[edit]

NS is a major transporter of domestic and export coal. The railroad's major sources of the mineral are located in: Pennsylvania's Cambria and Indiana counties, as well as the Monongahela Valley; West Virginia; and the Appalachia regions of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. In Pennsylvania, NS also receives coal through interchange with R.J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines at Cresson, Pennsylvania, originating in the "Clearfield Cluster".

NS's export of West Virginia bituminous coal, begins transport on portions of the well-engineered former Virginian Railway and the former N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia to its Lambert's Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk. Coal transported by NS is thus exported to steel mills and power plants around the world. The company is also a major transporter of auto parts and completed vehicles. It operates intermodal container and TOFC (trailer on flat car) trains, some in conjunction with other railroads. NS was the first railway to employ roadrailers, which are highway truck trailers with interchangeable wheel sets.

According to NS’s 2012 Annual Report to Investors, at the end of 2012, NS had more than 30,943 employees, 3,468 locomotives, and 79,082 freight cars.

At the end of 2012, the transport of coal, coke, and iron ore made up 26% of the total operating revenue of NS, general merchandise (automotive, chemicals, metals, construction materials, agriculture commodities, consumer products, paper, clay, and forest products) made up 54%, and intermodal made up 20% of the total.

Company Officers[edit]

Presidents of Norfolk Southern have included:

Current trackage[edit]

Regional divisions[edit]

  • Lake
  • Dearborn-Detroit Metropolitan Area
  • Illinois
  • Alabama
  • Georgia
  • Piedmont
  • Pittsburgh
  • Harrisburg
  • Central
  • Virginia
  • Pocahontas

Pittsburgh Line[edit]

The Pittsburgh Line is NS's principal east–west line from the Northeast to the Midwest. Running from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania to Conway, Pennsylvania, it once was the core of the Pennsylvania Railroad's (PRR) main line. An average day sees 60 to 80 trains of all types. The line is home to the famous Horseshoe Curve.

Beginning at Altoona in Altoona, Pennsylvania, and ending at Conpit Junction in West Wheatfield Township, Pennsylvania, trains must ascend and control their speed down the faces of the Allegheny Ridge, some of the steepest slopes in the Allegheny Range. It is a helper locomotive district. Most common on helper assignments are pairs of new SD40Es (former EMD SD50 units rebuilt at NS's Juniata Shops in Altoona). On heavier unit coal trains, it is not uncommon to see two helper sets put together to create what local railfans call four-bangers. Some trains weigh more than 18,000 tons. For eastbound traffic, road crews often call for a "helper-ahead" when they are short on time.

Some lesser hills also exist west of Altoona, sometimes warranting westbound helpers to continue to Pittsburgh. For this purpose, a partial bypass of the Pittsburgh Line exists between Johnstown and Pittsburgh. Known as the Conemaugh Line, it runs from Conpit Junction to Federal Street on the North Side of Pittsburgh via a flat, though longer, route along the Conemaugh and Allegheny Rivers, bypassing several steep grades west of the Alleghenies as well as the Pittsburgh passenger station.

Chicago Corridor[edit]

At about 150 miles, this is the most direct route for NS trains between Chicago and Fort Wayne, Indiana. It has 16 passing sidings and several stretches of double track.

Chicago Bypass[edit]

Meridian Speedway[edit]

Pan Am Southern/Patriot Corridor[edit]

On May 15, 2008, NS announced that it would join with the ailing Pan Am Railways to create the "Patriot Corridor", an improved rail route between Albany, New York, and the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area.[7][8][9] On March 12, 2009, STB approved the deal.[10] Each of the two companies now owns 50% of a new company known as Pan Am Southern (PAS). PAR's trackage between Ayer, Massachusetts, and Mechanicville, New York, was transferred to PAS, and continues to be operated and maintained by PAR's Springfield Terminal Railway Company subsidiary. NS transferred to PAS cash and property valued at $140 million.

Planned improvements to the route include upgrades to tracks and signals and new automotive and intermodal terminals.

Yards and facilities[edit]

Norfolk Southern yard in Croxton, New Jersey near Jersey City, New Jersey

Largely an eastern U.S. railway, NS directly owns and operates 21,300 miles (34,300 kilometres) of track in 22 states. It operates three primary hubs in its system: Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Chicago, and Atlanta and maintains facilities across the Eastern US to facilitate operations, including rail classification yards, intermodal yards, and locomotive shops

NS has rights to operate its trains with its own crews on competing railroads' tracks. These trackage rights permit NS to operate as far west as Dallas, Texas, as far north as Waterville, Maine, and as far south as Miami, Florida. NS locomotives also occasionally operate on competitors' tracks throughout the U.S. and Canada due to the practice of locomotive leasing and sharing undertaken by the Class I railroads. Not including second, third, and fourth main line trackage, yards, and sidings, NS directly operates some 21,500 miles (34,600 kilometres) of track. In addition NS has direct control over approximately 38,000 miles (61,000 kilometres).

Rail classification yards[edit]

Enola Yard, Pennsylvania

Intermodal classification yards[edit]

  • Atlanta, GA - Inman
  • Austell, GA (Atlanta)
  • Ayer, MA
  • Baltimore, MD
  • Bethlehem, PA
  • Buffalo, NY
  • Charlotte, NC
  • Chesapeake, VA – Portlock
  • Chicago, IL – 47th Street
  • Chicago, IL – 63rd Street
  • Chicago, IL – Calumet
  • Chicago, IL – Landers
  • Cincinnati, OH – Gest Street
  • Collierville, TN – Rossville (Memphis)
  • Columbus, OH
  • Dallas, TX – KCS
  • Decatur, IL
  • Detroit, MI – Delray
  • Detroit, MI – Livernois
  • Elizabeth, NJ – Elizabeth Marine Terminal
  • Elizabeth, NJ – E-Rail
  • Front Royal, VA
  • Garden City, GA – Garden City Marine Terminal (Savannah)
  • Georgetown, KY
  • Greencastle, PA – Franklin County Regional Intermodal Facility
  • Greensboro, NC
  • Greer, SC – South Carolina Inland Port
  • Harrisburg, PA – Harrisburg Intermodal Yard
  • Harrisburg, PA – Rutherford Intermodal Yard
  • Huntsville, AL
  • Jacksonville, FL
  • Jersey City, NJ (Croxton)
  • Kansas City, MO
  • Langhorne, PA (Morrisville)
  • Louisville, KY – Appliance Park
  • Louisville, KY – Buechel
  • Maple Heights, OH (Cleveland)
  • McCalla, AL (Birmingham)
  • Mechanicville, NY (Albany)
  • Memphis, TN – Forrest Yard
  • New Orleans, LA
  • Norfolk, VA – Norfolk International Terminals
  • North Charleston, SC (Charleston)
  • Portsmouth, VA – APM Terminal
  • Rossville, TN - Rossville Intermodal Facility
  • Savannah, GA – Port Wentworth
  • Sharonville, OH (Cincinnati)
  • St. Louis, MO
  • Taylor, PA
  • Titusville, FL
  • Toledo, OH
  • Wall, PA (Pittsburgh)

[11]

Locomotive shops[edit]

Juniata Shops at Altoona Works
  • Altoona, PA – Altoona Works
  • Bellevue, OH
  • Chattanooga, TN
  • Conway, PA – Conway Yard
  • Elkhart, IN
  • Harrisburg, PA – Enola Yard
  • Roanoke, VA – Shaffer's Crossing Locomotive Shop
  • Roanoke, VA – Roanoke Locomotive Shop

NS also shares interest with CSX in the Oak Island Yard, managed by Conrail Shared Assets Operations in Newark, New Jersey.

Environmental record[edit]

Air quality and fuel efficiency[edit]

In early spring of 2008, the state program manager for air quality planning in Georgia, Jimmy Johnston, had been talking to NS about voluntary upgrades to reduce the company's environmental impact. NS is upgrading 3,800 of its locomotives with new technology that is 73 percent more efficient than previous models. The new technology being put into the locomotives is making the ride more fuel efficient and reducing idle time.[12][broken citation]

NS has also introduced an experimental battery-electric switcher locomotive, NS 999. This prototype locomotive was developed by Norfolk Southern, in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy, the Federal Railroad Administration and the Pennsylvania State University.[13]

Spillage[edit]

On January 6, 2005, a NS derailment resulted in a large amount of chlorine and diesel fuel being released into nearby waterways in Graniteville, South Carolina. In addition, a toxic cloud covered the city resulting in the town being evacuated. Federal common carrier laws prevent railroads from refusing to transport chlorine and similar Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) commodities. Local wildlife was killed, many of the local crops and vegetation were contaminated or killed, nine human deaths were reported, and thousands were injured.[14] The company is being taken to court and being fined for violating the Clean Water Act and the Federal Superfund law. NS has spent a total of $26 million for the cleanup.[15]

Locomotive and rolling stock[edit]

Paint and colors[edit]

NS's locomotives are often called "catfish" by railfans, as the stripes are said to look like catfish whiskers. The locomotive numbered 4610, a GM-EMD GP59, was painted in predecessor Southern colors of green and white with gold trim and was a favorite of railfans. The work was done at the Debutts Yard in Chattanooga, Tennessee during the summer of 1994 and the locomotive received a repaint in the summer of 2004. The locomotive was repainted standard NS black and white in February 2012.

The current paint scheme for NS locomotives is black and white. The locomotives feature a rearing horse on the nose, which is consistent with prior marketing campaigns where NS has billed itself as "The Thoroughbred." Most NS locomotives have flashing ditch lights.

Locomotives[edit]

In 2005, NS added two new types of locomotives to its roster: EMD SD70M-2s, which all are numbered 2649–2778, and GE ES40DCs, are numbered 7500-7719.

Historically, NS has only purchased DC traction Diesel locomotives. NS inherited a small number of AC traction locomotives (EMD SD80MACs) from CR. Currently, 10 of the 17 SD80MACs are assigned to the locomotive pool in South Fork, Pennsylvania. In September 2008 NS purchased its first-ever order of brand new AC traction locomotives: 24 GE ES44ACs, numbered 8000-8023. NS began receiving these units in October 2008. These new locomotives will be used for pusher service on long haul coal trains. In 2010, NS ordered 67 more ES44ACs and 25 more SD70ACes and in the fall of 2011, an order for 40 more SD70ACe's was placed.

2013 NS Locomotives
Type Owned Leased Total Total Horsepower
Multiple purpose 3,763 79 3,842 13,606,600
Auxiliary units 122 122
Switching 110 110 165,250
Total locomotives 3,995 79 4,074 13,771,850

[16]

Heritage fleet[edit]

ES44AC 8100 in Nickel Plate Road colors

In the first half of 2012, Norfolk Southern painted 10 SD70ACs and 10 ES44ACs as special Heritage Units, one each bearing the paint schemes and markings of NS's predecessor railroads:[17][18][19][20]

Steam excursion programs[edit]

After the 1982 merger, NS President Robert Claytor retained the Southern Railway's popular steam excursion program begun in the 1960s by his brother, SR president W. Graham Claytor. The Norfolk Southern initially attempted to use former Chesapeake and Ohio 2716, which had been modified for the SR's program, but the locomotive developed mechanical problems, and the railway instead used Norfolk & Western 611 and Norfolk & Western 1218. The railroad abruptly ended the program in 1994 after two accidents in the preceding decade, but restarted it in 2010 in conjunction with the Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum. The program has operated Southern Railway 630 and Nickel Plate 765, and plans to use Southern Railway 4501. There is also a plan for N&W 611 to be restored by the Virginia Museum of Transportation, in Roanoke, Virginia.[citation needed] After it is rebuilt, 611 will also take part in the 21st Century Steam program alongside 4501, 765, and 630.[citation needed]

Rolling stock[edit]

2013 NS Rolling Stock
Type Owned Leased Total Total Capacity (Tons)
Gondola 33,820 3,839 37,659 4,098,830
Hopper 15,234 521 15,755 1,737,636
Box 12,356 1,470 13,826 1,151,821
Covered hopper 10,558 158 10,716 1,182,466
Flat 2,506 1,133 3,639 335,196
Other 4,608 87 4,695 225,067
Total 79,082 7,208 86,290 8,731,016

[16]

Reporting marks[edit]

Although it has been widely known as simply "Norfolk Southern" since 1982, the corporate structure and reporting marks are more complicated. In 1990, Southern Railway Company was renamed Norfolk Southern Railway Co. Its Norfolk and Western Railway company was merged into the Norfolk Southern Railway in 1997. In 1999, when most of Conrail's former PRR trackage was sold to the Norfolk Southern Railway, the Pennsylvania Railway Lines was created and PRR reporting marks used on the former Conrail motive power and rolling stock.

Television commercials[edit]

On September 3, 2007, NS launched new television ads featuring a family of gas cans cross country trekking to meet a NS train; it is a message on NS' role to reduced congestion on highways called "Lonely Gallon". It also features the song "You Don't Need Me" performed by Ravi Krishnaswami of New York and Steve Kolander of Atlanta. The song was created specially for NS. It was filmed in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia.[21] In May 2013, NS rocked National Train Day by premiering a new ad series, using music adapted from ABC's "Conjunction Junction" School House Rock program.[22][23] The video shows an overhead view of Inman Rail Yard in Atlanta.

Awards and recognition[edit]

From 1989 to 2012, NS won the Gold (first-place) E.H. Harriman Award in Group A (line-haul railroads whose employees worked 15 million employee-hours or more) every single year.[24] The award, which recognized the railroads with the lowest casualty rates per 200,000 employee-hours, was discontinued in 2012.[25]

In January 2011, NS Chairman and CEO Wick Moorman was named Railroader of the Year by Railway Age magazine.[26]

Norfolk Southern Corporation[edit]

Norfolk Southern Corporation
Type Public
Traded as NYSENSC
Industry Transportation
Founded Norfolk, Virginia, USA (July 23, 1980 (1980-07-23))
Headquarters Norfolk, Virginia, United States
Key people
  • Charles W. Moorman
(Chairman & CEO)
  • James A. Squires
(President)
Revenue
  • Decrease US$ 11,040,000,000
Operating income
  • Decrease US$ 2,263,000,000
Net income
  • Decrease US$ 1,749,000,000
Total assets
  • Increase US$ 30,342,000,000
Total equity
  • Decrease US$ 9,760,000,000
Employees
  • Increase 30,943
Website nscorp.com

Norfolk Southern Corporation is the Norfolk, Virginia based parent company of Norfolk Southern Railway Company. Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated on July 23, 1980 in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbols NSC. The primary business function of Norfolk Southern Corporation is the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, and finished goods across the Southeast, East, and Midwest United States. The corporation further facilitates transport to the remainder of the United States through interchange with other rail carriers while also serving overseas transport needs by serving several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports.

Subsidiaries[edit]

Subsidiaries of Norfolk Southern Corporations (more than 50% owned and controlled)[16]

  • Airforce Pipeline, Inc.
  • Alabama Great Southern LLC
  • The Alabama Great Southern Railroad Company
  • Alexandria-Southern Properties, Inc.
  • Arrowood-Southern Company
  • Atlantic Acquisition Corporation
  • Atlantic Investment Company
  • BRF Investment, LLC
  • Camp Lejeune Railroad Company
  • Central of Georgia LLC
  • Central of Georgia Railroad Company
  • Charlotte-Southern Hotel Corporation
  • Chesapeake Western Railway
  • Chicago Land Management, LLC
  • The Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway Company
  • Citico Realty Company
  • General American Insurance Company
  • General Security Insurance Company, Ltd. (Bermuda)
  • Georgia Southern and Florida Railway Company
  • High Point, Randleman, Asheboro and Southern Railroad Company
  • Interstate Railroad Company
  • Lamberts Point Barge Company, Inc.
  • Lambert’s Point Docks, Incorporated
  • Mobile and Birmingham Railroad Company
  • The Nickel Plate Improvement Company, Inc.
  • Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad Company
  • Norfolk Southern International, Inc.
  • Norfolk Southern - Mexico, LLC
  • Norfolk Southern Properties, Inc.
  • Norfolk Southern Railway Company
  • NorfolkSouthernMexicana, S. de R.L. de C.V. (Mexico)
  • The North Carolina Midland Railroad Company
  • NS-Charlotte Tower Corporation
  • NS Fiber Optics, Inc.
  • NS Spectrum Corporation
  • NS Transportation Brokerage Corporation
  • PA Holding Corporation
  • PDC Timber LLC
  • Pennsylvania Investment Company, Inc.
  • PLC Timber LLC
  • PLS Investment, LLC
  • Pocahontas Development Corporation
  • Pocahontas Land Corporation
  • Rail Investment Company
  • Reading Company, LLC
  • Sandusky Dock Corporation
  • The South Western Rail Road Company
  • Southern Rail Terminals, Inc.
  • Southern Rail Terminals of North Carolina, Inc.
  • Southern Region Industrial Realty, Inc.
  • Southern Region Materials Supply, Inc.
  • SRIR Timber LLC
  • State University Railroad Company
  • S-VA Corporation
  • T-Cubed of North America, LLC
  • TCS Leasing, Inc.
  • TCV, Inc.
  • Thoroughbred Technology and Telecommunications, LLC
  • Tennessee, Alabama & Georgia Railway Company
  • Tennessee Railway Company
  • Thoroughbred Direct Intermodal Services, Inc.
  • Thoroughbred Emissions Research, LLC
  • Thoroughbred Funding, Inc.
  • Transworks Company
  • Transworks Inc.
  • Transworks of Indiana, Inc.
  • Triple Crown Services Company
  • Virginia and Southwestern Railway Company
  • Virginia Holding Corporation
  • Westlake Land Management, Inc.
  • Wheelersburg Terminal LLC
  • Yadkin Railroad Company

See also[edit]

Improvement projects[edit]

Cultural references[edit]

Trade unions[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About NS". Norfolk Southern Corporation. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  2. ^ NSCorp: "System Overview map"
  3. ^ List of federally regulated railway operators
  4. ^ a b "Norfolk Southern merger family tree". Trains Magazine. Kalmbach Publishing Co. 2 June 2006. Retrieved 14 January 2009. 
  5. ^ "A Line in Time". The NS Story. Norfolk Southern Corporation. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  6. ^ Norfolk Southern Corporation (May 10, 2013). "Norfolk Southern Names Six to Senior Management Positions" (Press release). Retrieved March 4, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Pan Am Railways and Norfolk Southern Create the Patriot Corridor to Improve Rail Service and Expand Capacity in New York and New England" (Press release). Norfolk Southern Corp. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-05-15. 
  8. ^ Norfolk Southern Railway and Pan Am Railways (2008-05-16). "Introducing the Patriot Corridor" (PDF). Norfolk Southern Corp. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  9. ^ "2 railroad freight companies combine effort". AP Business News (Worcester Telegram & Gazette). Associated Press. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  10. ^ US Board Approves Joint Ownership Of Pan Am Southern LLC, CNN Money, http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/articles/djf500/200903102012DOWJONESDJONLINE000756_FORTUNE5.htm, 3/12/09
  11. ^ "Norfolk Southern Intermodal". Nscorp.com. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  12. ^ "New limits on trains could help Macon's air" Macon.com. April 9, 2008. Accessed May 6, 2008.
  13. ^ "Batteries ARE included: Norfolk Southern unveils experimental electric locomotive | Norfolk Southern – The Thoroughbred of Transportation | Creating green jobs shipping freight by rail". Nscorp.com. 2009-09-28. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  14. ^ "Railroad accused of water pollution in SC wreck". The Times and Democrat. Associated Press. April 24, 2008. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  15. ^ Fretwell, Sammy (April 25, 2008). "Feds sue railroad in Graniteville disaster". The State. Archived from the original on 2008-04-26. 
  16. ^ a b c "2013 Form 10-K". Norfolk Southern Corp. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  17. ^ "Norfolk Southern to debut heritage fleet - TRAINS Magazine". Trn.trains.com. 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  18. ^ "Norfolk Southern celebrates colorful heritage with historic paint schemes | Norfolk Southern – The Thoroughbred of Transportation | Creating green jobs shipping freight by rail". Nscorp.com. 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  19. ^ "NS Diesel Locomotive Roster - GE ES44AC (ES-44AC) Nos. 8000-8115". Nsdash9.com. 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  20. ^ "NS EMD SD70ACe Order Rolling Out in Heritage Schemes… | Eastern Railroad News Online Magazine". Easternrailroadnews.com. 2012-05-09. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  21. ^ "Norfolk Southern – The Thoroughbred of Transportation | Creating green jobs shipping freight by rail". Nscorp.com. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  22. ^ "Norfolk Southern - What's Your Function?". Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  23. ^ Norfolk Southern to rock National Train Day Railroad rolls out trains, family fun, and a new twist on an old classic | Norfolk Southern – The Thoroughbred of Transportation | Creating green jobs shipping freight by rail. Nscorp.com (2013-05-09). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  24. ^ http://www.nscorp.com/nscportal/nscorp/Media/News%20Releases/2010/harriman.html
  25. ^ AAR names winners of E.H. Harriman, Harold F. Hammond safety awards (5/9/2012)
  26. ^ Vantuono, William C., "Wick Moorman Norfolk Southern produces champion", Railway Age, January 2011

General references[edit]

External links[edit]