Prime Minister of Yugoslavia

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Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
Former political post
Standard of the Prime Minister of SFR Yugoslavia.svg
Successor Croatia Stjepan Mesić
Serbia and Montenegro Milan Panić
Bosnia and Herzegovina Jure Pelivan
Republic of Macedonia Nikola Kljusev
Slovenia Lojze Peterle
First officeholder Nikola Pašić
Last officeholder Ante Marković
Office began 1 December 1918
Office ended 14 July 1992

The Prime Minister of Yugoslavia was the head of government of the Yugoslav state, from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

History[edit]

Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit]

Main article: Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Standard of the Prime Minister (Kingdom of Yugoslavia)

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (the Kingdom of Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification) and the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) on 1 December 1918.

Until 6 January 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was a parliamentary monarchy. On that day, King Alexander I abolished the Vidovdan Constitution (adopted in 1921), prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship (so-called 6 January Dictatorship). He renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929, and continued to rule as a de facto absolute monarch until his assassination on 9 October 1934, during a state visit to France. After his assassination, parliamentary monarchy was put back in place.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied after the German invasion on 17 April 1941. The monarchy was formally abolished on 29 November 1945.

In 1945 there were ten living former prime ministers. Out of these, Nikola Uzunović, Dušan Simović, Miloš Trifunović and Ivan Šubašić lived in the Democratic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia while Petar Živković, Bogoljub Jevtić, Milan Stojadinović, Dragiša Cvetković, Slobodan Jovanović and Božidar Purić remained in exile.

Federal Yugoslavia[edit]

Standard of the Prime Minister (Federal Yugoslavia)

After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Partisan resistance in occupied Yugoslavia formed a deliberative council, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 the AVNOJ proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, and appointed the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ), led by Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito, as its government. Josip Broz Tito was quickly recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, and the royalist government-in-exile in London was pressured into agreeing on a merge with the NKOJ. In order to facilitate this, Ivan Šubašić was appointed by the King to head the London government.

For a period, Yugoslavia had two recognized prime ministers and governments (which both agreed to formally merge as soon as possible): Josip Broz Tito leading the NKOJ in occupied Yugoslavia, and Ivan Šubašić leading the King's government-in-exile in London. With the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in 1944, the two prime ministers agreed that the new joint government would be led by Tito. With the liberation of Yugoslavia's capital Belgrade in November 1944, the joint government was officially formed, with Josip Broz Tito as the Prime Minister.

After the war, elections were held ending in an overwhelming victory for Tito's People's Front. The new parliament deposed King Peter II on 29 November 1945, and declared a Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (in 1963, the state was renamed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The government was first headed by a Prime Minister up to 14 January 1953, when major decentralization reforms reorganized the government into the Federal Executive Council chaired by a President. Josip Broz Tito held the post from 1943 to 1963.

Five out of nine heads of government of Yugoslavia in this period were of Croatian ethnicity. Three were from Croatia itself (Josip Broz Tito, Mika Špiljak, and Milka Planinc), while two were Bosnian Croats (Branko Mikulić and Ante Marković). Ante Marković however, though a Croat from Bosnia and Herzegovina by birth, was a politician of Croatia like Špiljak and Planinc, serving (at different times) as both prime minister and president of the presidency of that federal unit.

List[edit]

      Yugoslav National Party       People's Radical Party       Yugoslav Radical Union       Croatian Peasant Party       Democratic Party       Slovene People's Party       League of Communists of Yugoslavia       Socialist Party of Serbia       Union of Reform Forces       Non-party

No. Head of Government Lifespan Ethnicity Term of office Party Note
In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
N/A Nikola Pašić Nikola Pašić
(acting)
1845–1926 Serb 1 December
1918
22 December
1918
People's Radical Party Acting prime minister, as the last prime minister of Serbia.
1 Stojan protic.jpg Stojan Protić 1857–1923 Serb 22 December
1918
16 August
1919
People's Radical Party First Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (that will be renamed "Kingdom of Yugoslavia").
2 Ljubimir davidovic.jpg Ljubomir Davidović 1863–1940 Serb 16 August
1919
19 February
1920
Democratic Party
3 Stojan protic.jpg Stojan Protić 1857–1923 Serb 19 February
1920
16 May
1920
People's Radical Party
4 Milenko Radomar Vesnić Milenko Vesnić 1863–1921 Serb 16 May
1920
1 January
1921
People's Radical Party
5 Nikola Pašić Nikola Pašić 1845–1926 Serb 1 January
1921
28 July
1924
People's Radical Party Second term.
Vidovdan Constitution adopted on June 28 1921.
6 Ljubimir davidovic.jpg Ljubomir Davidović 1863–1940 Serb 28 July
1924
6 November
1924
Democratic Party Second term
7 Nikola Pašić Nikola Pašić 1845–1926 Serb 6 November
1924
8 April
1926
People's Radical Party Third term
8 Nikola Uzunovic facingright.jpg Nikola Uzunović 1873–1954 Serb 8 April
1926
17 April
1927
People's Radical Party
9 Velimir vukicevic.jpg Velimir Vukićević 1871–1930 Serb 17 April
1927
28 July
1928
People's Radical Party
10 Korosec anton.jpg Anton Korošec 1872–1940 Slovene 28 July
1928
7 January
1929
Slovene People's Party
11 Aj 10 03 01 zivkovic s.jpg Petar Živković 1879–1947 Serb 7 January
1929
4 April
1932
Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy Prime Minister of the first authoritarian government appointed by King Alexander I during the January 6 Dictatorship.
Sentenced to death in absentia in 1946.
12 Vojislav Marinković.jpg Vojislav Marinković 1876–1935 Serb 4 April
1932
3 July
1932
Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy Previously a (founding) member of the Democratic Party.
13 Milan Srškić facingright.jpg Milan Srškić 1880–1937 Serb 3 July
1932
27 January
1934
Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy
14 Nikola Uzunović Nikola Uzunović 1873–1954 Serb 27 January
1934
22 December
1934

Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy
(renamed)
The Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy party was renamed into the Yugoslav National Party.
Yugoslav National Party
(renamed)

15
Bogoljub Jevtić Bogoljub Jevtić 1886–1960 Serb 22 December
1934
24 June
1935

Yugoslav National Party
(until 1935)
Yugoslav Radical Union
(from 1935)
16 Milan Stojadinovic facingright.jpg Milan Stojadinović 1886–1961 Serb 24 June
1935
5 February
1939
Yugoslav Radical Union
17 Dragiša Cvetković Dragiša Cvetković 1893–1969 Serb 5 February
1939
27 March
1941
Yugoslav Radical Union Sentenced in absentia in 1945.[1]
18 Dušan Simović Dušan Simović 1882–1962 Serb 27 March
1941
12 January
1942
None Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army. Took power by military coup d'état. Following the German invasion, he led the government into exile in London.
19 Slobodan Jovanović Slobodan Jovanović 1869–1958 Serb 12 January
1942
26 June
1943
None Headed government-in-exile.
Found guilty of treason in absentia in 1946.
20 Miloš Trifunović Miloš Trifunović 1871–1957 Serb 26 June
1943
10 August
1943
People's Radical Party Headed government-in-exile.
21 Božidar Purić Božidar Purić 1891–1977 Serb 10 August
1943
8 July
1944
None Headed government-in-exile.
Held post simultaneously with Josip Broz Tito. Alternate recognized government (the NKOJ) in existence in occupied Yugoslavia after November 29 1943.
Sentenced in absentia in 1946
22 Ivan Šubašić Ivan Šubašić 1892–1955 Croat 8 July
1944
7 March
1945
Croatian Peasant Party Headed government-in-exile.
Held post simultaneously with Josip Broz Tito. Merged into coalition government on November 2 1944, Josip Broz Tito presiding.
[2][3]
In the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
23
(1)
Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait.jpg Josip Broz Tito 1892–1980 Croat 7 March
1945
29 June
1963

Communist Party of Yugoslavia
(renamed in 1952)
Held post simultaneously (as head of the NKOJ) first with Božidar Purić, then Ivan Šubašić. Headed joint coalition government.
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
(renamed in 1952)
24
(2)
Petar Stambolić 1958.jpg Petar Stambolić 1912–2007 Serb 29 June
1963
16 May
1967
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
25
(3)
No image.png Mika Špiljak 1916–2007 Croat 16 May
1967
18 May
1969
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
26
(4)
Mitja Ribičič crop.jpg Mitja Ribičič 1919–2013 Slovene 18 May
1969
30 July
1971
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
27
(5)
No image.png Džemal Bijedić 1917–1977 Muslim 30 July
1971
18 January
1977
League of Communists of Yugoslavia Died in office.
28
(6)
No image.png Veselin Đuranović
(two terms)
1925–1997 Montenegrin 18 January
1977
16 May
1982
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
29
(7)
No image.png Milka Planinc 1924–2010 Croat 16 May
1982
15 May
1986
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
30
(8)
No image.png Branko Mikulić 1928–1995 Croat 15 May
1986
16 March
1989
League of Communists of Yugoslavia Resigned on 30 December 1988, amid widespread protests.

31
(9)
No image.png Ante Marković 1924–2011 Croat 16 March
1989
20 December
1991

League of Communists of Yugoslavia
(until January 1990)
Last prime minister of Yugoslavia.
The pan-Yugoslav League of Communists of Yugoslavia was dissolved in January 1990, Marković formed his own party, the Union of Reform Forces.
Union of Reform Forces
(from January 1990)
N/A No image.png Aleksandar Mitrović
(acting)
1933–2012 Serb 20 December
1991
14 July
1992
Socialist Party of Serbia Acting prime minister, installed by Serbia and Montenegro.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rehabilitovan Dragiša Cvetković
  2. ^ Lampe, John R.; Yugoslavia as history: twice there was a country; Cambridge University Press, 2000 ISBN 0-521-77401-2
  3. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P.; The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005; Indiana University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-253-34656-8