|Type||Broadcast television network|
September 18, 1950
|Slogan||Tupi, mais calor humano|
|Key people||Assis Chateaubriand|
|Launch date||September 18, 1950|
|Dissolved||July 18, 1980|
Rede Tupi (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʁedʒi tuˈpi], also known as TV Tupi or formally as Rádio Difusora São Paulo S.A. was the first television network in South America. The network was owned by Diários Associados, who formed the Rede de Emissoras Associadas. Rede Tupi was founded and launched on September 18, 1950 by Assis Chateaubriand in São Paulo, initially broadcasting on Tupi Television Channel 3, whose first broadcast was on September 20 of that year. Rede Tupi was later broadcast in 1960 on Tupi Television Channel 4 after the inauguration of TV Cultura (Culture TV), Channel 2, Rede Associada (Associated Network), and also a TV Station from Associadas. Their competitors were Rede Record, Channel 7, and Rede Excelsior (Network Excelsior).
In Rio de Janeiro, TV Tupi was broadcast on Tupi Channel 6, and had its own station and studios there. In Brasília, TV Tupi was retransmitted by TV Brasília on Channel 6. In Salvador, TV Tupi was retransmitted by TV Itapoan, on Channel 5. Other TV Stations were formed by the Rede de Emissoras Associadas (Associated Broadcasters Networks), all Tupi affiliates and directly operated stations.
Rede Tupi was a pioneer in television programming in South America, setting the tone for the best dramas, news programming, sports, theater and entertainment in the 1950s and 1960s like TV de Vanguarda (Vanguard TV), O Repóter Esso (The Esso Reporter), Alo Docura, Clube dos Artistas (1952–80), Beto Rockfeller, O Mundo e das Mulheres (The World for Women with Hebe Camargo), and many more. It led the way for the establishment of more television stations throughout Brazil and later across the continent, as its success prompted other nations to have television stations. The network also gave new talent to the show business of Brazil, which was then a thriving industry depending on movies and radio before Rede Tupi was launched. During the 1960s its programs revolutionized television in a big way through animation, humor, comedy and children's shows plus the best telenovelas in Brazil that gave rise to the 1965 launch of its rival network in Rio de Janeiro, Rede Globo, then broadcasting on channel 4 (the network's same channel frequency in Sao Paulo, the home city of this rival network there, Rede Record Channel 7, since 1953), that challenged the network's programming ratings in the city through TV Tupi Channel 6.
Even Tupi had its own mark in news: Rede Tupi de Noticias (Tupi News Network) became one of its successful broadcasts in its later years. The newscast is unique for it was broadcast thrice nightly, unlike the other television networks having their newscasts viewed once or twice nightly. Ana Maria Braga (who's currently with Rede Globo since 1999) was the main presenter. It had three newscasts: the first sports news, the second local news from Tupi's stations, and the third, the main newscast, national and world news.
It became the second television network in Brazil to broadcast in color after the successful pioneer broadcasts of Rede Exclesior in 1962, it did this in 1964, just two years after. After the death of its founder in 1965, the network was poised to become the first national television network, it did so in 1970, to be composed not only of its two main stations, Channels 4 and 6, its 7 other stations, all owned and operated, and 17 affiliate stations.
After 29 years of continuous broadcast throughout Brazil as the nation's first television network and 10 years as the first national television network, Rede Tupi became defunct on July 16 to 18,1980 when its two stations in Sao Paulo (Tupi Channel 4) and Rio de Janeiro (Tupi Channel 6) shut down, together with its 7 other stations nationwide, by order of the Brazilian Federal Government - a Military Dictatorship at the time - through the Department of National Telecommunications which did not approve the planned extension of Rede Tupi's television concession. The Rio station signed-off for the last time on midday of the 18th, the other stations the previous day. The final days of broadcasts at the network's Rio de Janeiro studios (including the 18-hour long vigil) were covered by various networks in Brazil, including Rede Bandeirantes. It marked the end of Brazil's first national television network, as well as a defining era of the Brazilian television industry, as millions of people tuned to their TV screens that day to witness the final moments of the nation's and Latin America's first television network.
When everyone saw the last words on Rede Tupi from its last remaining studio in Rio de Janeiro on July 18 (Até Breve Telespectadores Amigos - Portuguese for see you soon, friendly viewers, with the network's name flashing on the screen, it happened the whole day, even during the replay telecast of Pope John Paul II's first mass in Brazil), and saw their logo for the last time, as well as heard the last words ever said on its transmissions, by Cevio Cordeiro, who made an appeal to then President of Brazil General João Figueiredo and the Brazilian government plus the other media outlets not to make impossible of the network to continue working as the first television network in both Latin America and Brazil: Nos deixe trabalhar! - which was Portuguese for Let us work!, he said to every Brazilian that day. Then most of the population of Brazil and Latin America, who supported, prayed and sympathized with all its workers, personnel, talents and officers during the past 29 years of broadcasts, mourned the passing of the nation's and South America's pioneer television network, which served them for 29 years of television broadcasting and represented a great deal on their identity as well as it represented, for most of them, a getaway from their reality and the gruesome repression the military government was inflicting on them, especially the television networks.
It was succeeded by SBT (Brazilan Television System, then TVS, TV Studios Channel 4) of the Grupo Silvio Santos (Silvio Santos Group) of Silvio Santos later in August 1981 and by Rede Manchete (Network Manchete Channel 9), of the Bloch Editores (Bloch Editors) publishing group of Adolpho Bloch, in June 1983, the two stations using Rede Tupi's two channels in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (Tupi Channel 6 and Tupi Channel 4) as their own, operating from their own broadcasting centers and not from Tupi's own broadcasting studios (Rede Manchete was later succeeded by Rede TV! in 1999, after 16 years of broadcasting operations from Sao Paulo, Tupi's, Record's and Exclesior's birthplace, and a big share of regained audience ratings coupled by the network's purchase by the TeleTV! Group after the network crisis of 1998 which struck it, the second in its history).
The decision for both SBT and the Bloch Editors Group to own Rede Tupi's stations and channel frequencies as successor networks not just to Tupi but, in case of Rede Manchete, to Rede Exclesior (Rede Manchete started with 5 stations from Tupi, TVS got six to expand its nationwide reach adding them to its already two stations), plus the announcement by Rede Record and CNT of the handover of its affiliate stations all over Brazil to the networks mentioned, came just later after the station's closure in the following weeks.
- 1950-1969: A pioneira (The pioneer)
- 1970-1979: Do tamanho do Brasil (As big as Brazil)
- 1973: Sistema Tupicolor, vamos por mais cor na sua vida (Tupicolor system, let's put more color in your life)
- 1973-1975: Tupi, Uma Estação de Emoções (Tupi, A Season of Emotions)
- 1979-1980: Tupi, mais calor humano (Tupi, more warmth)
Main Broadcasting Channels
- TV Tupi São Paulo (PRF-3)/São Paulo - Tupi Channel 3 (1950–1960), Tupi Channel 4 (1960–1980)
- TV Tupi Rio de Janeiro (PRG-3)/Rio de Janeiro - Tupi Channel 6
- TV Brasília/Brasília - Channel 6 (Presently affiliated with RedeTV!)
- TV Itacolomi/Belo Horizonte - Channel 4 (Presently RedeTV!)
- TV Itapoan/Salvador - Channel 5 (Now Rede Record)
- TV Marajoara/Belém - Channel 2 (Presently with SBT, one of its first stations)
- TV Piratini/Porto Alegre - Channel 5(Now SBT)
- TV Goiânia/Goiânia - Channel 4 (Now Rede Record)
- TV Ceará/Fortaleza - Channel 2 (Now RedeTV!)
- TV Rádio Clube de Recife/Recife - Channel 6 (Now RedeTV!)
- TV Vitória/Vitória - Channel 6 (Affiliated with Rede Record)
- TV Borborema/Campina Grande - Channel 9 (Affiliated with SBT)
- TV Sentinela/Óbidos-PA - Canal 7 (Now Rede Bandeirantes)
- TV Paraná/Curitiba - Canal 6 (Now CNT)
- TV Iguaçu/Curitiba - Canal 4 (de 1978 a 1980) (Now SBT)
- TV Cultura/Florianópolis - Canal 6 (Now Record News)
- TV Uberaba/Uberaba-MG - Canal 7 (Now Rede Bandeirantes)
- TV Equatorial/Macapá/AP (1979 and 1980) - Canal 8 (Now Record News)
- TV Tibagi/Apucarana-PR - Canal 11 (Now SBT)
- TV Coroados/Londrina-PR - Canal 3 (Now Rede Globo/RPC)
- TV Rio Preto/São José do Rio Preto-SP - Canal 8 (Now canal 7 Rede Record)
- TV Esplanada/Ponta Grossa-PR - Canal 7 (Now Rede Globo/RPC)
- TV Coligadas/Blumenau-SC - Canal 3 (Now Rede Globo/RBS)
- TV Altamira/Altamira-PA - Canal 6 (Now Rede Record)
- TV Sergipe/Aracaju-SE (1971 and 1975) - Canal 4 (Now Rede Globo)
- TV Atalaia/Aracaju-SE (1975 and 1980) - Canal 8 (Now Rede Record)
- TV Baré/Manaus-AM (1972 and 1980) - Canal 4 (Now Rede Record)