2016 Summer Olympics

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"2016 Olympics" redirects here. For the Winter Youth Olympics, see 2016 Winter Youth Olympics.
"Rio 2016" redirects here. For the 2016 Paralympic Games, see 2016 Summer Paralympics.
Games of the XXXI Olympiad
2016 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Official logo of the 2016 Summer Olympics. More..
Host city Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Motto Live your passion
(Portuguese: Viva sua paixão)
Nations participating 206 qualified
Events 306 in 28 sports
Opening ceremony August 5
Closing ceremony August 21
Stadium Maracanã Stadium

The 2016 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and as Rio 2016, is a major international multi-sport event due to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games, as governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

The host city of the Games will be Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, announced at the 121st IOC Session held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2, 2009. The games will open on August 5, 2016 and the closing ceremony will be on August 21, 2016. Rio de Janiero won the bid by 66 votes.The other finalist was Madrid, Spain

There will be 35 competition venues mainly in Barra da Tijuca, but also in three other zones: Copacabana, Deodoro, and Maracanã. It will be the first time a South American and Lusophone city will host the event.

Bidding process[edit]

The then president Lula (center with flag of Brazil), the then governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro Sérgio Cabral (right), when in 2009, Rio was announced as host.

The bidding process for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games was officially launched on May 16, 2007.[1] The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by September 13, 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each applicant city by January 14, 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on June 4, 2008: Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro, and Tokyo (which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics). The IOC did not promote Doha to the Candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, due to their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku also failed to make the cut.[2]

Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids. The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on September 2, one month before elections.[3]

There are many restrictions barring the bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities cannot invite any IOC members to visit them and they cannot send them anything that can be construed as a gift. However, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media. Jon Tibbs, a consultant on the Tokyo bid, was recently quoted as saying “Ultimately, you are communicating with just 115 people and each one has influencers and pressure groups but you are still speaking to no more than about 1,500 people, perhaps 5,000 in the broadest sense. It is not just about getting ads out there but it is about a targeted and very carefully planned campaign.”[4]

The final voting was held on October 2, 2009, in Copenhagen with Chicago and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting, respectively, while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round. The lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host, becoming the first city in South America to host an Olympic Games.

2016 Summer Olympics bidding results[5]
City NOC Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 26 46 66
Madrid  Spain 28 29 32
Tokyo  Japan 22 20
Chicago  United States 18

Development and preparation[edit]

Map of Rio de Janeiro showing the competition venues for the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Maracanã Stadium, site of the opening and closing ceremonies, in addition to the finals of football.

On June 26, 2011 it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes just five months after CCO Flávio Pestana quit for personal reasons.[6] Pestana withdrew later during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was then appointed as COO.[7]

Venues and infrastructure[edit]

Barra da Tijuca will host most of the venues of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. The rest will be located in three other zones: Copacabana Beach, Maracanã and Deodoro; Barra da Tijuca will also house the Olympic Village.

Rio's historical downtown is undergoing a large-scale urban waterfront revitalization project called Porto Maravilha.[8] It covers 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi) in area. The project aims to redevelop the port area increasing the city center's attractiveness and enhancing Rio’s competitiveness position in the global economy. The urban renovation involves: 700 km (430 mi) of public networks for water supply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 4 km (2.5 mi) of tunnels; 70 km (43 mi) of roads; 650 km2 (250 sq mi) of sidewalks; 17 km (11 mi) of bike path; 15,000 trees; three sanitation treatment plants.

Security[edit]

Since the award of the 2016 Olympics to Rio de Janeiro, the city's crime problems have received more attention. A police helicopter was shot down over a favela during one of the city's many drug wars, and the pilot was killed in the incident.[9] Rio's mayor has admitted that there are "big issues" facing the city in securing the games from violence. However, he also states that such concerns and issues were presented to the IOC throughout the bidding process.[10] The governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro also highlighted the fact that London faced security problems with a terrorist attack occurring on the day following the IOC session that chose the city to host the 2012 Olympic Games.

The IOC, however, has expressed optimism with allowing the city and the nation of Brazil to address these concerns.[11] Seven years is enough time for Rio de Janeiro to clean up its crime problem the IOC says. IOC spokesman Mark Adams told The Associated Press "we have confidence in their capacity to deliver a safe Games in seven years". "Security is of course a very important aspect of any Olympic Games no matter where it is in the world. This is of course entirely under the national, regional and city authorities."[12][13][14] Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, former president of Brazil, has noted that the city has hosted other high-profile events without major incidents, for example the 2007 Pan American Games.[15]

Rio de Janeiro is planning to pacify local neighbourhoods or favelas. Community-based Police Pacification Units (UPPs) will be used to combine trust-building in individual communities, through the use of street patrols and civic work.[16] Moreover, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, homicides have fallen to the lowest level since 1991, indicating the success of Brazil's "pacification" project implemented for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics.[17] The Regional Institute of Public Safety reported that the homicide rate of Rio de Janeiro for the first five months of 2012 was at its lowest in the past 21 years, with 10.9 homicides for every 100,000 habitants.[17][18] Nonetheless, despite the decline in homicides and human rights abuses, the Human Rights Watch urged Brazil to investigate extrajudicial killings.[19] .]]

Concerns over completion[edit]

Maracanãzinho Gymnasium, site of volleyball.

On 9 May 2014, the London Evening Standard reported IOC vice-president John Coates calling Brazil’s preparations “the worst I’ve experienced” and went on to claim that construction and infrastructure projects were severely behind schedule. “The IOC has formed a special task force to try to speed up preparations but the situation is critical on the ground,” the paper quoted him as saying, concluding that such an intervention was “unprecedented”.[20] Coates' concerns had previously been reported elsewhere in the media.[21][22]

Emergency host cities[edit]

In the same article, the London Evening Standard claims that "an informal approach" had been made by the IOC to see whether, in case of Rio not being ready in time, London could act as an emergency host city, quoting an unnamed source as saying: “At a comparable planning stage in 2004 Athens had done 40 per cent of preparations on infrastructure, stadiums and so on. London had done 60 per cent. Brazil has done 10 per cent — and they have just two years left. So the IOC is thinking, ‘What’s our plan B?’. Obviously, the answer would be to come back to London. It’s very unlikely but it would be the logical thing to do.” The Standard also reported, however, that the idea had been officially dismissed by a spokeswoman for the IOC, calling it a “non-starter and unfeasible”.[20]

In June 2014, before starting the 2014 FIFA World Cup, reports citing confidential meetings between the IOC and Madrid authorities arose in Spanish media pointing towards the possibility of hosting the games in Madrid.[23][24][25]

While highly unusual, a move of the Games to another host city would not be unprecedented. The 1908 Summer Olympics were originally scheduled to take place in Rome, Italy, but were then held in London after an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906 had put Italy under severe financial strain. The 1976 Winter Olympics were originally awarded to Denver, USA but then were held in Innsbruck, Austria due to local political red tape regarding public funding for stadiums.

Financing[edit]

Phase I – Applicant City[edit]

       Revenue     Federal Government      State Government        TOTAL
       Public Funds     3,022,097.88    3,279,984.98       6,302,082.86
                          Donations by individuals              TOTAL
       Private Funds          2,804,822.16                 2,804,822.16
       GENERAL TOTAL                                       9,106,905.02

Phase II – Candidate City[edit]

               Revenue     Public funds                     Private funds               General Total
               Federal government       47,402,531.75   Instituto EBX   13,000,000.00    
               State government 3,617,556.00    Eike Bastista   10,000,000.00    
               Municipal government     4,995,620.93    Bradesco S/A    3,500,000.00     
                                                        Odebrecht S/A   3,300,000.00     
                                                        Embratel S/A    3,000,000.00     
                                                        TAM Arlines¹    1,233,726.00     
               Total                   56,015,708.68    34,033,726.00                90,049,434.68

¹TAM Airlines contributed with R$1,233,726.00 in the form of discounts in air tickets.

Note: The residual balance was used to fund the first months of operation of Rio 2016 Organizing Committee.[26]

Ticketing[edit]

The ticket prices were announced on 16 September 2014, and all will be sold in Brazilian Reals (R$). A total of 7.5 million tickets will be sold; 200,000 tickets less compared to the 2012 Summer Olympics,because the size of many arenas is smaller. Ticket prices range from R$40 for many events to R$4.600 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. About 3.8 million of these tickets will be available for R$70 or more cheaper.[27][28] The street events could be watched along the route for free.

Opening ceremony[edit]

The opening ceremony will take place in the Maracanã Stadium on August 5, 2016.

Closing ceremony[edit]

The closing ceremony will also take place at the Maracanã Stadium on August 21, 2016.

The Games[edit]

Sports[edit]

There were two open spots for sports and initially seven sports began the bidding for inclusion in the 2016 program. Baseball and softball, which were dropped from the program in 2005, karate, squash, golf, roller sports, and rugby union all applied to be included. Leaders of the seven sports held presentations in front of the IOC executive board in June 2009.[29]

In August, the executive board initially gave its approval to rugby sevens—a seven-man version of rugby union—by a majority vote, thus removing baseball, roller sports, and squash from contention. Among the remaining three—golf, karate, and softball, the board approved golf as a result of consultation. The final decision regarding the remaining two sports was made on October 9, 2009, the final day of the 121st IOC Session. A new system was in place at this session; a sport now needed only a simple majority from the full IOC committee for approval rather than the two-thirds majority previously required.[30][31] International Golf Federation executive director Antony Scanlon said that the top players, including Tiger Woods and Annika Sörenstam, would show their continued support of golf's Olympic involvement by participating in the events.[32]

In May 2012, the International Sailing Federation announced that windsurfing would be removed from the 2016 Olympic sailing programme and replaced by kitesurfing.[33] This decision was reversed in November.[34]

In January 2013, representatives for the IOC announced that the commission would be forced to review the status of cycling events following Lance Armstrong's admission to the use of performance-enhancing drugs amid accusations that senior members of the Union Cycliste Internationale —the governing body of cycling— had participated in a cover-up of widespread blood doping within the sport.[35]

In contrast to the exception during the 2012 Olympics, the International Gymnastics Federation announced that these Games will have a gala event for gymnastics.[36]

The 2016 Summer Olympic programme features 28 sports and a total of 41 disciplines and 306 events.

Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

The first three nations to qualify athletes for the Games were Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands who each qualified four athletes for the team dressage by winning medals in the team event at the 2014 FEI World Equestrian Games.[37] As host nation Brazil has also received automatic entry for some sports including in all cycling disciplines and six places for weightlifting events.[38][39] As of October 13, 2014, 57 out of the current 205 NOCs have qualified at least one athlete.


Participating National Olympic Committees
Sambadrome, site of marathon and archery.

Calendar[edit]

All dates are Brasília Time (UTC–3)

This is the provisional calendar as of June 2014 (version 1.3).[43]

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medals EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony
August 3
Wed
4
Thu
5
Fri
6
Sat
7
Sun
8
Mon
9
Tue
10
Wed
11
Thu
12
Fri
13
Sat
14
Sun
15
Mon
16
Tue
17
Wed
18
Thu
19
Fri
20
Sat
21
Sun
Gold medals
Ceremonies OC CC
Archery 1 1 1 1 4
Athletics 2 3 6 6 5 4 6 7 7 1 47
Badminton 1 1 1 1 1 5
Basketball 1 1 2
Boxing 3 5 5 11
Canoeing tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd 16
Cycling 1 1 2 tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd 1 1 1 1 18
Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Equestrian 2 2 1 1 6
Fencing 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
Field hockey 1 1 2
Football 1 1 2
Golf 1 1 2
Gymnastics 1 1 1 1 1 1 tbd tbd tbd EG 1 1 18
Handball 1 1 2
Judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14
Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Rowing tbd tbd tbd tbd 14
Rugby sevens 2 2
Sailing tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd 11
Shooting 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 15
Swimming tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd 1 1 34
Synchronized swimming 1 1 2
Table tennis 1 1 1 1 4
Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8
Tennis 2 2 4
Triathlon 1 1 2
Volleyball 1 1 1 1 4
Water polo 1 1 2
Weightlifting 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15
Wrestling tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd 15
Total gold medals 301
Cumulative total 301
August 3
Wed
4
Thu
5
Fri
6
Sat
7
Sun
8
Mon
9
Tue
10
Wed
11
Thu
12
Fri
13
Sat
14
Sun
15
Mon
16
Tue
17
Wed
18
Thu
19
Fri
20
Sat
21
Sun
Gold medals

Event times[edit]

Swimming heats will be held at 1 p.m. local time in Rio (UTC−3). Swimming finals will be held from 10 p.m. to midnight local time. Some beach volleyball matches will begin at midnight local time.[44]

Records[edit]

Medal count[edit]

Marketing[edit]

[edit]

The Rio 2016 logo was designed by Tatíl Design, a Brazilian company, and unveiled on December 31, 2010.[45] The logo represents three figures, in the yellow, green, and blue of the Brazilian flag, joined at the arms and in a triple embrace, with the overall shape reflecting that of Sugarloaf Mountain. The logo was based on four concepts: contagious energy, harmonious diversity, exuberant nature, and Olympic spirit. The Rio firm Tatil designed the winning entry for the logo in a competition involving 139 agencies.[46] According to former IOC President Jacques Rogge, the logo captures the vision of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil for these Games. The logo has been noted as evoking Henri Matisse's painting Dance.[47]

Official mascot[edit]

The official mascots of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on November 24, 2014. The Olympic mascot is called Vinicius and is named after musicians Vinicius de Moraes. The Paralympic mascot is called Tom, named after the musician Tom Jobim. The Olympic mascot represents Brazilian wildlife, primarily carrying design traits of mammals. The agility of cats, sway of monkeys and grace of birds. He can stretch his arms and legs as much as he wants. The mascots' fictional backstories state that they were both born from the joy of Brazilians after it was announced that Rio would host the Games. Brand director Beth Lula stated that the mascots are intended to reflect the diversity of Brazil's culture and people. The names of the mascots were determined by a public vote won over two other sets of names, tallying 44 percent of 323,327 votes, whose results were announced on December 14, 2014. The other choices were Oba and Eba and Tiba Tuque and Esquindim.[48][49]

Broadcasting[edit]

In August 2009, the IOC reached a deal to sell domestic broadcast rights to the 2016 Summer Olympics to Grupo Globo. Replacing Rede Record (who made a blunder coverage to the 2012 Summer Olympics), the deal covers free-to-air coverage on Rede Globo, pay TV, and digital rights to the Games. In turn, Globo sub-licensed partial free-to-air rights to Rede Record, along with Rede Bandeirantes, and later the sub-partial rights were sold to SBT as well. IOC board member Richard Carrión described the agreement as "unprecedented", touting that "by working with Brazil’s leading media organizations, we are confident that this represents a great deal for Olympic fans in the region. There will be a huge increase in the amount of Olympic action broadcast, both during and outside Games time, and Brazilians will have more choice of how, when and where they follow the Olympic Games."[50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2016 Bid Process Launched". International Olympic Committee. May 16, 2007. 
  2. ^ "Four on 2016 Olympics short-list". BBC News. June 4, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Olympic News - Official Source of Olympic News". Olympic.org. Retrieved July 30, 2012. 
  4. ^ Rings Around the World Communicate magazine, April 2009
  5. ^ GamesBids.com Past Olympic Host Cities Selection List
  6. ^ Another Exec Quits Rio Olympics
  7. ^ [1][dead link]
  8. ^ Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro City Hall. Retrieved on August 10, 2012. (Portuguese).
  9. ^ "Rio gang violence amid Olympics safety concerns". Presstv.ir. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Rio's mayor expresses safety concerns for 2016 Olympics , ksdk.com , St. Louis, MO". ksdk.com. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  11. ^ Wilson, Stephen (October 20, 2009). "IOC confident in Rio despite new wave of violence". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Olympic Newsdesk — IOC Confident in Rio; Obama Addresses Critics". Aroundtherings.com. October 21, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  13. ^ [2][dead link]
  14. ^ "IOC show confidence in Brazil efforts". ESPN. October 20, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2012. 
  15. ^ "The Daily Advance". The Daily Advance. Retrieved March 15, 2010. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Pacifying Rio’s Favelas". latintelligence.com. Retrieved June 22, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b Knott, Tracey (June 29, 2012). "Rio de Janeiro Homicides Reach 21-Year Low". InSight Crime. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Homicidios en Río de Janeiro llegan a su nivel más bajo desde 1991". La Nueva Provincia (in Spanish). June 27, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  19. ^ Stone, Hannah (June 19, 2012). "Human Rights Watch Praises, Criticizes Rio Govt". InSight Crime. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  20. ^ a b Moore-Bridger, Benedict (9 May 2014). "Could Rio games come to London? Olympic bosses make secret plea to use 2012 venues". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  21. ^ Gibson, Owen (29 April 2014). "Rio 2016 Olympic preparations damned as 'worst ever' by IOC". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  22. ^ "Rio's Olympic preparations 'worst' ever, says IOC's Coate". Reuters. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  23. ^ "Juegos Olímpicos - Madrid sustituiría a Río 2016". Eurosport.com. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  24. ^ "¿Baraja el COI que Madrid celebre los Juegos Olímpicos de 2016?". El Imparcial. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  25. ^ "La ciudad de Madrid se postula como candidata preferida para sustituir a Río de Janeiro como sede de las Juegos Olímpicos 2016". Extraconfidencial.com. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  26. ^ http://www.rio2016.com/en/transparency/frequently-asked-questions
  27. ^ "Prijzen tickets Olympische Spelen 2016 in Rio bekend". olympischespelenrio.nl. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  28. ^ "Olympic Games ticket prices September 2014". Rio 2016. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  29. ^ "Golf among seven sports seeking inclusion in 2016 Games". ESPN. April 25, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Olympic Leaders Approve Golf and Rugby for 2016 Summer Games". Fox News. August 13, 2009. Retrieved October 1, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Olympics 2016: IOC Approves Golf And Rugby Sevens To Be Included In Rio De Janeiro Games.". News.sky.com. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  32. ^ http://www.aroundtherings.com/articles/view.aspx?id=37197
  33. ^ "Kiteboarding to replace windsurfing at 2016 Rio Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved May 10, 2012. 
  34. ^ "Windsurfing restored to Brazil 2016 Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved November 14, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Armstrong confession could see cycling out of Olympics". ABC.net.au (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique : ACRO". Fig-gymnastics.com. May 23, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2012. 
  37. ^ a b c d e "Rio Olympics gets 1st qualified athletes". USA Today (The Associated Press). 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  38. ^ "UCI and IOC agree qualification quotas for Rio 2016". Reuters. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  39. ^ Anderson, Gary (2 February 2014). "Weightlifting qualification criteria for Rio 2016 approved by IOC". Inside the Games. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  40. ^ a b c d e f "World Equestrian Games: GB silver as Fox-Pitt wins bronze". BBC sport (BBC). 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  41. ^ "1st qualified spanish athlete". Marca (Marca.com). 12 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  42. ^ http://www.sailing.org/2016-olympic-games.php
  43. ^ "http://www.nocnsf.nl/stream/olympic-daily-competition-schedule-v1.3-june-2014.pdf". NOC*NSF. June 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  44. ^ http://www.usnews.com/news/sports/articles/2014/12/05/swimming-beach-volleyball-will-be-on-late-in-rio
  45. ^ Nudd, Tim (August 14, 2012). "Hated the London 2012 Logo? You Might Like Rio 2016 Better Brazil's Tatíl Design tells story of its creation". Adweek. Retrieved August 14, 2012. 
  46. ^ "2016 Summer Olympics Logo: Design and History". Famouslogos.us. July 28, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2011. 
  47. ^ Rio 2016: Another Olympic logo. Another controversy - Steve Douglas - The Logo Factory - January 3, 2011
  48. ^ "Rio 2016: Olympic and Paralympic mascots launched". Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  49. ^ "Rio 2016 mascots inspired by animals and plants of Brazil". Reuters. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  50. ^ "IOC reaches agreement for 2014 & 2016 broadcast rights in Brazil". Olympic.org. August 27, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
London
Summer Olympic Games
Rio de Janeiro

XXXI Olympiad (2016)
Succeeded by
Tokyo