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The 1450s decade ran from January 1, 1450, to December 31, 1459.
- February 7 – John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, marries Lady Margaret Beaufort.
- February 26 – Francesco Sforza enters Milan after a siege, becoming Duke of the city-state, and founding a dynasty that will rule Milan for a century.
- March – French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, in Caen.
- April 15 – Battle of Formigny: French troops under the Comte de Clermont defeat an English army under Sir Thomas Kyriel and Sir Matthew Gough, which was attempting to relieve Caen.
- May 8 – Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI of England.
- May 9 – Abdal-Latif Mirza, a Timurid Dynasty monarch, is assassinated.
- May 13 – Charles VIII of Sweden, also serving as Carl I of Norway, is declared deposed from the latter throne, in favor of Christian I of Denmark.
- June 18 – Battle of Seven Oaks: Jack Cade's rebels are driven from London by loyal troops, bringing about the collapse of the rebellion.
- July 6 – Caen surrenders to the French.
- July 12 – Jack Cade is slain in a skirmish.
- August 12 – Cherbourg, the last English territory in Normandy, surrenders to the French.
- October 5 – Jews are expelled from Lower Bavaria, by order of Duke Ludwig IX.
- November 3 – The University of Barcelona is founded.
- November 23 – First Siege of Krujë: Albanian troops are victorious, forcing an Ottoman army of approximately 100,000 men to retreat from Albania.
- Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu, "Old mountain"), a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,400 meters (7,875 ft) above sea level, is believed to be under construction.
- A religious sacrifice of over a hundred children is performed around this time, outside of the ancient city of Chan Chan (near modern Trujillo), on the north coast of Peru.
- Johannes Gutenberg has set up his movable type printing press, as a commercial operation in Mainz, by this date.
- February 3 – Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, dies and is succeeded (on February 18) by his son, Mehmed II.
- February 14 – Louis XI of France marries Charlotte of Savoy.
- April 11 – Celje acquires market town status and town rights, by orders from Count Frederic II of Celje.
- April 19 – In the Delhi Sultanate, the Afghan Lodi Dynasty succeeds the Turkish Sayyid Dynasty.
- June 30 – French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne, and capture Bordeaux.
- August 20 – The French capture Bayonne, the last English stronghold in Guyenne.
- October – After assassinating Bogdan II of Moldavia, Petru Aron takes up the throne.
- October 28 – Revolt of Ghent: Ghent takes up arms against Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
- The University of Glasgow is founded.
- The Great Peacemaker along with Jigonhsasee and Hiawatha, found the Haudenosaunee, commonly called the Iroquois Confederacy
- February – Alexăndrel retakes the throne of Moldavia, in his long struggle with Petru Aron.
- February 22 – William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas is killed by James II of Scotland, at Stirling Castle.
- March 17 – Reconquista – Battle of Los Alporchones (around the city of Lorca in Murcia): The combined forces of the Kingdom of Castile, and its subsidiary kingdom of Murcia, defeat the Emirate of Granada.
- March 19 – Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes the last to be crowned in Rome.
- May 31 – Revolt of Ghent: Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, officially declares war on Ghent.
- June 18 – Pope Nicholas V issues the bull Dum Diversas, legitimising the colonial slave trade.
- English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight.
- Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman governor of Thessaly, Turakhan Beg, breaks through the Hexamilion wall for the fourth time, and ravages the Peloponnese Peninsula to prevent the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea from assisting Constantinople, during the final Ottoman siege of the imperial capital.
- A major eruption of the South Pacific volcano Kuwae in Vanuatu has a subsequent global cooling effect (the eruption releases more sulfate than any other event in the previous 700 years).
- Portuguese navigator Diogo de Teive discovers the islands of Corvo and Flores, in the Azores.
- Battle of Bealach nam Broig, a Scottish clan battle.
- Edinburgh officially becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Scotland.
- April – Tarabya and Studius are taken by the Ottoman Empire, in preparation for the assault on Constantinople, as are the Prince Islands, by the Ottoman fleet under Admiral Baltaoglu.
- April 6–May 29 – Siege and Fall of Constantinople: The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror puts a decisive final end to the Eastern Roman Empire, nearly one and a half thousand years after its foundation by Augustus, by capturing the capital, Constantinople. Mortars are (perhaps) used in battle for the first time in this action. The consequent closure of the traditional overland route from Western Europe to the Far East, and need to identify new maritime routes, leads to the Age of Discovery, and ends the Middle Ages.
- May 22 – May 1453 lunar eclipse, a partial eclipse, is visible during the siege of Constantinople.
- July 17 – Battle of Castillon: In the last pitched battle of the Hundred Years' War, the French under Jean Bureau defeat the English under the Earl of Shrewsbury, who is killed.
- July 23 – Battle of Gavere in Flanders: Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, is victorious over the rebels of Ghent, leading to surrender of their city and the end of the Revolt of Ghent.
- October 19 – The French recapture Bordeaux, ending the Hundred Years' War and leaving the English retaining only Calais on French soil.
- October 28 – Ladislaus the Posthumous is crowned King of Bohemia, although George of Poděbrady remains in control of the government.
- November 10 – Sejo of Joseon kills his enemy General Kim Jong-seo and gains control of the government in Joseon Korea (where this rebellion is called Gyeyujeongnan).
- February 4 – Thirteen Years' War: The Secret Council of the Prussian Confederation sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master, and the citizens of Toruń rebel against the Teutonic Knights, beginning the conflict.
- March 6 – Casimir IV of Poland renounces allegiance to the Teutonic Knights.
- March 27 – Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, becomes Protector for King Henry VI of England, who is in a catatonic state.
- April 9 – Treaty of Lodi: Francesco Sforza forms a triple alliance between the Duchy of Milan, the Republic of Florence and Kingdom of Naples.
- August – In Moldavia, Petru Aron retakes the throne from Alexăndrel.
- September 18 – Thirteen Years' War – Battle of Chojnice: The Polish army is defeated by a smaller but more professional Teutonic army.
- December – King Henry VI of England having regained his sanity, the Duke of York is dismissed as Protector.
- The press of Johannes Gutenberg (at Mainz on the Rhine) produces the first printed documents bearing a date.
- Isaac Zarfati sends a circular letter to Rhineland, Swabia, Moravia and Hungary, praising the happy conditions of the Jews under the crescent, in contrast to the "great torture chamber" under the cross, and urging them to come to the Ottoman Empire.
- The Statutes of Nieszawa are enacted in Poland.
- January 8 – Pope Nicholas V publishes Romanus Pontifex, an encyclical addressed to King Afonso V of Portugal, which sanctions the conquest of non-Christian lands, and the reduction of native non-Christian populations to 'perpetual slavery'. (Later there will be a dramatic reversal when, in 1537, the bull Sublimis Deus of Pope Paul III forbids the enslavement of non-Christians.)
- February 23 – The Gutenberg Bible is the first book printed with movable type.
- April 8 – Pope Calixtus III succeeds Pope Nicholas V, as the 209th pope.
- Spring – The Wars of the Roses begin in England.
- May 1 – Battle of Arkinholm: Forces loyal to King James II of Scotland defeat the supporters of the Earl of Douglas.
- May 22 – First Battle of St Albans: Richard, Duke of York, defeats and captures King Henry VI of England.
- November 15 – The conflict between Vladislav II of Wallachia and John Hunyadi escalates, so the latter decides to support Vlad the Impaler for the throne of Wallachia, the following year.
- May 18 – Second Battle of Oronichea (1456): Ottoman Forces of 15,000 are sent to capture Albania, but are met and swiftly defeated by Skanderbeg's smaller forces.
- June 9 – Halley's Comet makes an appearance, as noted by the humanist scholar Platina.
- July 7 – A retrial of Joan of Arc acquits her of heresy, 25 years after her execution.
- July 22 – Battle of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade): The Hungarians under John Hunyadi rout the Turkish army of Sultan Mehmed II. The noon bell ordered by Pope Callixtus III commemorates the victory throughout the Christian world (and hence is still rung).
- August 20 – Vladislav II, reigning Prince of Wallachia, is killed in hand-to-hand combat by Vlad the Impaler, who succeeds him.
- October 17 – The University of Greifswald is established, making it the second oldest university in Northern Europe, also (for a period) the oldest in Sweden and Prussia.
- Lazar Branković becomes despot of Serbia.
- Alvise Cadamosto discovers some of the Cape Verde Islands.
- Diogo Gomes reaches the Geba River in Guinea Bissau, and explores the Gambia River.
- Emperor Zara Yaqob of Ethiopia founds the city of Debre Berhan.
- Muscovy and the Novgorod Republic conclude the Treaty of Yazhelbitsy.
- Petru Aron becomes the first ruler of Moldavia to pay tribute to the Ottomans.
- February 11 – After years of captivity and absence from the Ming throne, the Zhengtong Emperor of China is reinstated, as the Tianshun Emperor.
- February 24 – Charles VIII of Sweden is declared deposed. The Archbishop of Sweden, Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna, and statesman Erik Axelsson Tott become co-regents of Sweden. The throne is then offered to Christian I of Denmark and Norway.
- March 6 – King James II of Scotland decrees that ". . . ye futebawe and ye golf be uterly cryt done and not usyt . . " The first historical mention of the game of golf.
- April 12 – Ştefan cel Mare secures the throne of Moldavia, which he retains for the next 47 years.
- June 23 – Christian I is elected king of Sweden, ending the war between Sweden and Denmark and restoring the Kalmar Union.
- June 29 – The Dutch city of Dordrecht is devastated by fire.
- August 14 – The Mainz Psalter, the second major book printed with movable type in the West, the first to be wholly finished mechanically (including colour), and the first to carry a printed date, is printed for the Elector of Mainz.
- September 2 – Battle of Ujëbardha: One of Skanderbeg's most important victories is won against the Ottoman army, in the open field.
- Albrechts University is founded, at Freiburg im Breisgau.
- Edo Castle is built by Ōta Dōkan, in modern-day Tokyo.
- January 24 – Matthias Corvinus becomes king of Hungary, at age 14.
- March 25 – The Love Day is staged in London, by which Henry VI of England attempts to unite the warring factions who have triggered the War of the Roses.
- August 19 – Pope Pius II succeeds Pope Callixtus III, as the 210th pope.
- October 24 – King Afonso V of Portugal conquers Ksar es-Seghir, in North Africa.
- Magdalen College, Oxford, is founded.
- George of Poděbrady becomes king of Bohemia.
- The Ottoman authorities issue a decree to protect the Acropolis, after they conquer Athens.
- The Jewish community is expelled from Erfurt (Germany); their houses are sold, and the synagogue turned into an arsenal.
- Moctezuma I, Tlatoani of Tenochtitlán, leads an expedition to the city-state Coixtlahuaca in Mixtec territory, but is defeated.
- A major volcano erupts from the Kuwae caldera, in the Pacific Ocean.
- January 18 – The Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem is founded by Pope Pius II, to defend the island of Lemnos.
- September 23 – Wars of the Roses: Battle of Blore Heath in England – Yorkists under Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, defeat a Lancastrian force.
- October 12 – Wars of the Roses: With a royal force advancing on his fortress at Ludlow, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, flees to Ireland, while his ally Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (Warwick the Kingmaker, eldest son of the Earl of Salisbury) goes to Calais.
- The Wallachian town of Bucharest is first mentioned.
- The city of Jodhpur, in western India, is founded by Rao Jodha of Marwar.
- Richard, Duke of York, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, returns on a second visit to Ireland. The Irish Parliament, meeting at Drogheda, upholds his authority against Henry VI, and an English Act of Attainder.
- Richard Hygons, English composer, begins fifty years service at Wells Cathedral.
- King Stephen Thomas of Bosnia forces the clergy of the Bosnian Church into exile.
- According to a legend, the wedding of Christian Rosenkreuz takes place.
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- February 12 – Yejong of Joseon, Joseon King (d. 1469)
- May 18 – Piero Soderini, Florentine statesman (d. 1513)
- June 22 – Eleanor of Naples, Duchess of Ferrara (d. 1493)
- July 25 – Jakob Wimpfeling, Renaissance humanist (d. 1528)
- August 18 – Marko Marulić, Croatian poet (d. 1524)
- September 25 – Ursula of Brandenburg, Duchess of Münsterberg-Oels and Countess of Glatz (d. 1508)
- November 12 – Jacques of Savoy, Count of Romont, Prince of Savoy (d. 1486)
- date unknown
- Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād, Persian leader of the Herat school
- Hieronymus Bosch, Dutch painter (d. 1516)
- Gaspar Corte-Real, Portuguese explorer (d. 1501)
- Juan de la Cosa, Spanish navigator and cartographer (d. 1510)
- Josquin des Prez, Dutch composer (d. 1521)
- Heinrich Isaac, Franco-Flemish composer (d. 1517)
- Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter (d. 1519)
- Pietro Antonio Solari, Italian architect (d. 1493)
- Petrus Thaborita, Dutch historian and monk (d. 1527)
- Nyai Gede Pinateh, Javanese merchant (d. 1500)
- January 14 – Franchinus Gaffurius, Italian composer (d. 1522)
- January 29 – John, Prince of Portugal, Prince of Portugal (d. 1451)
- February 17 – Raffaello Maffei, Italian theologian (d. 1522)
- March 5 – William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, English earl (d. 1491)
- March 9 – Amerigo Vespucci, Italian explorer (d. 1512)
- April 22 – Queen Isabella I of Castile, Castillian queen regnant and first queen of a united Spain (by marriage to Ferdinand of Aragon) (d. 1504)
- May 2 – René II, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1508)
- May 17 – Engelbert II of Nassau, Count of Nassau-Vianden and Lord of Breda (1475–1504) (d. 1504)
- June 1 – Giles Daubeney, 1st Baron Daubeney (d. 1508)
- July 10 – James III of Scotland (d. 1488)
- September 5 – Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence, elder daughter of Richard Neville (d. 1476)
- November 29 – Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Württemberg (d. 1524)
- date unknown
- February 6 – Joanna, Princess of Portugal (d. 1490)
- February 14
- March 10 – King Ferdinand II of Aragon, Aragonese king and first king of a united Spain (by marriage to Isabella of Castile) (d. 1516)
- April 15 – Leonardo da Vinci, Italian artist and inventor (d. 1519)
- April 19 – King Frederick of Naples (d. 1504)
- May 18 – Henry the Younger of Poděbrady, Bohemian nobleman (d. 1492)
- July 27
- August 12 – Abraham Zacuto, Spanish Jewish astronomer, astrologer, mathematician, rabbi and historian (d. 1515)
- September 21 – Girolamo Savonarola, Italian religious reformer (d. 1498)
- October 2 – King Richard III of England (d. 1485)
- December 6 – Antonio Mancinelli, Italian humanist pedagogue and grammarian (d. 1505)
- December 10 – Johannes Stöffler, German mathematician (d. 1531)
- Date unknown
- January 1 – Bernardin Frankopan, Croatian nobleman, diplomat and soldier (d. 1529)
- February 6 – Girolamo Benivieni, Florentine poet (d. 1542)
- March 2 – Johannes Engel, German doctor, astronomer and astrologer (d. 1512)
- March 3 – Philip II, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1486–1524) (d. 1524)
- March 25 – Giuliano de' Medici, co-ruler of Florence with Lorenzo de' Medici (d. 1478)
- April 18 – Margaret of Brandenburg, abbess of the Poor Clares monastery at Hof (d. 1509)
- May 13 – Mary Stewart, Countess of Arran, Scottish princess (d. 1488)
- June 10 – Francesco Soderini, Catholic cardinal (d. 1524)
- September 1 – Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Spanish general and statesman (d. 1515)
- October 13 – Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales (d. 1471)
- November 13 – Christoph I, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1475–1515) (d. 1527)
- November 17 – Alfonso, Prince of Asturias (d. 1468)
- date unknown – Jacob Obrecht, Flemish composer (d. 1505)
- probable – Afonso de Albuquerque, Portuguese admiral (d. 1515)
- June 3 – Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania (1474–1523) (d. 1523)
- June 16 – Joanna of Aragon, Queen of Naples (d. 1517)
- July 14 – Poliziano, Italian humanist (d. 1494)
- September 4 – Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, English politician (d. 1483)
- September 24 – Gerold Edlibach, Swiss historian (d. 1530)
- November 25 – Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus (d. 1510)
- date unknown
- January 9 – William IV, Duke of Jülich-Berg, Count of Ravensberg (d. 1511)
- January 29 – Johann Reuchlin, German-born humanist and scholar (d. 1522)
- February 2 – King John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (d. 1513)
- March 3
- March 15 – Pietro Accolti, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1532)
- April 17 – Andrea Gritti, Doge of Venice (d. 1538)
- May 16 – Wolfgang I of Oettingen, German count (d. 1522)
- June 1 – Anne of Savoy, Savoy royal (d. 1480)
- July 9 – Frederick IV of Baden, Dutch bishop (d. 1517)
- July 15 – Queen Yun, Korean queen (d. 1482)
- August 2 – John Cicero, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1499)
- August 15 – George, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1503)
- November 9 – Johann V of Nassau-Vianden-Dietz, Lord of Breda and Stadtholder of Guelders and Zutphen (d. 1516)
- date unknown
- Peter Vischer the Elder, German sculptor (approximate date) (d. 1529)
- Estefania Carròs i de Mur, Spanish educator (approximate date) (d. 1511)
- Raden Patah, Javanese sultan, founder of the Demak Sultanate (d. 1518)
- María de Ajofrín, Spanish visionary (d. 1489)
- Nicholas Barnham, English knight, killed in the War of the Roses (d. 1485)
- March – Jan Łaski, Polish nobleman (d. 1531)
- March 1 – Vladislaus II, king of Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia (d. 1516)
- June 11 – Anne Neville, queen consort of Richard III of England (d. 1485)
- June 23 – Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland, consort of James III of Scotland (d. 1486)
- June 25 – Henry V of Rosenberg, Bohemian nobleman (d. 1489)
- October 16 – Ludmila of Poděbrady, Regent of the duchies of Brzeg and Oława from 1488 (d. 1503)
- November 7 – Margaret of Bavaria, Electress Palatine and hereditary princess of Bavaria-Landshut (d. 1501)
- November 8 – Queen Gonghye, Korean royal consort (d. 1474)
- date unknown
- January 18 – Antonio Trivulzio, seniore, Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1508)
- January 28 – King Henry VII of England (d. 1509)
- February 2 – Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, Italo-Spanish historian and diplomat (d. 1526)
- February 13 – Mary of Burgundy, sovereign duchess regnant of Burgundy, married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1482)
- August 20 – Seongjong of Joseon, King of Joseon (d. 1494)
- September 21 – Hedwig Jagiellon, Duchess of Bavaria, Polish princess (d. 1502)
- November 16 – Beatrice of Naples, Hungarian queen (d. 1508)
- date unknown
- February 15 – Ivan the Young, Ruler of Tver (d. 1490)
- April 9 – Camilla Battista da Varano, Italian saint (d. 1524)
- April 13 – John II, Duke of Cleves (d. 1521)
- May 2 – Eleanor of Viseu, Portuguese princess and later Queen of Portugal (d. 1525)
- August 18 – Lorenzo Pucci, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1531)
- October 3 – Saint Casimir, Prince of Poland and Duke of Lithuania (d. 1484)
- October 16 – Adolph II, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, German prince (d. 1526)
- December 25 – Amago Tsunehisa, Japanese warlord (d. 1541)
- date unknown
- January 25 – Paul Hofhaimer, Austrian organist and composer (d. 1537)
- March 2 – Pope Adrian VI (d. 1523)
- March 6 – Jakob Fugger, German banker (d. 1525)
- March 22 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1519)
- May 15 – John I, Count Palatine of Simmern (1480–1509) (d. 1509)
- July – Mingyi Nyo, founder of the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) (d. 1530)
- July 11 – Kaspar, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, German nobleman (d. 1527)
- October 6 – Martin Behaim, German explorer and cartographer (d. 1507)
- December 22 – Sultan Cem, pretender to the Ottoman throne (d. 1495)
- December 27 – King John I Albert of Poland (d. 1501)
- date unknown – Edward Poynings, Lord Deputy to King Henry VII of England (d. 1521)
- probable – Lorenzo di Credi, Florentine painter and sculptor (d. 1537)
- date unknown – Jheronimus de Clibano, Dutch composer (d. 1503)
- date unknown – Jean Mouton, French composer (d. 1522)
- January 9 – Adam Moleyns, English courtier and Bishop of Chichester
- February 9 – Agnès Sorel, mistress of Charles VII of France (b. c. 1422)
- April 8 – Sejong the Great of Joseon, ruler of Korea (b. 1397)
- May 2 – William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, English military leader (born 1396)
- May 9 – Abdal-Latif Mirza, ruler of Transoxania
- July 2 – Ranuccio Farnese il Vecchio, Italian condottiero (b. c. 1390)
- July 4 – James Fiennes, 1st Baron Saye and Sele, English soldier and politician (b. c. 1395)
- July 18 – Francis I, Duke of Brittany (b. 1414)
- July 26 – Cecily Neville, Duchess of Warwick (b. 1424)
- August 15 – Alberto da Sarteano, Italian Franciscan friar and papal legate (b. 1385)
- August 27 – Reginald West, 6th Baron De La Warr, English politician (b. 1395)
- August 31 – Isabella of Navarre, Countess of Armagnac (b. 1395)
- September 16 – Louis Aleman, French cardinal
- September 22 – William Tresham, English politician
- October 1 – Leonello d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Italian noble (b. 1407)
- November 3 – Paola Colonna, Lady of Piombino (b. c. 1378)
- November 5 – John IV, Count of Armagnac (b. 1396)
- January 7 – Antipope Felix V (b. 1383)
- February 3 – Murad II, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1404)
- June – ‘Abdullah, Timurid Empire ruler
- June 8 – Henry II, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Co-ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg (1442–1450) (b. 1414)
- July 11 – Barbara of Cilli, Holy Roman Empress, queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 1392)
- October – Bogdan II of Moldavia, assassinated by Petru Aron
- date unknown
- February 10
- Švitrigaila, Grand Prince of Lithuania
- Michał Bolesław Zygmuntowicz (Michael Žygimantaitis), Prince of Black Ruthenia
- February 14 – Konrad VII the White, Duke of Oleśnica
- February 22 – William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas (b. 1425)
- April 20 – Reinhard III, Count of Hanau (1451–1452) (b. 1412)
- May – John Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury
- October – Nicholas Close, English bishop
- probable – Gemistus Pletho, Greek philosopher
- February 28 – Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine (b. 1400)
- May 29
- Constantine XI Palaiologos, last Byzantine Emperor (b. 1405)
- Athanasius II of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
- Theophilos Palaiologos, Byzantine grammarian, humanist and mathematician. Cousin of Constantine XI.
- Demetrios Palaiologos Metochites, last governor of Constantinople
- Orhan Çelebi, Ottoman prince (b. 1412)
- June 1
- June 2 – Álvaro de Luna, Duke of Trujillo, Constable of Castille
- June 3 – Loukas Notaras, last megas doux of the Byzantine Empire (b. 1402)
- June 4 – Andronikos Palaiologos Kantakouzenos, last Grand Domestic of the Byzantine Empire
- July 17
- July 20 – Enguerrand de Monstrelet, French chronicler
- October 13 – Jacob, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1431-1453) (b. 1407)
- December 24 – John Dunstaple, English composer (b. 1390)
- Demetrius III, former co-king of Georgia (b. c. 1413)
- March 22 – John Kemp, Archbishop of Canterbury
- July 20 – King John II of Castile (b. 1405)
- December 10 – Ignatius Behnam Hadloyo, Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.
- date unknown
- February 18 – Fra Angelico, Italian painter (b. 1395)
- March 24 – Pope Nicholas V (b. 1397)
- April 1 – Zbigniew Oleśnicki, Polish Catholic cardinal and statesman (b. 1389)
- May 1 – Archibald Douglas, Earl of Moray (in battle)
- May 22 (killed at the First Battle of St Albans):
- September 3 – Alonso Tostado, Spanish Catholic bishop
- October 22 – Johannes Brassart, Flemish composer
- October 28 – Guillaume-Hugues d'Estaing, French Catholic cardinal
- December 1 – Lorenzo Ghiberti, Italian sculptor and metal smith (b. 1378)
- December 2 – Isabel of Coimbra, queen of Portugal (b. 1432)
- January 17 – Elisabeth of Lorraine-Vaudémont, French translator (b. 1395)
- August 11 – John Hunyadi, Hungarian statesman and military leader (b. c. 1406)
- August 20 – Vladislav II of Wallachia
- October 17 – Nicolas Grenon, French composer (b. 1375)
- October 23 – Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian saint (b. 1386)
- November 3 – Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, father of King Henry VII of England (b. 1431)
- November 9 – Ulrich II, Count of Celje (b. 1406)
- November 25 – Jacques Cœur, French merchant (b. 1395)
- December 4 – Charles I, Duke of Bourbon (b. 1401)
- December 24 – Đurađ Branković, Despot of Serbia (b. 1377)
- date unknown – Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (b. 1411)
- March 14 – Jingtai Emperor of China (b. 1428)
- March 16 – László Hunyadi, Hungarian statesman and warrior (b. 1433)
- May 22 – Saint Rita of Cascia, Italian saint (b. 1381)
- August 1 – Lorenzo Valla, Italian humanist
- August 19 – Andrea del Castagno, Italian painter (b. 1421)
- September 12 – Gabriele Sforza, Archbishop of Milan (b. 1423)
- September 14 – Countess Palatine Margaret of Mosbach, countess consort of Hanau (b. 1432)
- September 22 – Peter II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1418)
- November 3 – Ludwig II, Count of Württemberg-Urach, German noble (b. 1439)
- November 23 – King Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary (b. 1440)
- December 24 – Danjong of Joseon, King of Joseon (b. 1441)
- date unknown
- January 17 – Louis I, Landgrave of Hesse, Landgrave of Hesse (1413-1458) (b. 1402)
- February 20 – Lazar Branković, Despot of Serbia
- March 25 – Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Santillana, Spanish poet (b. 1398)
- April 11 – Helena Palaiologina, Queen of Cyprus (b. 1428)
- June 27 – King Alfonso V of Aragon (b. 1396)
- July 28 – John II of Cyprus
- August 6 – Pope Callixtus III (b. 1378)
- September 7 – Maria of Castile, Queen of Aragon, Queen consort of Aragon and Naples (b. 1401)
- December 26 – Arthur III, Duke of Brittany (b. 1393)
- date unknown – Isabelle Romée, mother of Joan of Arc
- February 14 – Stephen, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken (b. 1385)
- March 3 – Ausiàs March, Catalan poet from Valencia (b. 1397)
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