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The 1180s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1180, and ended on December 31, 1189.
- During the third year of the Jishō era of Japan, a devastating whirlwind damages Kyoto.
- Emperor Antoku succeeds Emperor Takakura, as emperor of Japan.
- Prince Mochihito amasses a large army, and instigates the Genpei War between the Taira and Minamoto clans.
- April 13 – Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter.
- September 24 – Alexios II Komnenos succeeds as Byzantine Emperor, on the death of his father Manuel I Komnenos.
- September 18 – Philip II becomes King of France.
- Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of León.
- The Portuguese admiral D. Fuas Roupinho wins a second victory in two years, against the Almohad fleet.
- Artois is annexed by France.
- Frederick Barbarossa removes Henry the Lion from the Duchy of Saxony, and creates the Duchies of Westphalia and Styria.
- The Wittelsbach Family takes control of Bavaria.
- The assembly traditionally regarded as the first Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland convenes at Łęczyca.
- Alexander Neckam becomes a lecturer in Paris, and writes De Natura Rerum, an early mention of chess (approximate date).
- Estimation: Hangzhou, capital of Southern Song China, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Fez in the Almohad Empire.
- After a series of defeats, the Almohad navy, under the admiral Ahmad al-Siqilli, crushes the Portuguese fleet and reasserts its control over the Atlantic Ocean.
- The word Albigensians is first used by chronicler Geoffroy du Breuil of Vigeois, to describe the inhabitants of Albi, France.
- Philip Augustus annuls all loans made by Jews to Christians, and takes a percentage for himself. A year later, he confiscates all Jewish property and expels the Jews from Paris.
- Chinese and Japanese astronomers observe what has since come to be understood as supernova SN 1181. One of only eight supernovae in the Milky Way observed in recorded history, it appears in the constellation Cassiopeia, and is visible in the night sky for about 185 days. The radio source 3C58 is thought to be the remnant from this event.
- Guilhem VIII, lord of Montpellier in France, frees the teaching of medicine from any monopoly. (January).
- Approximate date – Battle of Palnadu: The Kalachuri civil war ends in victory for the Palanati Kalachuris and their leader, Nalagama Raju.
- Genghis Khan is captured and carried in a cage to a rival's camp.
- May – Béla III of Hungary sacks the city of Belgrade.
- May 12 – Canute VI becomes king of Denmark on the death of his father Valdemar.
- September 14 – Legend of Nazaré: Dom Fuas Roupinho, alcalde of Porto de Mós, is inspired by a Marian miracle to erect the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Nazaré overlooking Nazaré, Portugal. Later this year while trying to enter by surprise the harbor of Ceuta to sink Muslim ships he is spotted and killed.
- Serbia allies itself with Hungary to gain independence.
- A Sicilian attempt to dislodge the Moorish fleet from Majorca fails.
- June 25 – The Peace of Constance is signed, between Frederick Barbarossa and the Lombard League, forming the legal basis for the autonomy of the Italian city republics.
- Joseph of Exeter writes the first account of a sport resembling cricket.
- Three-year-old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan, after the forced abdication of his brother Emperor Antoku, during the Genpei War.
- August 14 – Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures, and flee to western Japan to escape pursuit by the Minamoto clan (traditional Japanese date: Twenty-fifth Day of the Seventh Month of the Second Year of Juei).
- November 17 – The Battle of Mizushima takes place.
- February – Raynald of Châtillon has at least five ships freighted over the Isthmus of Suez, which he then uses to pillage the shores of the Red Sea as far as the gates of Mecca.
- William of Tyre is excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power.
- The Siege of Kerak is waged between the Ayyubids and the Crusaders, in which regent Guy of Lusignan refuses to fight.
- Saladin conquers Syria and becomes sultan.
- Yaqub al-Mansur becomes the third Almohad Caliph.
- The warlord Ali b. Ghaniya and his brother Yahya seize by surprise the Almohad-dominated cities of Constantine, Béjaïa and Algiers. While they are away from their base in Mallorca, one of their brothers, Muhammad, takes control of the island and calls in the Almohads, whom intend to capture Mallorca for themselves. The Banu Ghaniya reenforcement arrives just in time from Africa, to defeat the Almohads and reassert their domination of the island.
- February 19 – Second Battle of Uji: Minamoto no Yoshinaka is defeated by his cousins, Yoshitsune and Yoritomo, for the control of Japan.
- June 15 – Battle of Fimreite: King Sverre of Norway defeats and kills his rival, Magnus Erlingsson, to take the throne.
- Diet of Pentecost organised by Emperor Frederick I in Mainz
- The Almohads reconquer the Alentejo (except for Évora), and besiege Lisbon on land and blockade the port with their navy. A Portuguese soldier manages to swim to the largest ship of the fleet, and to sink it. This ship was so tall, it would have allowed the Muslims to easily reach the walls of the city. The next day, the Almohads have to retreat, taking with them a number of civilian captives. The Almohad army continues its campaign by the siege of Santarém, where the caliph, Abu Yaqub Yusuf is killed.
- The city of Abbeville receives its commercial charter.
- Archbishop Absalon of Lund wins a naval victory over Bogislav, duke of Pomerania.
- The streets of Paris in France are paved, by order of Philip Augustus.
- A great fire at Glastonbury Abbey destroys several buildings.
- In England, the first royal ordinance, demanding that the Knights Templar and Hospitaller assist in the collection of taxes, is promulgated.
- The Papal bull Ad Abolendam is issued against several European heretical groups: the Cathars, the Waldensians, the Patarines, Josephines and the Humiliati. It is created after a landmark meeting in Verona, between the Holy Roman Empire under Frederick Barbarossa, and the Catholic Church under Pope Lucius III.
- The Almohads reconquer Béjaïa and Algiers, that had been taken by the Banu Ghaniya, descendants of the Almoravids.
- April 25 – Genpei War: The naval Battle of Dan-no-ura leads to a Minamoto victory in Japan, and the death of Emperor Antoku.
- The Heian period ends, and the Kamakura period begins, in Japan.
- Mohammad of Ghur takes Punjab and Lahore, overthrowing the Ghaznavids.
- Henry II of England knights his heir John of England, and sends him to Ireland to enforce English control. According to Gerald of Wales, the only witness to chronicle the expedition, it is a disaster in which money is wasted on alcohol, and the Irish chieftains are scorned into uniting against a common enemy. By the end of the year, John has returned to England in defeat. Nonetheless, Henry gets him named King of Ireland by Pope Urban III, and procures a golden crown with peacock feathers.
- Templars settle in London and begin building the New Temple Church.
- August 15 – The cave city of Vardzia is consecrated. by Queen Tamar of Georgia.
- August 24 – the Byzantine city of Thessalonica is sacked, by the Norman Sicilian troops.
- September 11–12 – Isaac II Angelos leads a revolt in the Byzantine Empire, which deposes Andronikos I Komnenos and ends the Komnenos Dynasty.
- November 7 – Battle of Demetritzes: Byzantine general Alexios Branas decisively defeats the Normans, ending their invasion of the Byzantine Empire.
- Peter and John Asen lead a revolt of the Vlachs and Bulgars against the Byzantine Empire, eventually establishing the Second Bulgarian Empire.
- Igor Svyatoslavich's failed campaign against the Cumans, later immortalized in The Tale of Igor's Campaign, takes place this year.
- May 1 – The Solar eclipse of 1 May 1185, visible across Central America, Northern and Eastern Europe and Kazakhstan, occurs.
- Evidence is first uncovered, that the king of England is using the safes of the New Temple in London, under the guard of the Knights Templar, to store part of his treasure.
- January 27 – Constance of Sicily marries Henry (the future Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor).
- John the Chanter becomes Bishop of Exeter.
- The Byzantine Empire recognizes the independence of Bulgaria and Serbia.
- Joscius becomes Archbishop of Tyre.
- Jayavarman VII, the king of Cambodia, founds the temple of Ta Prohm.
- After the death of the child-king Baldwin V, his mother succeeds him as Sibylla of Jerusalem, and appoints her disfavoured husband Guy de Lusignan king consort. This comes as a shock to Jerusalem's court, who had earlier forced the possible future Queen into promising that should she become so, she would not appoint him the title.
- The first nunnery is inaugurated in Iceland, the Kirkjubæjar Abbey.
- The Almohad caliph, Yaqub al-Mansur, reconquers the city of Gabes, Ifriqiya from the Almoravid pretender, Ali b. Ghaniya.
- May 1 – Battle of Cresson: Saladin defeats the Crusaders.
- July 4 – Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem.
- September 20–October 2 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem.
- King Jayavarman VII of Ankor Vat defeats the Cham conquerors.
- Ghorin Muhammed conquers Punjab.
- October 29 – Pope Gregory VIII issues the bull Audita tremendi, proposing the Third Crusade.
- Alexius Branas attempts to seize Constantinople, in defiance of his master Isaac II Angelus.
- Pillage of Sigtuna: Estonians, Curonians and/or Karelians raid Sigtuna town in Sweden, and kill the archbishop Johannes.
- Knut Eriksson builds a castle on the island of Stockholm, in Sweden.
- Genoa takes Bonifacio (in Corsica) from Pisa.
- Glanvill, an official of King Henry II, describes how villeins can be free (approximate date).
- Florence takes control of the neighboring city of Empoli.
- To finance the siege of Zara, the Doge of Venice grants the benefits of the revenue from the salt tax to a consortium of creditors. Pledging the income from the Salt Office becomes a staple of the city's finance.
- October 21 – Pope Gregory VIII succeeds Pope Urban III, as the 173rd pope.
- The Cathedral of St. Jacob is consecrated in Szczecin, Pomerania.
- Saladin unsuccessfully besieges the Hospitaller fortress of Krak des Chevaliers, in modern Syria.
- Newgate Prison is built in London.
- Richard Lionheart allies with Philip II of France against his father, Henry II of England.
- Giraldus Cambrensis and Baldwin of Exeter travel through Wales, attempting to recruit men for the Third Crusade.
- The "Saladin tithe" is levied in England.
- Alfonso IX of León becomes king of Leon.
- Queen Tamar of Georgia marries David Soslan.
- The legendary Cutting of the elm occurs at Gisors, in Normandy.
- Alfonso IX of León convenes at the Basilica of San Isidoro the Cortes of León, with representatives of the nobility, clergy and towns. These Corteses are considered to be the first parliament in Europe.
- February 18 – Emperor Xiaozong abdicates to Emperor Guangzong.
- The siege of Acre begins.
- The Crusader castles of Montreal and Kerak are captured by Saladin.
- January 21 – Philip II of France and Henry II of England begin assembling troops, to wage the Third Crusade.
- July 27 – Friedrich Barbarossa arrives at Niš, the capital of Serbian King Stefan Nemanja, during the Third Crusade.
- August 29 – Ban Kulin writes The Charter of Kulin, which becomes a symbolic "birth certificate" of Bosnian language and statehood.
- Henry II of England ends a war against Philip II of France & Richard, by agreeing to their terms: he pays Philip 20,000 marks, and recognizes Richard as the heir to the English throne. Henry is brokenhearted to find that his second heir, John, had also allied against him in the war. He dies within a few months.
- September 3 – Richard I is crowned as King of England. He immediately begins selling castles, lordships, privileges, and towns to fund his long-anticipated crusade against Saladin.
- The town of Dundalk, Ireland gains its charter.
- Sancho I of Portugal conquers Silves and Alvor, with the help of the troops of the Third Crusade.
- Henry Fitz Ailwyn is elected Mayor of the City of London (inside of London, England).
- Sicilian nobles elect bastard Tancred, Count of Lecce their new king, instead of the designated heiress Princess Constance and her husband Prince Henry of the Holy Roman Empire, to avoid German rule.
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- Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
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- "The Expulsion of the Jews from France, 1182 CE". Jewish History Sourcebook. New York: Fordham University. July 1998. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
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Joseph of Exeter, in 1183, gives the first complete description of this co-ed community activity. A ball is thrown at (and hit by) a batter wielding a staff which looks like today's baseball bat...the batter protects a piece of wood, perhaps a log or tree-stump, resting on a gate-like stand(could this be the origin of the term "stumps" in modern cricket?)...fielders are positioned all around, squires in front of the "wicket" and serfs behind...... This sport has clearly been going on for some time, and Joseph of Exeter calls it a "merrye" weekend recreation.
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Joscius was already arch-bishop of Tyre in October 1186, and he died at an unknown date between October 1200 and May 1202
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Khmer King Jayavarman VII ordered the construction of Ta Prohm, which was originally named Rajavihara. According to the temple stele, in C.E. 1186 Jayavarman VII dedicated Ta Prohm in his mother’s honor.
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The foundation stela at Ta Prohm (AD 1186) recorded the assignment of 3,140 settlements with nearly 80,000 persons to this shrine,
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The child-king, Baldwin V., was dead, and an intrigue had enthroned Sibylla, a daughter of the royal house of Jerusalem, and she had shared her crown with her husband, Guy of Lusignan
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Kirkjubæjarklaustur (AD 1186–1542)
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The nunnery of Kirkjubæjarklaustur in Southeast Iceland was, according to received scholarship, one of the oldest monasteries in Iceland, established in 1186
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