The second millennium is a period of time that began on January 1, 1001, and ended on December 31, 2000, of the Gregorian calendar. It was the second period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era.
It encompassed the high Middle Ages, the late Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Baroque era, the early Modern Age, the age of Enlightenment, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World Wars and nuclear bombs) were offset by growing peace movements from the United Nations, the Peace Corps, plus doctors and health workers crossing borders to treat injuries and disease, and the return of the Olympics as contest without combat.
Scientists prevailed in explaining intellectual freedom; humans took their first steps on the Moon during the 20th century; and new technology was developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of movable type, radio, television, and the internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to inform, educate and entertain billions of people by the end of the 20th century.
The Renaissance saw the beginning of the second migration of humans from Europe, Africa, and Asia to the Americas, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought.
The world population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium (from 310 million in AD 1000 to 600 million in AD 1700) and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding 6 billion in AD 2000.
The Julian calendar was used in Europe at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar had adopted the Gregorian calendar by the end of it. So the end date is always calculated according to the Gregorian calendar, but the beginning date is usually according to the Julian calendar (or occasionally the Proleptic Gregorian calendar).
Stephen Jay Gould argued that it is not possible to decide if the millennium ended December 31, 1999, or December 31, 2000. The Associated Press reported that the third millennium began January 1, 2001, but also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000.
The second millennium is perhaps more popularly thought of as beginning and ending a year earlier, thus starting at the beginning of 1000 and finishing at the end of 1999. Many public celebrations for the end of the millennium were held on December 31, 1999 – January 1, 2000—with few on the actual date a year later.
The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
- Lists of people by nationality
- Category:People by century
- Category:People by nationality and period
- Gottlieb, Agnes Hooper; Henry Gottlieb; Barbar Bowers; Brent Bowers (1998). 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium. Kodansha International. ISBN 1-56836-253-6.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
|Communication and Technology||Math and Science||Manufacturing||Transportation and
Centuries and decades
- 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium
- United States Naval Observatory, "The 21st Century and the 3rd Millennium:When Did They Begin?" (Washington, DC, June 14, 2011).
- Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown (New York: Harmony Books, 1999), ch 2.
- Associated Press, "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2001.
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- "European discovery of New Zealand". Encyclopedia of New Zealand
- Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.
- Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-86940-002-X.
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- "New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act". Retrieved 25 November 2008.
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