Adalimumab

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Adalimumab
Adalimumab structure.png
Monoclonal antibody
TypeWhole antibody
SourceHuman
TargetTNF alpha
Clinical data
Trade namesHumira, Mabura, Exemptia, others
Other namesadalimumab-adbm, adalimumab-bwwd, adalimumab-afzb, adalimumab-atto
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa603010
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C [1]
  • US: N (Not classified yet) [1]
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous
Drug classTNF inhibitor
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability64% (subcutaneous), 0% (By mouth)
Elimination half-life10–20 days
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
  • none
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard100.224.376 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC6428H9912N1694O1987S46
Molar mass144190.3 g·mol−1
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

Adalimumab, sold under the brand name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, uveitis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.[2][3][4] Use is generally only recommended in people who have not responded to other treatments.[3] It is used by injection under the skin.[2]

Common side effects include upper respiratory tract infections, pain at the site of injection, rash, and headache.[2] Other side effects may include serious infections, cancer, anaphylaxis, reactivation of hepatitis B, multiple sclerosis, heart failure, liver failure, and aplastic anemia.[2] Use during pregnancy is not recommended, while some feel use during breastfeeding may be safe.[3][5] Adalimumab is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug and monoclonal antibody that works by inactivating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα).[2]

Adalimumab was approved for medical use in the United States in 2002.[2] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, which lists the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[6] A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about £704.28 as of 2018.[3] In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about US$5,041.12.[7] In 2014, a biosimilar came to market in India at a price of US$400 per month.[8] While the patent expired in the United States in 2016, it may take a number of years before generic versions become available there.[8] In 2016, it was the 150th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than four million prescriptions.[9]

Medical uses[edit]

Like other TNF inhibitors, it is an immunosuppresive medication, used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.[medical citation needed]

Adalimumab is administered by subcutaneous injection.[2] For most indications, the maintenance treatment is an injection every other week.[2]

Rheumatoid arthritis[edit]

Adalimumab has been shown to reduce the signs and symptoms of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis in adults. It may be used alone or in combination with DMARDs.[10] It has also been shown to have efficacy in moderate to severe polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children four years and older, and is approved for the treatment of that condition. In rheumatoid athritis, it has been approved for use alone, or with methotrexate or similar medicines, in the United States since 2002.[11][12] It has a similar effectiveness as methotrexate and, in combination, nearly doubles the response rate of methotrexate alone.[13]

Psoriatic arthritis[edit]

In 2003, adalimumab began undergoing trials for use in treating psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.[14]

Ankylosing spondylitis[edit]

Adalimumab has been shown to reduce the signs and symptoms of, and is approved for treatment of, ankylosing spondylitis in adults.[15]

Crohn's disease[edit]

Adalimumab has been shown to reduce the signs and symptoms of moderate to severe Crohn's disease.[16][17][18] It has been approved for that use in the UK since 2009.[19]

Ulcerative colitis[edit]

Adalimumab may be effective and well tolerated in ulcerative colitis. It has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of moderate to severe cases in adults.[20][21]

Plaque psoriasis[edit]

Adalimumab has been shown to treat moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis in adults who have the condition in many areas of their body and who may benefit from taking injections or pills (systemic therapy) or phototherapy (treatment using ultraviolet light alone or with pills).[22] Adalimumab has been shown to be effective therapy when used either continuously or intermittently in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.[23]

Hidradenitis suppurativa[edit]

Adalimumab was approved for hidradenitis suppurativa in 2015.[4][24][25]

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis[edit]

Adalimumab has been shown to reduce the signs and symptoms of moderate to severe polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children aged four years and older.[26][27][28]

Adverse effects[edit]

Components of a Humira autoinjector pen.

There is strong evidence that adalimumab increases risk of serious infections, such as tuberculosis. It also increases the risk of cancers, including lymphoma and solid malignancies. The risk of cancer is higher with higher doses of adalimumab.[29]

There are rare reports of serious liver injury; rare reports of demyelinating central nervous system disorders; and rare reports of cardiac failure—the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a black box warning to doctors, which appears in the product labeling of adalimumab and other TNF-inhibiting drugs, instructing them to screen and monitor potential patients more carefully.[30] Anaphylaxis or other serious allergic reactions may also occur.[30]

History[edit]

Adalimumab is the first fully human monoclonal antibody approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. It was derived from phage display.[31]

Adalimumab was discovered as a result of a collaboration between BASF Bioresearch Corporation and Cambridge Antibody Technology, U.K., itself a collaboration of the government-funded Medical Research Council and three academics, which began in 1993.[32][33]

Initially named D2E7,[34] it was then further manufactured at BASF Bioresearch Corporation, developed by BASF Knoll (BASF Pharma), and ultimately manufactured and marketed by Abbott Laboratories after Abbott's acquisition of BASF Pharma. On 1 January 2013, Abbott split into two companies, one retaining the Abbott name and the other named AbbVie.[35] As a result, AbbVie took over development and marketing of Humira.[36][37] The brand name Humira stands for "human monoclonal antibody in rheumatoid arthritis", and was named by one of Abbott's employees, Richard J. Karwoski, who was also responsible for leading the effort to get Humira approved by the FDA.

It was the third TNF inhibitor, after infliximab and etanercept, to be approved in the United States.[citation needed] It was constructed from a fully human monoclonal antibody, while infliximab is a mouse-human chimeric antibody and etanercept is a TNF receptor-IgG fusion protein.[medical citation needed]

The drug candidate was discovered initially using CAT's phage display technology and named D2E7.[34] The key components of the drug were found by guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen TNF alpha.[38] The ultimate clinical candidate, D2E7, was created and manufactured at BASF Bioresearch Corporation and taken through most of the drug development process by BASF Knoll, then further development, manufacturing and marketing by Abbott Laboratories, after Abbott acquired the pharmaceutical arm of BASF Knoll.[39]

Since 2008, adalimumab had been approved by the FDA for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, moderate to severe chronic psoriasis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Although only approved for ulcerative colitis from late 2012, by the FDA in the disease's management, it had been used for several years in cases that have not responded to conventional treatment at standard dosing for Crohn's disease.[citation needed]

Marketing[edit]

  • 1999: Preliminary results of early clinical trials with the fully human anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody D2E7[34]
  • 2001, June: Results from ARMADA, a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 271 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite treatment with methotrexate are announced. Among the results are that 50% of patients show a 50% improvement in American College of Rheumatology (ACR) score.[40]
  • 2002: Broke ground on a new state-of-the-art biologics manufacturing facility.[41]
  • 2002: Adalimumab results from five separate trials show that it is effective at reducing signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. In these studies, adalimumab had a rapid onset of action and sustained efficacy. Furthermore, adalimumab was safe and effective when given alone or in combination with MTX as a subcutaneous injection.[42]
  • 2002, 31 December: Humira approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.[41]
  • 2003: Launched Humira for rheumatoid arthritis and continued clinical studies for additional indications.[41]
  • 2005: Launched Humira for psoriatic arthritis. Exceeded  United States in annual sales for the first time.[41]
  • 2005: Eisai Submits New Drug Application for Rheumatoid Arthritis Drug Adalimumab (D2E7) in Japan.[43]
  • 2006: Submitted Humira for the Crohn's disease indication and launched it for AS. Exceeded US$2 billion in annual sales.[41]
  • 2007: Launched Humira for Crohn's disease in the United States,[41] submitted Humira for global regulatory approval for psoriasis — the fifth new Humira disease indication at this time, achieved more than US$3 billion in worldwide Humira sales.[44]
  • 2007: Abbott Opens New Biotechnology Manufacturing Facility in Puerto Rico[45]
  • 2008: Launched Humira for plaque psoriasis[46]
  • 2009: Five-Year Data Demonstrate Initial Use of Humira Plus Methotrexate May Prevent Further Joint Damage in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients [47][48]
  • 2012: Humira could be associated with a significant decrease in vascular inflammation, a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease [49]
  • 2013: Due to the split of Abbott, Humira rights are now owned by AbbVie.[35][36]
  • 2014: Humira recognized by IMS Health as the "world's best selling drug."[50]
  • 2014: In December 2014, Indian drugmaker Cadila Healthcare declared the launch of the first adalimumab biosimilar at a fifth of its US price. The generic was launched under the brand name Exemptia.[51]
  • 2015: Launched Humira for moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa, an orphan indication. No other treatment has been[when?] rigorously tested and found to be safe and effective in treating this painful and scarring condition.[4]
  • 2016: The best selling drugs list researched by Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, published in March 2017, details that Humira occupied the #1 position for 2015 (US$14.012 billion) and 2016 (US$16.078 billion)[52]
  • 2017: AbbVie reports that Humira achieved US$18.427 billion of sales in 2017.[53]

Society and culture[edit]

Economics[edit]

From 2012, until the US patent expiry in 2016, Humira led the list of top-selling pharmaceutical products, and in 2016, it had US$16 billion of global sales.[54]

Royalty litigation[edit]

In March 2003, Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT) stated its wish to "initiate discussions regarding the applicability of the royalty offset provisions for Humira" with Abbott Laboratories in the High Court of London. In November 2004, the trial began, and in December 2004, Justice Hugh Laddie ruled for CAT.

A short version of the full statement of the proceedings was released.[55] In it Justice Laddie remarked, "Abbott was in error when it made its first royalty payment to CAT calculated on the basis that only 2% of the Net Sales was due. It should have calculated on the basis of the full royalty of just over 5% and should have paid and continued to pay CAT accordingly." Justice Laddie went on to observe "...that the construction advanced by Abbott does violence to the language of the agreements, renders them obscure and makes little or no commercial sense. For this reason CAT wins the action."[56]

Abbott was required to pay CAT US$255 million, some of which was to be passed to its partners in development.[57] Of this sum, the Medical Research Council received US$191 million, and in addition, Abbott was asked to pay the MRC a further US$7.5 million over five years from 2006, providing that Humira remains on the market. The MRC also is to receive a further £5.1 million (sterling) in respect of past royalties.[58]

Patent litigation[edit]

On 29 May 2009, Johnson & Johnson's Centocor unit, the maker of infliximab, won a ruling for $1.67 billion from Abbott Laboratories for patent infringement on the process for making Humira.[59] However, in 2011, the judgment was overturned by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.[60][61][62]

Biosimilars[edit]

In 2014, Indian drugmaker Cadila Healthcare declared the launch of the first adalimumab biosimilar at a fifth of its US price. The generic was launched under the brand name Exemptia.[8] In 2016, Indian drugmaker Torrent Pharmaceuticals launched its biosimilar for adalimumab, called Adfrar. It was the second generic biosimilar of adalimumab.[63]

In 2016, the FDA approved Amgen's biosimilar adalimumab-atto, sold under the brand name Amjevita.[64] It is not available as of June 2019.[65] In 2017, the FDA approved German pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim's biosimilar, Cyltezo.[66] In 2019, the European Commission approved the biosimilar, Idacio.[67]

Adalimumab biosimilars became available in Europe in late 2018,[68] allowing the National Health Service to make record-breaking cost-savings,[69] as this is the single most expensive drug used in NHS hospitals, costing more than £400 million a year for about 46,000 patients.[70] It may not become available in the United States until 2023.[68][71]

In 2018, Hyrimoz (adalimumab-adaz) was approved for use in the United States.[72]

In 2019, adalimumab-bwwd (Hadlima), produced by Samsung Bioepsis, was approved for use in the US.[73][74] However, it will not be available until June 2023, after the availability of Amgen's offering as a result of a negotiated intellectual property settlement with AbbVie.[75]

In November 2019, adalimumab-afzb (Abrilada) was approved for use in the United States.[76][77][78]

Similar agents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Use During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Adalimumab Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d British national formulary: BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. p. 1074. ISBN 9780857113382.
  4. ^ a b c "FDA Clears Adalimumab (Humira) for Hidradenitis Suppurativa". Medscape. 11 September 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  5. ^ "Adalimumab Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings". Drugs.com. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  6. ^ "World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019". 2019. hdl:10665/325771. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ "NADAC as of 2019-02-27". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  8. ^ a b c "India's Cadila launches first cheaper copy of world's top-selling drug". Reuters. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  9. ^ "The Top 300 of 2019". clincalc.com. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  10. ^ Navarro-Sarabia F, Ariza-Ariza R, Hernandez-Cruz B, Villanueva I (20 July 2005). "Adalimumab for treating rheumatoid arthritis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD005113. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005113.pub2. PMID 16034967.
  11. ^ Siegel JP. "Product Approval Information - Licensing Action". Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 4 February 2014. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. ^ "Humira (Adalimumab)" (PDF). Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  13. ^ Welch B (15 December 2008). "Adalimumab (Humira) for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis". American Family Physician. 78 (12): 1406–1408. ISSN 0002-838X. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  14. ^ Scheinfeld N (2003). "Adalimumab (Humira): a review". J Drugs Dermatol. 2 (4): 375–7. PMID 12884458.
  15. ^ Maxwell LJ, Zochling J, Boonen A, Singh JA, Veras MM, Tanjong Ghogomu E, et al. (18 April 2015). "TNF-alpha inhibitors for ankylosing spondylitis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (4): CD005468. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005468.pub2. PMID 25887212.
  16. ^ Podolsky DK (August 2002). "Inflammatory bowel disease" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 347 (6): 417–29. doi:10.1056/NEJMra020831. PMID 12167685.
  17. ^ Peyrin-Biroulet L, Danese S, Cummings F, Atreya R, Greveson K, Pieper B, et al. (26 July 2019). "Anti-TNF biosimilars in Crohn's Disease: a patient-centric interdisciplinary approach". Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 13 (8): 731–738. doi:10.1080/17474124.2019.1645595. ISSN 1747-4124. PMID 31322440.
  18. ^ Gearry RB, Frampton C, Inns S, Poppelwell D, Rademaker M, Suppiah R (3 July 2019). "VITALITY: impact of adalimumab on health and disability outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis treated in clinical practice in New Zealand". Current Medical Research and Opinion. 35 (10): 1837–1846. doi:10.1080/03007995.2019.1634952. ISSN 0300-7995. PMID 31233347.
  19. ^ Morey S (17 September 2009). "UK – Summary of NICE Approvals in September 2009". Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  20. ^ "FDA approves Humira to treat ulcerative colitis" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 28 September 2012. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  21. ^ "Abbott's Humira (adalimumab) Receives U.S. FDA Approval for the Treatment of Adult Patients with Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis". Abbott (Press release). 28 September 2012. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  22. ^ Croom KF, McCormack PL (2009). "Adalimumab". Am J Clin Dermatol. 10 (1): 43–50. doi:10.2165/0128071-200910010-00008. PMID 19170412.
  23. ^ Menter A, Tyring SK, Gordon K, Kimball AB, Leonardi CL, Langley RG, Strober BE, Kaul M, Gu Y, Okun M, Papp K (January 2008). "Adalimumab therapy for moderate to severe psoriasis: A randomized, controlled phase III trial". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58 (1): 106–15. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.09.010. PMID 17936411.
  24. ^ Gulliver W, Zouboulis CC, Prens E, Jemec GB, Tzellos T (September 2016). "Evidence-based approach to the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa, based on the European guidelines for hidradenitis suppurativa". Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 17 (3): 343–351. doi:10.1007/s11154-016-9328-5. PMC 5156664. PMID 26831295.
  25. ^ Maarouf M, Clark AK, Lee DE, Shi VY (August 2018). "Targeted treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa: a review of the current literature and ongoing clinical trials". J Dermatolog Treat. 29 (5): 441–449. doi:10.1080/09546634.2017.1395806. PMID 29098911.
  26. ^ Brunner HI, Nanda K, Toth M, Foeldvari I, Bohnsack J, Milojevic D, Rabinovich CE, Kingsbury DJ, Marzan K, Chalom E, Horneff G, Kuester RM, Dare JA, Trachana M, Jung LK, Olson J, Minden K, Quartier P, Bereswill M, Kalabic J, Kupper H, Lovell DJ, Martini A, Ruperto N (August 2019). "Safety and Effectiveness of Adalimumab in Patients With Polyarticular Course of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: STRIVE Registry 7-Year Interim Results". Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). doi:10.1002/acr.24044. PMID 31421019.
  27. ^ Horneff G, Seyger MM, Arikan D, Kalabic J, Anderson JK, Lazar A, Williams DA, Wang C, Tarzynski-Potempa R, Hyams JS (October 2018). "Safety of Adalimumab in Pediatric Patients with Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Enthesitis-Related Arthritis, Psoriasis, and Crohn's Disease". J. Pediatr. 201: 166–175.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.05.042. PMID 30054164.
  28. ^ Correll CK, Bullock DR, Cafferty RM, Vehe RK (February 2018). "Safety of weekly adalimumab in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and pediatric chronic uveitis". Clin. Rheumatol. 37 (2): 549–553. doi:10.1007/s10067-017-3890-4. PMID 29103180.
  29. ^ Hochman D, Wolff B (November 2006). "Risk of serious infections and malignancies with anti-TNF antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis". JAMA. 296 (18): 2203, author reply 2203–4. doi:10.1001/jama.296.18.2203-a. PMID 17090763.
  30. ^ a b "Humira Medication Guide" (PDF). October 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  31. ^ Brekke OH, Sandlie I (January 2003). "Therapeutic antibodies for human diseases at the dawn of the twenty-first century". Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2 (1): 52–62. doi:10.1038/nrd984. PMID 12509759.
  32. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  33. ^ McCafferty J (2010). "The long and winding road to antibody therapeutics". mAbs. 2 (5): 459–460. doi:10.4161/mabs.2.5.13088. ISSN 1942-0862. PMC 2958567. PMID 20978369.
  34. ^ a b c Kempeni J (January 1999). "Preliminary results of early clinical trials with the fully human anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody D2E7". Ann Rheum Dis. 58 (suppl 1): I70–2. doi:10.1136/ard.58.2008.i70. PMC 1766582. PMID 10577977.
  35. ^ a b "Abbott Completes Separation Of Research-Based Pharmaceuticals Business" (Press release). Abbott Laboratories.
  36. ^ a b Turner S (5 September 2018). "Humira: the highs and lows of the world's most successful drug". Pharmaceutical Technology. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  37. ^ Japsen B (26 February 2019). "Why Abbvie May Have A Tough Time Defending Humira's Price Before Congress". Forbes. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  38. ^ Jespers LS, Roberts A, Mahler SM, Winter G, Hoogenboom HR (September 1994). "Guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen". Bio/Technology. 12 (9): 899–903. doi:10.1038/nbt0994-899. PMID 7521646.
  39. ^ "BASF to focus more strongly on innovative chemistry, a highly efficient Verbund and a global presence" (Press release). Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  40. ^ "Abbott Laboratories' Investigational Fully Human Anti-Tnf Therapy, D2E7 (Adalimumab), Shows Promise In Reducing The Signs And Symptoms Of Rheumatoid Arthritis" (Press release). 12 November 2001.
  41. ^ a b c d e f "Abbott 2006 Annual Report" (PDF). Abbott. Archived from the original on 13 January 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  42. ^ Rau R (January 2002). "Adalimumab (a fully human anti-tumour necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody) in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis: the initial results of five trials". Ann Rheum Dis. 61 (Suppl 2): ii70–3. doi:10.1136/ard.61.suppl_2.ii70. PMC 1766697. PMID 12379628.
  43. ^ "Eisai Submits New Drug Application for Rheumatoid Arthritis Drug Adalimumab (D2E7) in Japan". thefreelibrary.com.
  44. ^ "Abbott 2007 Annual Report" (PDF). Abbott. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  45. ^ "Abbott Opens New Biotechnology Manufacturing Facility In Puerto Rico" (Press release). Abbott. 10 April 2007. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  46. ^ "Abbott's Humira (adalimumab) Receives FDA Approval For Moderate to Severe Chronic Plaque Psoriasis" (Press release). Abbott Laboratories. 18 January 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  47. ^ "Five-Year Data Demonstrate Initial Use Of Abbott's Humira (Adalimumab) Plus Methotrexate May Prevent Further Joint Damage In Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients" (Press release). Abbott. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  48. ^ Papagoras C, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA (2009). "Long-term use of adalimumab in the treatment of rheumatic diseases". Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews. 1: 51–68. doi:10.2147/oarrr.s4297. ISSN 1179-156X. PMC 5074727. PMID 27789981.
  49. ^ "Treating psoriasis to prevent heart attacks and strokes". Sciencedaily.com.
  50. ^ "Humira Lifts AbbVie 2.8% in Q2". Discovery and Development. Rockaway, New Jersey. Associated Press. 25 July 2014.
  51. ^ "India's Cadila launches first cheaper copy of world's top-selling drug". Reuters. 9 December 2014.
  52. ^ "The Top 15 Best-Selling Drugs of 2016 - The Lists - GEN". Genengnews.com.
  53. ^ "AbbVie Reports Full-Year and Fourth-Quarter 2017 Financial Results - AbbVie Newsroom". News.abbvie.com.
  54. ^ "The Top 15 Best-Selling Drugs of 2016 - The Lists - GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business - GEN". Genengnews.com.
  55. ^ [2][permanent dead link]
  56. ^ "Biotech firm wins royalty fight". BBC News Online. 20 December 2004. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  57. ^ Murray-West R (27 October 2005). "Drug maker CAT surges after royalty settlement". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  58. ^ "Multi-Million Dollar Deal To Benefit Medical Research" (PDF) (Press release). Medical Research Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  59. ^ Pierson R, Spicer J (30 June 2009). "Jury returns $1.67 billion drug verdict against Abbott". Reuters. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  60. ^ "Centocor Ortho Biotech v. Abbott Laboratories, 636 F. 3d 1341". Court of Appeals, Federal Circuit 2011. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2019 – via Google Scholar.
  61. ^ "Centocor Ortho Biotech Inc V. Abbott Laboratories". FindLaw. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  62. ^ Decker S (23 February 2011). "Abbott Wins Reversal of J&J's $1.67 Billion Patent Victory". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011.
  63. ^ "Torrent launches world's second biosimilar of generic auto-immune drug". Business Standard. 11 January 2016.
  64. ^ "FDA approves Amjevita, a biosimilar to Humira". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 23 September 2016. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  65. ^ "Prices and coupons for Amjevita". Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  66. ^ "Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. receives FDA approval for Cyltezo (adalimumab-adbm), a biosimilar to Humira, for the treatment of multiple chronic inflammatory diseases" (Press release). Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. 29 August 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  67. ^ "Idacio EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  68. ^ a b Hargreaves B (16 October 2018). "First wave of Humira biosimilars enters EU market". BioPharma-Reporter. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  69. ^ Heal A (26 November 2018). "NHS replaces highest-spend drug with £300m cheaper alternative". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  70. ^ "Most expensive NHS drug comes off patent". Pharmaceutical Journal. 18 October 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  71. ^ Calandra R, Huff C, Butcher L (25 January 2019). "Bringing Humira (Its Price) Down a Peg". Managed Care magazine. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  72. ^ "Hyrimoz". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 30 October 2018. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  73. ^ "Hadlima". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 8 November 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  74. ^ "Hadlima Prescribing Information" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 8 November 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  75. ^ "FDA approves Humira biosimilar, but it won't hit the market for 4 years". Becker's Hospital Review. 24 July 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  76. ^ "Statement from Sarah Yim, M.D., acting director of the Office of Therapeutic Biologics and Biosimilars in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, on FDA's continued progress facilitating competition in the biologic marketplace with approval of 25th biosimilar product". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 15 November 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  77. ^ "FDA Approves Pfizer's Biosimilar, Abrilada (adalimumab-afzb) for Multiple Inflammatory Conditions". Pfizer. 18 November 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  78. ^ "Abrilada". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 15 November 2019. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.

External links[edit]