Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China

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This article is about the administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC). For the administrative division of the Republic of China (ROC), see Taiwan Province. For the meaning and use of the term "Taiwan, China", see Taiwan, China.
Taiwan Province
People's Republic of China

台湾省
Claimed Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese 台湾省 (Táiwān shěng)
 • Abbreviation (pinyin: Tái)
 • Min Nan Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-oân-séng
 • Hakka Romanization Thòi-vàn-sén
Map showing the location of Taiwan ProvincePeople's Republic of China
Map showing the location of Taiwan Province
People's Republic of China
Coordinates: 23°42′N 121°00′E / 23.7°N 121.0°E / 23.7; 121.0Coordinates: 23°42′N 121°00′E / 23.7°N 121.0°E / 23.7; 121.0
Named for See Taiwan
Capital Taipei
Largest city New Taipei
Divisions prefectures, — counties, — townships
Government
 • Secretary See Representation
 • Governor See Representation
Area
 • Total 35,581 km2 (13,738 sq mi)
Area rank n/a
Population (n/a)
 • Total n/a
 • Rank n/a
 • Density rank n/a
Demographics
 • Ethnic composition Han - 98%
Gaoshan (Aborigines) - 2%
ISO 3166 code CN-71
GDP (n/a) CNY — (n/a)
 • per capita CNY — (n/a)
HDI (n/a) n/a (n/a) ()

The People's Republic of China (PRC) claims the island of Taiwan to be part its territory under its constitution, and therefore includes Taiwan Province (simplified Chinese: 台湾省; traditional Chinese: 臺灣省 or 台灣省; pinyin: Táiwān shěng) in its administrative division. The PRC has never gained control of Taiwan: the Taiwan Area, including all of Taiwan Province, is currently administered by the government of the Republic of China (ROC).

Because the PRC holds the view that it has succeeded the ROC entirely since 1 October 1949, it regards all boundary changes to Taiwan Province made by the ROC after that date (mainly the carving out of several cities as municipalities directly-administered by the ROC government) to be illegitimate. As a result, maps published by the PRC (and other sources that adopt the PRC's views) show Taiwan Province in accordance with its pre-1949 boundaries, with (for example) Taipei shown as the capital of Taiwan Province, rather than a directly-administered municipality.

While the PRC claims Taiwan to be its rightful territory, it recognises that Taiwan is outside its actual territory and does not maintain a shadow government or government-in-exile of Taiwan Province. However, its parliament includes legislators to represent Taiwan, who are elected by a Taiwanese community residing in mainland China. In deference to the PRC's claim, the United Nations for official purposes calls the Taiwan Area "Taiwan, Province of China".

Overview

The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. While by 1950 it had obtained control over most of the territories previously administered by the ROC, it never gained control of an area made up of Taiwan Province and some other islands (together called the "Taiwan Area"). Instead, the Taiwan Area had been administered by the ROC (now commonly known as "Taiwan") since the end of World War II in 1945, continuing through the Chinese Civil War and past the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949.

Despite the PRC's claim over Taiwan, the PRC has no provisional or shadow provincial government or provincial governor for Taiwan. The Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China is the part of the PRC government that has responsibility over Taiwan-related matters, but it is neither tasked with, nor presented as, a shadow administration for Taiwan. Instead, the ROC government, which actually controls Taiwan Province, is referred to by the PRC as the "Taiwan authorities".[1]

The political status of Taiwan is complex. The PRC considers itself the successor state of the pre-1949 ROC and the sole legitimate government of "China" since its founding on 1 October 1949, and regards Taiwan as a part of an "indivisible China". The ROC government disputes this claim, and is currently recognised by 22 countries as the government of "China",[2] although since 1971 it is no longer a member of the United Nations or its suborganisations.[3] Most other countries retain unofficial relations with Taiwan.

Boundary changes since 1949

The PRC does not recognise any boundary changes made to Taiwan Province by the ROC since 1 October 1949. This means that maps published in the PRC show Taiwan Province with the same boundaries - and provincial capital - as it was in 1949, which is substantially the same as the province proclaimed by the Qing Dynasty in 1885. [4] This includes the entire island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including the Penghu islands.[5]

Until recently, the ROC adopted an analogous practice of depicting mainland administrative boundaries in maps the way they were in 1949, to demonstrate that the ROC did not recognise the PRC government - or any boundary changes enacted by them since 1949 - as legitimate.

Cities

The main changes that have been enacted by the ROC since that date have been the excision of several cities on the island of Taiwan to become direct-controlled municipalities on the island of Taiwan. Thus, the elevation of Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, and Taoyuan to Special municipalities has not been recognised by the PRC,[6] and the PRC still regards Taipei as the capital city of Taiwan Province, instead of Zhongxing New Village, which was designated as the capital of Taiwan Province by the ROC.

Other territories administered by the ROC

Taiwan Province (whether disregarding the ROC's post-1949 boundary changes or not) does not include all the territory under the Republic of China's administration. Chinese maps show the islands of Kinmen and Wuqiu, and the Matsu Islands as part of Fujian Province; the Pratas Islands as part of Guangdong Province, and Taiping Island as part of Hainan province. The ROC administers Kinmen, Wuqiu and the Matsu Islands as part of its alternative Fujian Province, and Pratas Islands and Taiping Island under Kaohsiung municipality.

Territories claimed to be part of Taiwan Province by both the ROC and PRC

Both the PRC and the ROC (Taiwan) claim the Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyutai Islands (Senkaku Islands), administered by Japan, as a part of Taiwan Province.

Legislative representation in PRC

Part of a series on the
History of Taiwan
1640 Map of Formosa-Taiwan by Dutch 荷蘭人所繪福爾摩沙-臺灣.jpg
Chronological
Prehistory to 1624
Dutch Formosa 1624–1662
Spanish Formosa 1626–1642
Kingdom of Tungning 1662–1683
Qing rule 1683–1895
Republic of Formosa 1895
Japanese rule 1895–1945
Republic of China rule since 1945
Topical
Local
Lists

Although Taiwan Province is not under PRC control, thirteen delegates are elected to represent Taiwan Province to the National People's Congress.

The election of these delegates for Taiwan Province is done in accordance with the Decision (from time to time made) of the relevant Session of relevant National People's Congress of the PRC on the number of deputies to the National People's Congress and the election of the deputies.[7] For example, in 2002 that Decision was as follows:[7]

"For the time being, 13 deputies representing Taiwan Province shall be elected from among people of Taiwan origin in the other provinces, the autonomous regions, and the municipalities directly under the Central Government, and the Chinese People's Liberation Army."

Having regard to the relevant Decision, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress adopts a "Plan for the Consultative Election of Deputies of Taiwan Province to the National People's Congress". The Plan typically provides that "the deputies will be elected in Beijing through consultation from among representatives sent by Taiwan compatriots in these provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government and in the Chinese People's Liberation Army."[7]

In the case of the 2002 election, the Standing Committee noted that there were more than 36,000 "Taiwan compatriots" in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government and the central Party, government and army institutions. It was decided that 122 representatives would participate in the conference for election through consultation. The number of representatives was allocated on the basis of the geographic distribution of Taiwan compatriots on the mainland and the standing committees of the people's congresses of the provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government were responsible for making arrangements for the election of the representatives through consultation. The Standing Committee's Plan also provided that the election should be "conducted in a democratic manner".[7]

Names used for Taiwanese government, officials, and institutions

Since the PRC does not recognise the ROC as legitimate, PRC government and media refers to some ROC government offices and institutions using generic description which does not imply endorsement of the ROC's claim to be a legitimate government of either Taiwan or China. The precise replacements used are not officially designated, therefore, the politically-designated names for Taiwan have small variations across different source from within the PRC.

For some cases, where the name does not significantly imply sovereignty, the name remains the same, such as for the Mainland Affairs Council,[8][9] County[10] and Mayor.[11] Further, at least in recent years, city mayors and county magistrates in Taiwan are generally referred to as such by PRC media.

ROC government bodies

ROC government officials

ROC institutions

Proposal under hypothetical reunification

The PRC's current policy proposal for a future reunification with Taiwan includes a proposal for Taiwan to become a Special Administrative Region (analogous to Hong Kong and Macau today), rather than a province.

"Taiwan, Province of China" or "Taiwan, China"

Main article: Taiwan, China

In deference to the PRC's position, the United Nations officially refers to the Taiwan Area as "Taiwan, Province of China". This has also meant that "Taiwan, Province of China" appears in the list of ISO 3166-1 country codes. A variant of this name is "Taiwan, China", which is also often seen in other contexts.

Demographic data

Main article: Taiwanese aborigines

While demographic data for Taiwan Province published by the PRC government respects the census figures published by the ROC government for the territory, the PRC government does not recognise the ethnic classifications of Taiwanese Aborigines adopted by the ROC. Instead, the PRC government classifies all Taiwanese Aboriginese as Gaoshan people, one of the 56 recognized ethnicities of China.

See also

References

  1. ^ The PRC Government website contains numerous references to "Taiwan authorities".
  2. ^ Winkler, Sigrid. "Biding Time: The Challenge of Taiwan's International Status | Brookings Institution". Brookings.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  3. ^ Winkler, Sigrid. "Taiwan’s UN Dilemma: To Be or Not to Be | Brookings Institution". Brookings.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  4. ^ Britannica encyclopaedia confirms Taiwan Province was proclaimed in 1886
  5. ^ "The Political Geography of Taiwan" (available on the National Taiwan Normal University website which confirms that until 1886 Taiwan and Penghu were prefectures under the control of Fukien province.
  6. ^ "全国行政区划信息查询平台 (National Administrative subdivision Information Search Platform)". 全国行政区划信息查询平台 (National Administrative subdivision Information Search Platform). Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d Plan for the Consultative Election of Deputies of Taiwan Province to the Tenth National People's Congress, 2002 (Government of the PRC website)
  8. ^ "Taiwan' s mainland affairs authority congratulates Macao' s Chui on reelection". Shanghai Daily. 2015-06-18. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  9. ^ "Chinese Taiwan's Mainland Affairs Council holds press conference - CCTV News - CCTV.com English". 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  10. ^ http://eng.taiwan.cn/news_on_taiwan/201507/t20150729_10354110.htm
  11. ^ 张玲 (2014-06-30). "Headline_Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council PRC". Gwytb.gov.cn. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  12. ^ [1] Archived August 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ "Truck crashes into Taiwan leader's office building - People's Daily Online". English.peopledaily.com.cn. 2014-01-26. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  14. ^ a b c d "Taiwan's executive body to be reshuffled - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  15. ^ "Taiwan legislative body reviews no-confidence motion". chinadaily.com.cn. 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  16. ^ "Headline_Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council PRC". Gwytb.gov.cn. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  17. ^ a b "Taiwan's food safety office opens amid scandals - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-10-22. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  18. ^ "Taiwan´s chief lawmaker denies lobbying accusation CCTV News - CNTV English". Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  19. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-11/25/c_134853505.htm
  20. ^ http://english.cntv.cn/2016/02/06/VIDEQ2rFTOZUUYh36gFnuYgV160206.shtml
  21. ^ "Taiwan leader Ma Ying-jeou re-elected KMT chairman - People's Daily Online". English.peopledaily.com.cn. 2013-07-21. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  22. ^ "Taiwan's KMT confirms appointments of four vice chairmen - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-09-14. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  23. ^ Zhang Jingya. "Taiwan gas leak explosions kill 24, injure over 270 - CCTV News - CCTV.com English". Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  24. ^ "Taiwan's chief prosecutor jailed over information leak - Global Times". Globaltimes.cn. 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  25. ^ "Taiwan demands apology from Philippines for fisherman's death - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  26. ^ "Mainland's Taiwan affairs chief highlights long-waited trip - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  27. ^ http://eng.taiwan.cn/news_on_taiwan/201504/t20150408_9523202.htm
  28. ^ 张玲 (2014-08-11). "Headline_Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council PRC". Gwytb.gov.cn. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 
  29. ^ "Political meeting to promote peaceful development of cross-Strait relations: Taiwan experts - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-06-15. Retrieved 2015-07-10. 

Further reading

External links