Jump to content

Armenians in Turkey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Armenians in Turkey
Türkiye Ermenileri
Total population
170,000 (70,000 Turkish citizens and 100,000 of other nationalities)[1][2] (excluding Crypto-Armenians)
Regions with significant populations
Istanbul, Diyarbakır, Kayseri, Mardin, Şanlıurfa, Vakıflı, Tercan, and Iskenderun, Tunceli, Kars, Iğdır, Van, Erzurum, Adana, Kahramanmaraş, Ankara, Erzincan
Turkish (majority), Western Armenian (minority)[3][4]
Predominantly Armenian Apostolic with Armenian Catholic, Armenian Evangelical, and Muslim minorities.

Armenians in Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Ermenileri; Armenian: Թուրքահայեր or Թրքահայեր, T’urk’ahayer lit.'Turkish Armenians'), one of the indigenous peoples of Turkey, have an estimated population of 50,000 to 70,000,[5] down from a population of over 2 million Armenians between the years 1914 and 1921. Today, the overwhelming majority of Turkish Armenians are concentrated in Istanbul. They support their own newspapers, churches and schools, and the majority belong to the Armenian Apostolic faith and a minority of Armenians in Turkey belong to the Armenian Catholic Church or to the Armenian Evangelical Church. They are not considered part of the Armenian Diaspora, since they have been living in their historical homeland for more than four thousand years.[6][7][8]

Until the Armenian genocide of 1915, most of the Armenian population of Turkey (then the Ottoman Empire) lived in the eastern parts of the country that Armenians call Western Armenia (roughly corresponding to the modern Eastern Anatolia Region).

Armenians are one of the four ethnic minorities officially recognized in Turkey, together with Jews, Greeks,[9][10][11] and Bulgarians.[12][13][14]

In addition to local ethnic Armenians who are Turkish citizens, there are also many recent immigrants from Armenia in Istanbul.[1] There is also an unknown number of officially Muslim citizens of the Republic of Turkey who have recently started to identify as Armenians based on their Armenian roots, after being Islamised decades or centuries earlier.[15] They are referred as crypto-Armenians.


External videos
video icon Turkey’s hidden Armenians search for stolen identity -FRANCE 24 English

Armenians living in Turkey today are a remnant of what was once a much larger community that existed for thousands of years, long before the establishment of the Sultanate of Rum. Estimates for the number of Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire in the decade before World War I range between 1.3 (official Ottoman data) and 3 million (independent estimates).

When Constantinople finally became part of the Ottoman Empire, financial support was given to the Apostolic Church by the Sultan, so it could build churches in the city, which prior to that the Byzantines refused as they viewed the church as heretical. Armenians in the Ottoman Empire were viewed as a separate millet, and given the status of second-class citizens, but were not usually mistreated until later in the empire's history. Many Armenians gained significant positions in the empire in professions such as banking, which they almost had a monopoly in. The oldest Turkish company, Zildjian, was founded by an Armenian in the 17th century.[16]

Starting in the late 19th century, political instability, dire economic conditions, and continuing ethnic tensions prompted the emigration of as many as 100,000 Armenians to Europe, the Americas and the Middle East. This massive exodus from the Ottoman Empire is what started the modern Armenian diaspora worldwide.

There was conflict between Armenians, Turks and Kurds between 1892 and 1915. The Armenian genocide[17] followed in 1915–1916 until 1918, during which the Ottoman government of the time ordered the deportation. These measures affected an estimated 75–80% of all the Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Many died directly, while others died as a result of dehydration, disease, and starvation during the death marches.

As for the remaining Armenians in the east, they found refuge by 1917–1918 in the Caucasus and within the areas controlled by the newly established Democratic Republic of Armenia. They never returned to their original homes in today's Eastern Turkey (composed of six vilayets, Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbakır, Mamuretülaziz, and Sivas).

Their descendants are known as Hidden Armenians and are present throughout Western Armenia, but particularly in Dersim (Tunceli). Through the 20th century, an unknown number of Armenians living in the mountainous region of Dersim converted to Alevism.[18] During the Armenian genocide, many of the Armenians in the region were saved by their Kurdish neighbors.[19] According to Mihran Prgiç Gültekin, the head of the Union of Dersim Armenians, around 75% of the population of Dersim are "converted Armenians."[20][21] He reported in 2012 that over 200 families in Tunceli have declared their Armenian descent, but others are afraid to do so.[20][22] In April 2013, Aram Ateşyan, the acting Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, stated that 90% of Tunceli's population is of Armenian origin.[23]

Most of the Armenian survivors from Cilicia and the southernmost areas with Armenians like Diyarbakır ended up in northern Syria and the Middle East. All those who survived the death camps in/deportations to Deir ez-Zor ended up there as well. Armenians deported from areas that were under allied control by 1918, particularly the short lived French Mandate, which had control of southeastern Turkey and all of Cilicia according to the Sykes–Picot Agreement, were able to return to their homes to gather things or search for loved ones. After the fall of French Cilicia, Some of those returnees attempted to stay permanently after the Turks gained the territory back, but were all driven away by the early 1930s due to various reasons.[24] Those who left the Mandate ended up in Syria, France, Armenia, the Americas and the rest of Europe, in that order. The Armenian population suffered a final blow with ongoing massacres and atrocities throughout the period 1920–1923, during the Turkish War of Independence. Those suffering the most were those Armenians remaining in the east and the south of Turkey, and the Pontic Greeks in the Black Sea Region.

By the end of the 1920s, only a sprinkling of non-converted Armenians left in Turkey were scattered sparsely throughout the country, with the only viable Armenian population remaining in Istanbul and its environs, Diyarbakir and Malatya, with those largely disappearing due to the Turkey-PKK War necessitating their migration to Istanbul. At the time of the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, Hatay Province was part of Syria, and is why that area still has some established and officially recognized Armenian communities.


Armenian-speaking population in Turkey[25]
Year As first language As second language Total Turkey's population % of Total speakers
1927 67,745 67,745 13,629,488 0.50
1935 57,599 9,782 67,381 16,157,450 0.42
1945 47,728 12,354 60,082 18,790,174 0.32
1950 52,776 9,322 62,098 20,947,188 0.30
1955 56,235 6,084 62,319 24,064,763 0.26
1960 52,756 19,444 72,200 27,754,820 0.26
1965 33,094 22,260 55,354 31,391,421 0.18

Due to the Armenian Genocide and other events in Turkey during the last century, Turkish Armenians were killed, forced into hiding, and forcibly converted to Islam, which therefore split them into different groups. There are three groups- Armenian Christians, Crypto Armenians, and Muslim Armenians. Christian Armenians are in most cases part of the recognized minority, but can also include Crypto Armenians who are not legally recognized as Armenian but identify as both Armenian and Christian, and Armenian immigrants to Turkey. Crypto Armenians are Armenians who are legally identified as Turks and are either Christian and openly recognize their identity, hide their identity and either practice Crypto-Christianity or Islam, Openly identify as Armenian but are Muslim, or don't know about their ethnicity at all. The combined total of all Armenians in Turkey is unknown, because the number of people who are Crypto Armenian is hard to determine, with numbers ranging from as low as 30,000 to several million depending on how broad the standards were to be considered Crypto Armenian in the studies made. However, the combined total of immigrant Armenians and those in the recognized minority would be estimated at 150–170,000. Another statistic could be the number of people who are members of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, being at 95,000.

Armenian Christians[edit]

The officially recognized Armenian Christian population is estimated to be between 50,000 and 70,000, mostly living in Istanbul and its environs. They are almost always members of the Armenian Apostolic, Armenian Catholic or Armenian Evangelical churches. The number of Armenian Christians is both diminishing due to emigration to Europe, the Americas and Australia, and increasing due to immigrants from Armenia looking for work (who are entirely Christian), and Crypto-Armenians who decide to identify openly as Armenians and convert to Christianity. However, most of that growth is not reflected in official data, because Crypto-Armenians are not listed as part of the recognized Armenian minority due to Turkish laws on the officially recognized (Armenians, Greeks, and Jews) minorities, which doesn't allow newly identified Armenians to change their Turkish identities they were given at birth. As for Armenian immigrants, most are unable to join the minority because they are illegal immigrants. Due to those factors, the de jure number of Armenian Christians is much lower than the de facto amount.

The Armenian minority is recognized as a separate "millet" in the Turkish system and has its own religious, cultural, social and educational institutions along with a distinct media. The Turkish Armenian community struggles to keep its own institutions, media and schools open due to diminishing demand from emigration and quite considerable economic sacrifices.[citation needed]

Regions with Armenian Christians[edit]

Ara Güler was an Armenian-Turkish photojournalist, nicknamed "the Eye of Istanbul".

The Armenian community of Istanbul is the largest in Turkey, a catalyst being due to the fact that it was the only place that Armenian Christians were at least somewhat protected at the time of the creation of Turkey post Armenian genocide. Other factors included the Patriarchate having its headquarters in the city, and the city's economy and quality of life attracting Armenian immigrants which allowed for the community to keep stable numbers in the face of discrimination and constant migration.

The three most important areas where Armenians live in Istanbul are the Kumkapı quarter, Yeşilköy and Pangalti neighborhoods, as well as the Prince Islands. Kumkapi is the location of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, and is known for its many fish restaurants and historic Churches. One of the main differences between the areas is that Kumkapi is Apostolic, While Pangalti has a mix of Armenian and Roman Catholic, and Yesilköy is mostly Armenian Catholic, Roman Catholic and Syriac Orthodox. Kumkapi is also located in the Old city, while Pangalti is in the newer part, and Yesilköy is a neighborhood within Greater Istanbul next to the outer walls of the Fatih District.

Hatay Province[edit]

Iskenderun has one small Armenian church, and a community of a few dozen Armenians.[26]

Vakıflı Köyü (Armenian: ՎաքիֆVakif) is the only remaining fully ethnic Armenian village in Turkey. This village and 6 others managed to brave past the Armenian genocide in the Musa Dagh Defense. This particular village only exists as of now due to some of the population deciding to stay after Hatay province was invaded and annexed by Turkey in 1939, while the other 6 villages populations decided to leave.[27][28] It is located on the slopes of Musa Dagh in the Samandağ district of Hatay Province, the village overlooks the Mediterranean Sea and is within eyesight of the Syrian border. It is home to a community of about 130 Turkish-Armenians,[28] and around 300 people who are from the village who come back to visit during the summer.

Immigration from Armenia[edit]

The Christian Armenian presence in Turkey is reinforced by a constant flow of mostly illegal immigrants from Armenia who settle in Turkey in search of better job opportunities, where the difference in pay can be quite significant.[1] Despite a negative public opinion in Armenia of "an Armenian who works for a Turk" as a result of the century-long uneasy relationship between the two countries, by 2010, there were between 22,000 and 25,000 Armenian citizens living illegally in Istanbul alone, according to Turkish officials,[29] and an estimated total amount of 100,000. Many of them are employed in Turkish households to provide domestic services, such as cooking and cleaning.[30] According to a 2009 interview poll of 150 Armenian work migrants, the majority are women.[29] In 2010, amid Armenia's push for the recognition of the 1915 Armenian genocide as a genocide, Prime Minister Erdoğan threatened to deport the illegal immigrants back to Armenia,[31] however the situation gradually thawed. Some Armenian immigrants do not discuss ever returning to their homeland having adapted to life in Turkey.[29] Beginning in 2011, children of the Armenian citizens living illegally in Istanbul have been allowed to attend local Armenian minority schools, but as they are not Turkish citizens, they do not receive diplomas at the end of the school term.[32][33] According to the researcher Alin Ozinian number of Armenians living illegally in Turkey (in 2009) is 12,000 to 13,000 and not 70,000 to 100,000 as has previously been estimated.[34][35] Aris Nalci, a journalist working for the newspaper Agos, gave a little bit higher numbers, between 12,000 and 14,000 (in 2010).[36]

Diyarbakir Province[edit]

Diyarbakir (or Amida/Tigranakert) has three operating Armenian churches as of 2015– one Apostolic,[37] one Catholic, and one Protestant[38]- The largest amount for any city in Turkey excluding Istanbul. The city's modern Armenian community was established in the 1920s and 30s when all the Armenians that still lived in the surrounding areas consolidated by moving to Amida, forming a community consisting of 30 families in the 1980s in Sur, the historic district of Diyarbakir. It could also be assumed that many Crypto Armenians have been living here as well, because when the Apostolic church was restored in 2011 after years of abandonment, several thousand people came to celebrate mass there, including diasporans.[39] In 2017, the Southeastern third of Sur district was leveled due to being occupied by Kurdish Insurgents. The Armenian Church was raided by what is suspected to be Grey Wolves after most of the residents of Sur were forced to leave, and the district was occupied by the Turkish Army. This part of the district is being rebuilt and resold to Turkish and foreign investors.

Muslim Armenians[edit]


Also in Turkey are the Hopa Hemshinli (also designated occasionally as eastern Hemshinli in publications) are Sunni Muslims of Armenian origin and culture who converted to Islam during Ottoman and earlier rule, and mostly live in the Hopa and Borçka counties of Turkey's Artvin Province. In addition to Turkish, they speak a dialect of western Armenian they call "Homshetsma" or "Hemşince" in Turkish.[40]

Other Armenians[edit]

Crypto Armenians[edit]

"Hidden Armenians" and "crypto-Armenians"[41] are umbrella terms to describe people in Turkey "of full or partial ethnic Armenian origin who generally conceal their Armenian identity from wider Turkish society."[42] They are descendants of Armenians in Turkey who were Islamized and Turkified under the threat of either death, displacement, loss of property or a combination of those during the Armenian genocide.[43] Ways in which they were converted included orphans being taken in by Muslim families, Armenian women being taken as wives by soldiers, and entire families converting by joining communities that accepted them.

Many Cryptos are totally unaware of their Armenian ethnicity, living as Turks or Kurds, while many know they are Armenian but hide it out of fear of discrimination.

Religious affiliation[edit]

Considering the advanced nature of Crypto Armenians, they cannot be classified as either Muslim or Christian. Some practice Crypto-Christianity, masquerading as Muslims, while many genuinely practice Islam. Most Cryptos who later identify as Armenians are Christian as well, with a common practice among those who confess their ethnicity being to have a Christian baptism performed. Still, some who confess do not change their religion, and continue on as Muslims. Others even practice both faiths depending on where they are.[44] That may just be due to a lack of churches, and for identified Armenians who are Muslim, a fear of Turkish extremists.[45]


Garo Paylan (Armenian: Կարօ Փայլան, born 1972) is a Turkish politician of Armenian descent. He is a Member of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey for the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) representing Istanbul. He became one of the first Armenian members of Turkey's parliament in decades.

The wealth tax known as Varlık Vergisi, a Turkish tax levied on the non-Muslim citizens of Turkey by a law enacted on November 11, 1942, with the stated aim of raising funds for the country's defense in case of an eventual entry into World War II had devastating effect on the ethnic minorities of Turkey, and most importantly the Armenian community.[46][47] The law came under harsh criticism, as property holders had to sell a lot of their assets at greatly deflated prices or such assets were confiscated by the authorities. The unpopular law was abolished on March 15, 1944.

The traditional Armenian political parties were known to be very active in Ottoman political life, including the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF – Dashnagtsutiun), the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (Hunchak) and the Armenakan Party, the predecessor of the Armenian Democratic Liberal Party (Ramgavar Party).[48] But the activities of all these Armenian parties were curtailed after the Armenian genocide. Ethnic-based political parties as well as religious-based political parties are prohibited in Turkey by law.[49]

The Armenians of Turkey were also highly critical of the activist role that the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA), the Justice Commandos Against Armenian Genocide (JCAG), Armenian Revolutionary Army (ARA) and other Armenian guerrilla organizations played in targeting Turkish diplomats and interests worldwide at the height of their anti-Turkish campaign in the 1970s and 1980s. The fears of the Turkish Armenians were justified with the fact that at many times, Turkish-Armenian institutions and even religious centers were targeted by threats and actual bombings in retaliation of the acts of ASALA, JCAG, ARA and others.

The Turkish-Armenian Artin Penik committed suicide in 1982 by self-immolation in protest of the terrorist attack on 7 August 1982 in Ankara's Esenboğa International Airport[50] by the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia. Penik died five days after he set himself on fire in Taksim plaza, the main square of Istanbul, Turkey, and his stance was reflected by the Turkish mass media as a protest of most Turkish-Armenians against such attacks. Nine people had been killed and more than 70 wounded in the attack on the Turkish airport.

Another turbulent point for the Armenian community of Turkey was the highly publicized public trial of the Armenian gunman and one of the perpetrators of the attack, the 25-year-old Levon Ekmekjian, who was found guilty and eventually hanged at Ankara's civilian prison on January 30, 1983. He had been sentenced to death in September 1982 after having confessed that he had carried out the airport attack with another gunman on behalf of ASALA, and despite the fact that he publicly condemned violent acts during his own trial and appealed to the Armenian militants to stop the violence.

The Turkish Armenian Reconciliation Commission (TARC)[51] was set up in July 2001 a joint project of a number of Turkish and Armenian intellectuals and political experts to discuss various aspects of the Turkish-Armenian relations and approving a set of recommendations to the governments of Turkey and Armenia on how to improve the strained relations between the two countries.

Thousands of Turks joined Turkish intellectuals in publicly apologizing for the World War I era mass killings and deportations of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. The unprecedented apology was initiated by a group of 200 Turkish academics, journalists, writers and artists disagreeing with the official Turkish version of what many historians consider the first genocide of the 20th century. Their petition, entitled "I apologize", was posted on a special website https://web.archive.org/web/20150815013428/http://www.ozurdiliyoruz.com/.

On the occasion of a World Cup qualifying match between the two national football teams of Turkey and Armenia in the Armenian capital Yerevan, and following the Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan's invitation to attend the match, on 6 September 2008, the Turkish President Abdullah Gül paid a breakthrough landmark visit to Armenia that he said "promises hope for the future" for the two countries.[52]

Local politics[edit]

The Armenians in Turkey used to be active in Turkish politics. The Turkish-Armenian Sarkis "Aghparik" Cherkezian and Aram Pehlivanyan (Nickname: Ahmet Saydan) played a pivotal role in the founding of the Communist Party of Turkey. There used to be Armenian activists in many other Turkish political parties as well. In 2015, three Turkish-Armenians, Garo Paylan (Peoples' Democratic Party), Markar Esayan (Justice and Development Party), and Selina Özuzun Doğan (Republican People's Party)—were elected, and became the first Armenians to be elected as Member of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey since 1961.[53]

Hrant Dink, the Turkish-Armenian journalist, writer and political activist, and the chief editor and publisher of Agos had carved himself a position of that of a very prominent figure for conveying the ideas and aspirations of the Armenian community in Turkey not only for Turkish-Armenians but for many Armenians worldwide. His newspaper Agos had played an important role in presenting Armenian historical grievances through publishing of articles and opinions in the Turkish language addressed to the Turkish public opinion. His assassination[54] in front of his newspaper offices on January 19, 2007, turned into an occasion for expression of national grief throughout Turkey and the rallying of great support for the concerns of the Armenian community in Turkey by the general Turkish public.

Protests in Istanbul during the funeral of murdered journalist Hrant Dink where more than 100,000 people marched.[55] Protesters hold banners saying "We are all Hrant, we are all Armenians". (panorama from Halaskargazi Boulevard in Şişli district)

Dink was best known for advocating Turkish-Armenian reconciliation and human and minority rights in Turkey; he was often critical of both Turkey's denial of the Armenian genocide, and of the Armenian diaspora's campaign for its international recognition. Dink was prosecuted three times for denigrating Turkishness, while receiving numerous death threats from Turkish nationalists. At his funeral, one hundred thousand mourners marched in protest of the assassination, chanting "We are all Armenians" and "We are all Hrant Dink". Criticism of Article 301 became increasingly vocal after his death, leading to parliamentary proposals for repeal of the law.


Surp Krikor Lusavoriç Kilisesi (St. Gregory The Enlightener Church) in Kuzguncuk, Üsküdar, Istanbul.
Assumption Armenian Catholic Church in Büyükada, Adalar, Istanbul.

Religious affiliation[edit]

Virtually all Armenians who are officially registered as part of the Armenian Minority are Christians, and are either of the Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, or less commonly Protestant denominations. The religion of others and those not officially part of the minority is elaborated on in the Demographics section.

Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople[edit]

The Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul (officially Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople) is, since 1461, the religious head of the Armenian community in Turkey. The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople has exerted a very significant political role earlier and today still exercises a spiritual authority, which earns it considerable respect among Oriental Orthodox churches. The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople recognizes the primacy of the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians, in the spiritual and administrative headquarters of the Armenian Church, the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, Vagharshapat, Republic of Armenia, in matters that pertain to the worldwide Armenian Church. In local matters, the Patriarchal See is autonomous.

Sahak II Mashalian is the 85th Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople under the authority of the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians.

Armenian Catholic Archdiocese of Constantinople[edit]

The Armenian Catholic Archdiocese of Constantinople is based in Istanbul and in 2008 reported 3,650 followers.

Christmas date, etiquette and customs[edit]

Armenians celebrate Christmas at a date later than most of the Christians, on 6 January rather than 25 December. The reason for this is historical; according to Armenians, Christians once celebrated Christmas on 6 January, until the 4th century. 25 December was originally a pagan holiday that celebrated the birth of the sun. Many members of the church continued to celebrate both holidays, and the Roman church changed the date of Christmas to be 25 December and declared January 6 to be the date when the three wise men visited the baby Jesus. As the Armenian Apostolic Church had already separated from the Roman church at that time, the date of Christmas remained unchanged for Armenians.[56]

The Armenians in Turkey refer to Christmas as Surp Dzınunt (Holy Birth) and have fifty days of preparation called Hisnag before Christmas. The first, fourth and seventh weeks of Hisnag are periods of vegetarian fast for church members and every Saturday at sunset a new purple candle is lit with prayers and hymns. On the second day of Christmas, 7 January, families visit graves of relatives and say prayers.[57]

Armenian churches in Turkey[edit]

Turkey has hundreds of Armenian churches. However, the majority of them are either in ruins or are being used for other purposes. Armenian churches still in active use belong to various denominations, mainly Armenian Apostolic, but also Armenian Catholic and Armenian Evangelical Protestant.[58]


Turkey's Armenian community faces educational problems due to the steadily decreasing number of students every school year and lack of funding. The number of Armenian schools decreases year by year. This number has fallen from 47 to 17 today with currently 3,000 Armenian students, down from 6,000 Armenian students in 1981.[3] Schools are kindergarten through 12th grade (K–12), kindergarten through 8th grade (K-8) or 9th grade through 12th (9–12). Ermeni İlköğretim Okulu means "Armenian primary+secondary school". Ermeni Lisesi means "Armenian high school". The Armenian schools apply the full Turkish curriculum in addition to Armenian subjects, mainly Armenian language, literature and religion.

In September 2011, the Turkish government recognized the right of immigrant families from Armenia to send their children to schools of the Turkey's Armenian community. This move came as a result of lobbying of Deputy Patriarch Aram Ateşyan, according to whom there were some 1,000 children of Armenian immigrants in Turkey at that time.[59] However, as they are not Turkish citizens, at the end of the school term, they do not receive diplomas.[60][better source needed]



Surp Prgiç Armenian Hospital, Zeytinburnu

Among other institutions, Turkish Armenians also have their own long-running hospitals:


The majority of Armenians in Turkey speak Turkish. Only about 18% of them can speak Armenian, and most of that number are bilingual, with some having Armenian as their first language, and others learning it as a second language.[3]

Western Armenian[edit]

Western Armenian (Armenian: Արեւմտահայերէն pronounced Arevmedahayeren), Armenian: Արեւմտեան աշխարհաբար pronounced Arevmedyan Ashkharhapar, (and earlier known as Armenian: Թրքահայերէն, namely "Trkahayeren" ("Turkish-Armenian") are one of the two modern dialects of the modern Armenian, an Indo-European language.

The Western Armenian dialect was developed in the early part of the 19th century, based on the Armenian dialect of the Armenians in Istanbul, to replace many of the Armenian dialects spoken throughout Turkey.

It was widely adopted in literary Armenian writing and in Armenian media published in the Ottoman Empire, as well as large parts of the Armenian diaspora and in modern Turkey. Partly because of this, Istanbul veritably became the cultural and literary center of the Western Armenians in the 19th and early 20th century.

Western Armenian is the language spoken by almost all of the Armenian diaspora. The only diaspora community that uses Eastern Armenian is the Iranian Armenian community, or those who immigrated from Armenia. Nevertheless, Western Armenian is the primary dialect of Armenian found in North and South America, Europe (except those in Russia) and most of the Middle East (except in Iran and Armenia). Western Armenian is the primary language of the diaspora because the great majority of the Armenian diaspora in all these areas (Europe, Americas, Middle East) was formed in the 19th and early 20th century by Armenian populations from the Ottoman Empire, which is where Western Armenian was historically spoken.

Nevertheless, the Western Armenian language is still spoken by a small minority of the present-day Armenian community in Turkey. However, only 18 percent of the Armenian community speaks Western Armenian, while 82 percent of the Armenian community speaks Turkish. This percentage is even lower among younger people of whom only 8 percent speaks Western Armenian and 92 percent speaks Turkish.[3] Turkish is replacing Western Armenian as a mother language, and UNESCO has added Western Armenian in its annual Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger where the Western Armenian language in Turkey is defined as a definitely endangered language.[4][61]

The Western Armenian language is markedly different in grammar, pronunciation and spelling from the Eastern Armenian language spoken in Armenia, Iran and Russia, although they are both mutually intelligible. Western Armenian still keeps the classical Armenian orthography known as Mashdotsian spelling, whereas Eastern Armenian adopted reformed spelling in the 1920s (Eastern Armenian in Iran did not adopt this reform then).

Armeno-Turkish (Turkish in Armenian alphabet)[edit]

From the early 18th century until around 1950, and for almost 250 years, more than 2000 books were printed in the Turkish language using letters of the Armenian alphabet. This is popularly known as Armeno-Turkish.

Armeno-Turkish was not used just by Armenians, but also many non-Armenian elite (including the Ottoman Turkish intellectuals) could actually read the Armenian-alphabet Turkish language texts.

The Armenian alphabet was also used alongside the Arabic alphabet on official documents of the Ottoman Empire, written in Ottoman Turkish. For example, the Aleppo edition of the official gazette of the Ottoman Empire, called "Frat" (Turkish and Arabic for the Euphrates) contained a Turkish section of laws printed in Armenian alphabet.

Also very notably, the first novel to be written in the Ottoman Empire was 1851's Akabi Hikayesi, written by Armenian statesman, journalist and novelist Vartan Pasha (Hovsep Vartanian) in Ottoman Turkish, was published with Armenian script. Akabi Hikayesi depicted an impossible love story between two young people coming from two different communities amidst hostility and adversity.

When the Armenian Duzian family managed the Ottoman mint during the reign of Abdülmecid I, they kept their records in Ottoman Turkish written in Armenian script.[62]

Great collection of Armeno-Turkish could be found in Christian Armenian worship until the late 1950s. The Bible used by many Armenians in the Ottoman Empire was not only the Bible versions printed in Armenian, but also at times the translated Turkish language Bibles using the Armenian alphabet. Usage continued in Armenian church gatherings specially for those who were Turkophones rather than Armenophones. Many of the Christian spiritual songs used in certain Armenian churches were also in Armeno-Turkish.

Armenians and the Turkish language[edit]

The Armenian school in Kumkapi, Istanbul (next to the Surp Asdvadzadzin Patriarchal Church)

Armenians played a key role in the promotion of the Turkish language including the reforms of the Turkish language initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

Bedros Keresteciyan, the Ottoman linguist completed the first etymological dictionary of the Turkish language.[63][64][65] Armenians contributed considerably to the development of printing in Turkey: Apkar Tebir started the first printing house in Istanbul in 1567;[66] Hovannes Muhendisian (1810–1891), known as the "Turkish Gutenberg", established a printing press in Istanbul that operated from 1839 until World War I;[67] Boghos Arabian (1742-1835) designed the Turkish type and was appointed by Sultan Mahmut II in 1816 as the superintendent of the imperial printing press, which notably published the first Turkish daily newspaper, Takvim-i Vekayi and its translation to Armenian and other languages.[68]

Agop Martayan Dilâçar (1895–1979) was a Turkish Armenian linguist. He specialized in Turkic languages and was the first Secretary General and head specialist of the Turkish Language Association (TLA) from its establishment in 1932 until 1979. In addition to Armenian and Turkish, Martayan knew 10 other languages including English, Greek, Spanish, Latin, German, Russian and Bulgarian. He was invited on September 22, 1932, as a linguistics specialist to the First Turkish Language Congress supervised by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, together with two other Armenian linguists, İstepan Gurdikyan and Kevork Simkeşyan. He continued his work and research on the Turkish language as the head specialist and Secretary General of the newly founded Turkish Language Association in Ankara. Following the issue of the Law on Family Names in 1934, Mustafa Kemal Pasha suggested him the surname Dilaçar, meaning "language opener", which he gladly accepted. In return, Agop Martayan openly proposed the name Atatürk to Mustafa Kemal Pasha in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.[69][64] He taught history and language at Ankara University between 1936 and 1951 and was the head advisor of the Türk Ansiklopedisi (Turkish Encyclopedia), between 1942 and 1960. He held his position and continued his research in linguistics at the Turkish Language Association until his death in 1979.[70]


Vakıflı the only remaining Armenian village in Cilicia.[27][71]

Armenians try to keep a rich cultural life and do participate in the Turkish art scene.


The pan-Turkish Kardeş Türküler cultural and musical formation, in addition to performing a rich selection of Turkish, Kurdish, Georgian, Arabic and gypsy musical numbers, also includes a number of beautiful interpretation of Armenian traditional music in its repertoire. It gave sold-out concerts in Armenia as part of the Turkish-Armenian Cultural Program, which was made possible with support from USAID.

The "Sayat-Nova" choir was founded in 1971 under the sponsorship of the St. Children's Church of Istanbul performs traditional Armenian songs and studies and interprets Armenian folk music.

In classical opera music and theatre, Toto Karaca was a major figure on the stage. In the folk tradition, the effect of Udi Hrant Kenkulian as a legendary oud player is indisputable.

In contemporary music, Arto Tunçboyacıyan and his brother the late Onno Tunç are two veritable jazz musicians, composers and arrangers. The Turkish rock artist Yaşar Kurt declared he was of ethnic Armenian descent. Another famous Armenian rock musician is Hayko Cepkin. Hayko Tataryan is also well known for singing in Turkish, Armenian and Greek, so is his son Alex Tataryan. Very recently the Turkish-Armenian singer Sibil Pektorosoğlu (better known by her mononym Sibil) has become popular winning pan-Armenian music prizes for her recordings.

Cinema and acting[edit]

In movie acting, special mention should be made of Vahi Öz who appeared in countless movies from the 1940s until the late 1960s, Sami Hazinses (real name Samuel Agop Uluçyan) who appeared in tens of Turkish movies from the 1950s until the 1990s and Nubar Terziyan who appeared in more than 400 movies. Movie actor and director Kenan Pars (real name Kirkor Cezveciyan) and theatre and film actress Irma Felekyan (aka Toto Karaca), who was mother of Cem Karaca.


In photography Ara Güler is a famous photojournalist of Armenian descent, nicknamed "the Eye of Istanbul" or "the Photographer of Istanbul".


Turkish Armenian novelists, poets, essayists and literary critics continue to play a very important role particularly in the literary scene of the Armenian diaspora, with works of quality in Western Armenian.

Robert Haddedjian chief editor of Marmara newspaper published in Istanbul remains a pivotal figure in the literary criticism scene. Zareh Yaldizciyan (1923–2007), better known by his pen name Zahrad was a renowned Western Armenian poet.

A number of Turkish writers – such as Sait Faik, Kemal Tahir and Ahmed Hamdi Tanpinar – also represented Armenians in their work and, in the case of Tanpinar, actually had Armenian friends and taught in Armenian schools.[72]


Istanbul was home to a number of long-running and influential Armenian publications. Very notable now-defunct daily newspapers included Arevelk (1884–1915), Puzantyon (1896–1908), Sourhantag (1899–1908), Manzoume Efkyar (1912–1917), Vertchin Lour (1914–1924). Outside Istanbul, the notable daily publications included Arshalouys (1909–1914), Tashink (1909–1914) and Van (1908–1909).

Presently, Istanbul has two Armenian language dailies. These two newspapers, Jamanak (established in 1908) and Marmara also have a long tradition of keeping alive the Turkish Armenian literature, which is an integral part of the Western Armenian language and Armenian literature.

  • Jamanak (Ժամանակ in Armenian meaning time) is a long-running Armenian language daily newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey. The daily was established in 1908 by Misak Kochounian and has been somewhat a family establishment, given that it has been owned by the Kochounian family since its inception. After Misak Kochounian, it was passed down to Sarkis Kochounian, and since 1992 is edited by Ara Kochounian.
  • Marmara, [1] daily in Armenian (Armenian: Մարմարա) (sometimes "Nor Marmara" – New Marmara) is an Armenian-language daily newspaper published since 1940 in Istanbul, Turkey. It was established by Armenian journalist Souren Shamlian. Robert Haddeler took over the paper in 1967. Marmara is published six times a week (except on Sundays). The Friday edition contains a section in Turkish as well. Circulation is reported at 2000 per issue.
  • Agos, [2] (Armenian: Ակօս, "Furrow") is a bilingual Armenian weekly newspaper published in Istanbul in Turkish and Armenian. It was established on 5 April 1996. Today, it has a circulation of around 5,000. Besides Armenian and Turkish pages, the newspaper has an on-line English edition as well. Hrant Dink was its chief editor from the newspaper's start until his assassination outside of the newspaper's offices in Istanbul in January 2007. Hrant Dink's son Arat Dink served as the executive editor of the weekly after his assassination.
  • Lraper, [3] (Լրաբեր in Armenian) is a trilingual periodical publication in Armenian, Turkish and English languages and is the official organ of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople

Other Armenian media titles include: Sourp Pergiç (St. Saviour) the magazine of the Armenian Sourp Pergiç (Pergitch) Hospital, also Kulis, Shoghagat, Norsan and the humorous Jbid (smile in Armenian)

In September 2011, the Turkish government granted some financing to Jamanak, Marmara and Agos as part of a wider campaign in support of existing minority newspapers in Turkey.[73] The Turkish Press Advertisement Agency also declared intention to publish official government advertisements in minority newspapers including Armenian ones.[74]

Famous Turkish-Armenians[edit]

Turkish Armenians in the diaspora[edit]

Despite leaving their homes in Turkey, the Turkish Armenians traditionally establish their own unions within the Armenian diaspora. Usually named "Bolsahay Miutyun"s (Istanbul-Armenian Associations), they can be found in their new adopted cities of important Turkish-Armenian populations. Among them are the "Organization of Istanbul Armenians of Los Angeles", the "Istanbul Armenian Association in Montreal", etc.

The Turkish Ambassador to Germany, Hüseyin Avni Karslıoğlu, inaugurated in December 2012 at the Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp a memorial stone with bronze letters (third of its kind after the Polish and Dutch similars) to the memory of eight Turkish citizens killed during the Holocaust, one of whom is a Turkish Armenian with the name Garabed Taşçıyan.[75]

See also[edit]






  1. ^ a b c "Armenian immigrants look for a better life in Turkey". Archived from the original on 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2015-08-27. Quote"I earn $600 a month, which is more than twice the money I would earn in Armenia"
  2. ^ "Turkey threatens to deport 100,000 Armenians". NBC News. 2010-03-17. Retrieved 2023-10-07.
  3. ^ a b c d Helix Consulting LLC. "Turkologist Ruben Melkonyan publishes book "Review of Istanbul's Armenian community history"". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  4. ^ a b UNESCO Culture Sector, UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger, 2009 Archived February 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Turay, Anna. "Tarihte Ermeniler". Bolsohays: Istanbul Armenians. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  6. ^ Baronian, Marie-Aude; Besser, Stephan; Jansen, Yolande (2006-01-01). Diaspora and Memory: Figures of Displacement in Contemporary Literature, Arts and Politics. BRILL. doi:10.1163/9789401203807_006. ISBN 978-94-012-0380-7.
  7. ^ Baser, Bahar; Swain, Ashok (2009). "Diaspora Design Versus Homeland Realities: Case Study of Armenian Diaspora". Caucasian Review of International Affairs: 57.
  8. ^ "Minister denies calling Armenians 'Diaspora representatives' in Istanbul". www.tert.am. Retrieved 2023-10-08.
  9. ^ Kaya, Nurcan (2015-11-24). "Teaching in and Studying Minority Languages in Turkey: A Brief Overview of Current Issues and Minority Schools". European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online. 12 (1): 315–338. doi:10.1163/9789004306134_013. ISSN 2211-6117. Turkey is a nation–state built on remnants of the Ottoman Empire where non-Muslim minorities were guaranteed the right to set up educational institutions; however, since its establishment, it has officially recognised only Armenians, Greeks and Jews as minorities and guaranteed them the right to manage educational institutions as enshrined in the Treaty of Lausanne. [...] Private language teaching courses teach 'traditionally used languages', elective language courses have been introduced in public schools and universities are allowed to teach minority languages.
  10. ^ Toktas, Sule (2006). "EU enlargement conditions and minority protection : a reflection on Turkey's non-Muslim minorities". East European quarterly. 40: 489–519. ISSN 0012-8449. Turkey signed the Covenant on 15 August 2000 and ratified it on 23 September 2003. However, Turkey put a reservation on Article 27 of the Covenant which limited the scope of the right of ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion or to use their own language. This reservation provides that this right will be implemented and applied in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Turkish Constitution and the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. This implies that Turkey grants educational right in minority languages only to the recognized minorities covered by the Lausanne who are the Armenians, Greeks and the Jews.
  11. ^ Phillips, Thomas James (2020-12-16). "The (In-)Validity of Turkey's Reservation to Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. 27 (1): 66–93. doi:10.1163/15718115-02701001. ISSN 1385-4879. The fact that Turkish constitutional law takes an even more restrictive approach to minority rights than required under the Treaty of Lausanne was recognised by the UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) in its concluding observations on the combined fourth to sixth periodic reports of Turkey. The CERD noted that "the treaty of Lausanne does not explicitly prohibit the recognition of other groups as minorities" and that Turkey should consider recognising the minority status of other groups, such as Kurds. 50 In practice, this means that Turkey grants minority rights to "Greek, Armenian and Jewish minority communities while denying their possible impact for unrecognized minority groups (e.g. Kurds, Alevis, Arabs, Syriacs, Protestants, Roma etc.)".
  12. ^ Bayır, Derya (2013). Minorities and nationalism in Turkish law. Cultural Diversity and Law. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 88–89, 203–204. ISBN 978-1-4094-7254-4.
  13. ^ Toktas, Sule; Aras, Bulent (2009). "The EU and Minority Rights in Turkey". Political Science Quarterly. 124 (4): 697–720. ISSN 0032-3195.
  14. ^ Köksal, Yonca (2006). "Minority Policies in Bulgaria and Turkey: The Struggle to Define a Nation". Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. 6 (4): 501–521. doi:10.1080/14683850601016390. ISSN 1468-3857.
  15. ^ Papazian, H. (2020). Contesting Armenianness: plurality, segregation and multilateral boundary making among Armenians in contemporary Turkey (PhD thesis). University of Oxford.
  16. ^ Pellegrinelli, Lara (2018-08-03). "A Family's 400-Year-Old Musical Secret Still Rings True". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-07-25.
  17. ^ /gen_bib1.html Extensive bibliography by University of Michigan on the Armenian genocide
  18. ^ "Armenian Elements in the Beliefs of the Kizilbash Kurds". İnternet Haber. 27 April 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  19. ^ A. Davis, Leslie (1990). Blair, Susan K. (ed.). The Slaughterhouse Province: An American Diplomat's Report On the Armenian Genocide, 1915–1917 (2. print. ed.). New Rochelle, New York: A.D. Caratzas. ISBN 9780892414581.
  20. ^ a b "Mihran Gultekin: Dersim Armenians Re-Discovering Their Ancestral Roots". Massis Post. Yerevan. 7 February 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  21. ^ Adamhasan, Ali (5 December 2011). "Dersimin Nobel adayları..." Adana Medya (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  22. ^ "Dersim Armenians back to their roots". PanARMENIAN.Net. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
  23. ^ "Tunceli'nin yüzde 90'ı dönme Ermeni'dir". İnternet Haber (in Turkish). 27 April 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  24. ^ Hairenik (14 October 2011). "A History of Destruction: The Fate of Armenian Church Properties in Adana [i]". Armenian Weekly.
  25. ^ Fuat Dündar, Türkiye Nüfus Sayımlarında Azınlıklar, 2000
  26. ^ "Iskenderun: Catholic Church – Katolik Kilisesi – Chiesa Cattolica – Katholischer Church". anadolukatolikkilisesi.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  27. ^ a b Kalkan, Ersin (2005-07-31). "Türkiye'nin tek Ermeni köyü Vakıflı". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2007-02-22.
  28. ^ a b Campbell, Verity (2007). Turkey. Lonely Planet. p. 438. ISBN 978-1-74104-556-7. Vakifli.
  29. ^ a b c Grigoryan, Marianna; Hayrapetyan, Anahit (2 September 2011). "Turkey: Armenian Illegal Migrants Put National Grievances Aside for Work". EurasiaNet. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  30. ^ Gevorg Ter-Gabrielyan. Armenia and the Caucasus: Crossroad or Dead-End?.
  31. ^ Suna Erdem. Recep Tayyip Erdogan threatens to expel 100,000 illegal Armenians[permanent dead link]. The Times. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  32. ^ Armenian Children to Be Educated Archived October 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Hürriyet. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  33. ^ "Children of Armenian irregular immigrants to attend community schools in Turkey". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  34. ^ "Today's Zaman, your gateway to Turkish daily news". www.todayszaman.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  35. ^ "Number of Armenians Illegally Living in Turkey Only 12,000: Recent Study Reports". www.tert.am. Archived from the original on 2022-12-05. Retrieved 2021-07-31.
  36. ^ Danielyan, Emil (22 February 2010). "Study Sheds Light on Armenian Migrants in Turkey". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» Ռադիոկայան.
  37. ^ Hairenik (10 September 2013). "Mass Celebrated at Sourp Giragos Church in Diyarbakir". Armenian Weekly.
  38. ^ "After 12 years, Turkey closes the door on American church volunteer – Christian News on Christian Today". christiantoday.com.
  39. ^ "Armenian Life Returns to Diyarbakir – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor.
  40. ^ Ibit, Uwe Blasing, "Armenian in the vocabulary and culture of the Turkish Hemshinli".
  41. ^ Ziflioğlu, Vercihan (24 June 2011). "Hidden Armenians in Turkey expose their identities". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  42. ^ Ziflioğlu, Vercihan (19 June 2012). "Elective courses may be ice-breaker for all". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  43. ^ Khanlaryan, Karen (29 September 2005). "The Armenian ethnoreligious elements in the Western Armenia". Noravank Foundation. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  44. ^ "Turkey's Secret Armenians - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East". Archived from the original on 2016-03-13. Retrieved 2015-08-27. quote: "Jazo Uzal, a villager from the province of Mus, goes to church in Istanbul, where he spends the winters, but when he returns home during the summer he observes the Muslim rites of worship, including fasting."
  45. ^ "Armenian Life Returns to Diyarbakir - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-07-15. quote: “I am happy to see my father getting back in touch with his Armenian identity. However, I am afraid not only of the state but also of militant groups.”
  46. ^ Güven, Dilek (2005-09-06). "6–7 Eylül Olayları (1)". Türkiye. Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-25. Nitekim 1942 yılında yürürlüğe giren Varlık Vergisi, Ermenilerin, Rumların ve Yahudilerin ekonomideki liderliğine son vermeyi hedeflemiştir...Seçim dönemleri CHP ve DP'nin Varlık Vergisi'nin geri ödeneceği yönündeki vaatleri ise seçim propagandasından ibarettir.
  47. ^ Smith, Thomas W. (September 2, 2001). "Constructing A Human Rights Regime in Turkey: Dilemmas of Civic Nationalism and Civil Society": 4. One of the darkest events in Turkish history was the Wealth Tax, levied discriminatory against non-Muslims in 1942, hobbling Armenians with the most punitive rates. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  48. ^ Kaligian, Dikran (2009-05-31). "ARF-CUP Relations Under Ottoman Constitutional Rule". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  49. ^ "Fourth chapter, part one, article 78, provision B". Law On Political Parties (PDF). p. 33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-12-13. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  50. ^ "Turkey: A Cry for Bloody Vengeance". Time. 23 August 1982. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  51. ^ "Turkish Armenian Reconciliation Commission". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  52. ^ "Gul in landmark visit to Armenia". BBC News. 6 September 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  53. ^ Armenian Observers in Turkey's Parliamentary Election The Armenian Weekly, 9 June 2015, reached on June 9, 2015 "Armenian Observers in Turkey's Parliamentary Election". 9 June 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-03-28. Retrieved 2015-06-09.
  54. ^ "Turkish-Armenian writer shot dead". BBC News. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  55. ^ Mass protest at editor's funeral The Guardian, 24 January 2007, reached on 2 February 2013 "Mass protest at Turkish-Armenian editor Hrant Dink's funeral". TheGuardian.com. 24 January 2007. Archived from the original on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
  56. ^ "Why Do Armenians Celebrate Christmas on 6 January?". Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  57. ^ "Our New Year and Nativity/Theophany Traditions". Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  58. ^ "Armenians of Istanbul – Istanbul Armenians". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  59. ^ Armenian immigrant children to be allowed in minority schools Today's Zaman, 2 September 2011 "Armenian immigrant children to be allowed in minority schools". Archived from the original on 2011-09-03. Retrieved 2011-10-01.
  60. ^ (in Turkish) Gayrimüslimler için hayat tozpembe değil. "Gayrimüslimler için hayat tozpembe değil". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
  61. ^ UNESCO: 15 Languages Endangered in Turkey, by T. Korkut, 2009 Archived March 31, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ Mansel, Philip (2011). Constantinople. Hachette UK. ISBN 978-1848546479.
  63. ^ Dabağyan, Levon Panos (2002). Osmanlı'da şer hareketleri ve II. Abdülhamid Hân (1. basım. ed.). İstanbul: IQ Kültürsanat Yayıncılık. ISBN 9789756618332.
  64. ^ a b "Özür dilediğim Ermeniler ve 2008 için son birkaç sözcük". BirGun (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 21 August 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  65. ^ "Armenian-Turkish dictionary published in Turkey". PanArmenian. May 5, 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  66. ^ "Apkar Tıbir'le Karagümrük'te başlayan matbaacılık tarihi | Agos". 2017-04-22. Archived from the original on 2017-04-22. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  67. ^ Hacikyan, Agop Jack; Basmajian, Gabriel; Franchuk, Edward S.; Ouzounian, Nourhan (2000). The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the Eighteenth Century to Modern Times. Wayne State University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8143-3221-4.
  68. ^ Hacikyan, Agop Jack; Basmajian, Gabriel; Franchuk, Edward S.; Ouzounian, Nourhan (2000). The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the Eighteenth Century to Modern Times. Wayne State University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8143-3221-4.
  69. ^ İrfan Özfatura (3 April 2011). "Dilimizi dilim dilim... Agop Dilaçar". turkiyegazetesi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2016-07-02. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  70. ^ "A. Dilâçar". www.dildernegi.org.tr. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  71. ^ Campbell, Verity (2007). Turkey. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-556-7.
  72. ^ "GU-Q Faculty Seminar: Armenians in Modern Turkish Literature". YouTube.
  73. ^ Dardaki azınlık gazetelerine bayram gecesi yardımı... Sabah, 8 September 2011 "Dardaki azınlık gazetelerine bayram gecesi yardımı". Archived from the original on 2016-10-04. Retrieved 2011-10-01.
  74. ^ Minority Newspaper Meets with The Turkish Press Advertising Agency Greek Europe Reporter, 28 July 2011 "Minority Newspaper Meets with the Turkish Press Advertising Agency | Greek Reporter Europe". Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Retrieved 2011-10-01.
  75. ^ "Berlin'in haber sitesi ha-ber.com Almanya ve Türkiye'den gazete manşetleri. Berlin news. Berlin Nachrichten". Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2015.


This article contains some text originally adapted from the public domain Library of Congress Country Study for Turkey.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]