Carmelit

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Carmelit
כרמלית
Carmelit.png
The New Carmelit 08-10-2018.jpg
The new Carmelit - Train No 1.
Overview
TypeFunicular Subway
StatusIn service
LocaleHaifa
TerminiCarmel Center
Downtown
Stations6
Services1
Ridership732,664 (2012)[1]
Websitewww.carmelithaifa.co.il
Operation
Opened1959
OwnerHaifa Municipality
Operator(s)The Carmelit Haifa Company Ltd.
Character1
Rolling stock4 Von Roll (now Doppelmayr) funicular cars
2 per train
Technical
Line length1.8 km (1.1 mi)
Number of tracks1
Track gauge1,980 mm (6 ft 6 in)[2][discuss]
Operating speed28 km/h (17 mph)
Highest elevation268 m (879 ft) above sea level
Route diagram

elev.
in m
מרכז הכרמל
Carmel Center
237
גולומב
Golomb
194
מצדה
Masada
118
הנביאים
Hanevi'im
70
הדר עירייה
Hadar-City Hall
63
עיר תחתית
Downtown
12
500 m
תחנת הרכבת‎‎
חיפה מרכז השמונה‎‎
Haifa Central Israel Railways

The Carmelit (Hebrew: כַּרְמְלִית) is an underground funicular railway in Haifa, Israel. Construction started in 1956 and ended in 1959. It is currently the only underground transit system in Israel (until the expected 2021 opening of Tel Aviv Light Rail).

The Carmelit was closed in 1986 when it showed signs of aging and reopened in September 1992 after extensive renovations. It was closed again from March to July 2015 due to a fault in the cable. It closed a third time in February 2017 for renovations following a fire, and reopened in October 2018.

System[edit]

The Carmelit, named after Mount Carmel through which it runs, is an underground funicular railway in Haifa. The difference in elevation between the first and last stations is 274 meters (899 feet). Carmelit cars have a slanted design, with steps within each car and on the station platform. Since the grade varies along the route, the floor of each car is never quite level, and slopes slightly "uphill" or "downhill" depending on the location.

The Carmelit is one of the smallest subway systems in the world, having only four cars, six stations and a single tunnel 1.8 km (1.1 mi) long. The four cars operate as two two-car trains, which run on single-track with a short double-track section to allow the trains to pass each other.

The technology used in the system forces it to have an even number of stations at approximately equal distances. This means that some stations are not located close to major centers, but rather were situated for technical reasons.[3]

History[edit]

Carmelit opening day in 1959

A rail-based solution to connect Mount Carmel with downtown Haifa was envisioned by the British mandatory authorities. However, practical talks only began in 1955 under the auspices of then-mayor Abba Hushi. The French company Compagnie Dunkerquoise d'Entreprises created a detailed plan and proposed to a generous loan for a large part of the project, and an agreement was signed in 1956. The plan was for a funicular system, and the inauguration took place in 1959, attended by Israeli prime minister David Ben Gurion and the French transport minister Robert Buron among others.[3]

The Israeli company Solel Boneh carried out the works, which proceeded at a pace of three meters a day, other than a geologically difficult section where a speed of 1.5 meters a day was achieved.[3]

Shutdowns[edit]

The Carmelit was shut down for intensive renovation on December 19, 1986, after 27 consecutive years. The old rolling stock was taken to a scrapyard near Kfar Masaryk in 1991, after being offered to the Israel Railway Museum which refused it due to high transport costs.[4] After several delays and failed attempts, renovation work started on October 29, 1990. The Carmelit finally reopened to the public in early September 1992.

The Carmelit train before the fire in 2017
The Carmelit train before the fire in 2017

In March 2015, the Carmelit was closed again due to a faulty cable, and subsequently reopened in July 2015. At the same time new ticket machines were installed to accommodate the Rav-Kav ticketing system.

On Saturday, February 4, 2017, a fire erupted in the Paris Square station after working hours. One of the two trainsets was heavily damaged, as well as parts of the tunnel. As a result, the line was once more shut down and underwent an upgrade that included replacing both trainsets with new ones (supplied by Doppelmayr's Swiss subsidiary which built the original trainsets), a new control center, and a major refurbishing of the systems and infrastructure. It reopened in October 2018.[5]

The Carmelit today[edit]

The small number of stations means that the Carmelit serves only a small part of Haifa – which was the important population and business center when it was designed. Nowadays, the vast majority of the city's population does not live near to any of the stations, making it very lightly used. There have been talks of extending the tunnels to reach more people, but this has not been done, primarily for fiscal reasons. The most widely used public transport in Haifa are Egged buses, which serve most of the city.

Haifa's comptroller wrote in his 2004 report (published in 2005) about the declining use of the Carmelit. According to the report, the system is used by only 2,000 passengers a day, and has been losing money ever since its reopening in 1992. The accrued losses between 1992 and 2003 are over 191 million.

Since October 31, 2010, taking a bicycle on the Carmelit has been allowed at no additional cost.

An extensive BRT system called Metronit began operating in Haifa in late 2013. It was hoped the stops at some of the Carmelit stations would increase ridership on the line.

As of 2019, the Carmelit is the only subway in Israel. However, major construction on Tel Aviv's light rail, much of which will be underground, commenced in 2011.

Stations[edit]

Carmelit route map

Properties[edit]

The Carmelit stations are small; entrance halls are at only the two terminal stations.

Stations in descending order[edit]

Station Hebrew name Location and description Entrance location Entrance Platforms
Carmel Center מרכז הכרמל Located in the Carmel Center, adjacent to the Haifa zoo, a panoramic promenade, the Haifa Auditorium, and many shops and hotels. Until 2018, the station was known as Gan HaEm (גן האם). Carmel Center Carmelit 2018 Carmel Center both entrances.jpg Carmelit 2018 Carmel Center platforms.jpg
Golomb גולומב The station was named Bnei Zion (בני ציון) between 2003 and October 2018. Located on Golomb Street, near Bnai Zion Medical Center and the Bahá'í World Centre. Golomb Carmelit 2018 Golomb entrance 1.jpg Carmelit 2018 Golomb platforms.jpg
Masada מסדה Upper Hadar HaCarmel: located in the vicinity of Masada and Hillel streets, with their galleries, shops, cafés and restaurants, as well as the Madatech Science Museum. Masada Carmelit 2018 Masada entrance.jpg Carmelit 2018 Masada platforms.jpg
HaNevi'im הנביאים Hadar HaCarmel: near HaNevi'im, Herzl and HeHalutz streets, which have a mix of shops and offices. The Haifa Museum of Art is located near this station.
MetronitConnection to Metronit Line 3
Hanevi'im Carmelit 2018 HaNeviim entrance.jpg Carmelit 2018 HaNeviim platforms.jpg
Hadar-City Hall הדר עירייה Next to HaNevi'im Tower, HaAtzmaut Park, and Haifa City Hall. Until 2018, this station was known as Solel Boneh (סולל בונה). Hadar-City Hall Carmelit 2018 Hadar entrance.jpg Carmelit 2018 Hadar platforms.jpg
Downtown עיר תחתית Downtown: near Haifa's government building and courthouse, HaAtzmaut Street, and within walking distance to Haifa Center Railway Station and the Port of Haifa. The station was previously named Paris Square (כיכר פריז). Downtown Carmelit 2018 Downtown entrance 1.jpg Carmelit 2018 Downtown platforms.jpg

Operating hours[edit]

Sunday through Thursday 06:00–24:00
Friday and holiday evenings 06:00–15:00
Saturday
 
19:00–24:00 summer
20:00–24:00 winter

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eyal Lerman (February 7, 2013). "זינוק של 20% בנסיעה בכרמלית" [20% Jump in Carmelit Trips] (in Hebrew). MyNet. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  2. ^ "Israel railways - Passenger stations & stops" (PDF). May 2004 – via Jim Fergusson's Railway and Tramway Station Lists. Scan of original typed document.
  3. ^ a b c Michael Ya'akobson (February 7, 2017). כרמלית ושמה שריפה: מי צריך את התחתית החיפאית בפורמט הנוכחי? [Carmelit Named Fire: Who Needs the Haifa Underground in Its Current Form?] (in Hebrew). Xnet. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  4. ^ HaRakevet: Rothschild PhD, Rabbi Walter (June 1991), Carmelit Restoration. Issue 13
  5. ^ Michal Raz-Chaimovitz (October 4, 2018). "Haifa's Carmelit subway reopens after 18 month upgrade". Globes.

External links[edit]