This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2018)
|Vice Chairman for the Mainland||Abdulrahman Kinana|
|Vice Chairman for the Islands||Hussein Mwinyi|
|Founded||5 February 1977|
|Merger of||TANU and ASP|
|Think tank||UONGOZI Institute|
|Student wing||Seneti ya Vyuo na Vyuo Vikuu Tanzania|
|Youth wing||Umoja wa Vijana wa CCM - UVCCM|
|Women's wing||Umoja wa Wanawake Tanzania - UWT|
|Parents' wing||Chama Cha Wazazi Tanzania - CWT|
|Worker's Union wing||Wafanyakazi|
|Membership (2020)||25.8 million|
|International affiliation||Progressive Alliance|
|Slogan||Ujamaa na Kujitegemea |
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|A hoe and a hammer|
The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; lit. 'Party of the Revolution' in English) is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania and the second longest-ruling party in Africa, only after the True Whig Party of Liberia. It was formed in 1977, following the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), which were the sole operating parties in mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar respectively.
TANU and its successor CCM have ruled Tanzania uninterruptedly since independence. The party has been described as authoritarian. Since the creation of a multi-party system, CCM has won the past six general elections in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. Jakaya Kikwete, its presidential candidate in 2005, won by a landslide, receiving more than 80% of the popular vote and John Magufuli as a candidate in 2020 exceeded to 84% campaign. In the 2010 election, it won 186 of the 239 constituencies, continuing to hold an outright majority in the National Assembly.
The party was created on February 5, 1977, under the leadership of Julius Nyerere, through the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), the ruling party in Tanganyika, and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), the ruling party in Zanzibar.
TANU/CCM has dominated the politics of Tanzania since the independence of Tanganyika in 1961. Due to the merger with the ASP, from 1977 it has also been the ruling party in Zanzibar, though there its grip on power has been more contested by the Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA).
From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. Every five years, its national chairman was automatically elected to a five-year term as president; he was confirmed in office via a referendum. At the same time, voters were presented with two CCM candidates for the National Assembly or Bunge. This changed on July 1, 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly.
Originally a champion of African socialism, upholder of the system of collectivized agriculture known as Ujamaa and firmly oriented to the left, today the CCM espouses a more mixed economic approach. CCM hopes to continue to modernize in order to ensure:
- Increased productivity which would boost the country's revenue
- Increased employment and improved management
- Acquisition of new and modern technology
- Increased and expanded local and international markets for our products, and;
- Improved and strengthened private sector serving as the engine of the national economy while the government sharpens its focus on provision of social services, infrastructure, security and governance of the state.
Similarly, the CCM's major foreign policy focus is economic diplomacy within the international system, and peaceful coexistence with neighbors.
Electoral performance and support base
The CCM has a leading role in society, despite having multiparty democracy in Tanzania since 1995, the CCM has kept to power ever since. Empirical analysis has shown that a sense of nostalgia for a party which brought independence, and which has maintained relative peace is a major cause of the CCM's support base; age had no significant determinant on loyalty to the CCM. The party has strong support from subsistence farmers.
The party has won all presidential elections at both the national level and in Zanzibar at the autonomous level under the multi-party system: 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. It also dominates the legislature.
In the elections for Zanzibar's presidency and House of Representatives, held on 30 October 2005, incumbent president and CCM candidate Amani Abeid Karume won with 53% of the vote, while the party won 30 seats out of 50.
In the national elections for Tanzania's presidency and National Assembly, held on 14 December 2005, Foreign Minister and CCM candidate Jakaya Kikwete won with 80.28% of the vote. Out of the 232 seats filled through direct election, the CCM won 206.
On 31 October 2010, Jakaya Kikwete was reelected president with 61% of the vote, while CCM obtained 186 out of the 239 directly elected seats.
Samia Suluhu Hassan is the current Chairperson of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi following the death of John Pombe Magufuli, the former Chairman and President of United Republic of Tanzania.
- Chairwoman: Samia Suluhu Hassan
- Vice Chairman Zanzibar: Hussein Mwinyi
- Vice Chairman Mainland: Abdulrahman Kinana
- Secretary General: Daniel Chongolo
- Deputy Secretary General Zanzibar: Mohammed Mohammed
- Deputy Secretary General Mainland: Anamringi Macha
- Secretary for Organisation: Issa Ussi
- Secretary for Party Ideology and Publicity: Sophia Mjema
- Secretary for Party Affairs and International Relations: Ambassador Mbarouk Mbarouk
- Secretary for Economic Affairs and Finance: Dr. Frank George Haule Hawassi
- Secretary General Wazazi - Gilbert Kalima
- Secretary General UWT - Jokate Mwegelo
- Secretary General UVCCM - Kenani Kihongosi
- National Chairman
|Ali Hassan Mwinyi||1985–1995|
- National Vice Chairman (Mainland)
|Abdulrahman Omar Kinana||1st April 2022 – Present|
- National Vice Chairman (Zanzibar)
|Amani Abeid Karume||? – 2012|
|Ali Mohamed Shein||2012–present|
- Secretaries General
|Abdulrahman Kinana||2012–May 2018|
|Bashiru Ally||2018 – April 2021|
|Daniel Chongolo||2021 – present|
|1985||Ali Hassan Mwinyi||4,778,114||95.68%||Elected|
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|1st||Sole legal party|
|1985||Ali Hassan Mwinyi||4,768,997||100%||
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- "Kikwete deplores divisive politics". Daily News (Tanzania). 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "How Tanzania Got To This Point". Vice News. 2 November 2020.
- O'Gorman, Melanie (26 April 2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: the roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 30 (2): 313–333. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.410.9369. doi:10.1080/02589001.2012.669566. S2CID 17134713.
- Manson, Katrina (30 September 2013). "Three issues loom over Tanzania's political scene". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Cheeseman, Nic; Matfess, Hilary; Amani, Alitalali (2021). "Tanzania: The Roots of Repression". Journal of Democracy. 32 (2): 77–89. doi:10.1353/jod.2021.0020. ISSN 1086-3214.
- Dagne, Ted (31 August 2011). "Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- O'Gorman, Melanie (2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: The roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 30 (2): 313–333. doi:10.1080/02589001.2012.669566. S2CID 17134713.
- "Tanzania election: Jakaya Kikwete re-elected president". BBC News. 2010-11-05. Retrieved 2022-10-04.
- "Tanzania poll: John Magufuli of CCM defeats Edward Lowassa". BBC News. 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2022-10-04.
- "Decisions of the Council" (PDF). Socialist International. February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2014.