Chama Cha Mapinduzi
|Party of the Revolution
Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Swahili)
|Founded||5 February 1977|
|Merger of||TANU and ASP|
|Youth wing||Umoja wa Vijana wa CCM|
|Women's wing||Umoja wa Wanawake Tanzania|
|Membership (2013)||6.4 million|
Social Democracy (today)
|International affiliation||Socialist International,
|African affiliation||Former Liberation Movements of SA|
263 / 357
48 / 81
7 / 9
4 / 5
4 / 5
|A hoe and a hammer|
|Politics of Tanzania
The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; English: Party of the Revolution) is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania and the longest reigning ruling party in Africa. It was formed in 1977 following the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) which were the sole operating parties in mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar respectively.
Since the restoration of the multi-party system, CCM has retained its popularity, winning all the past four general elections in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Jakaya Kikwete, its presidential candidate in 2005, won by a landslide receiving more than 80% of the popular vote. In the last election, it won 186 of the 239 constituencies, continuing to hold an outright majority in the National Assembly.
The party was created on February 5, 1977, under the leadership of Julius Nyerere, through the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), the ruling party in Tanganyika, and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), the ruling party in Zanzibar.
TANU/CCM has dominated the politics of Tanzania since the independence of Tanganyika in 1962. Due to the merger with the ASP, from 1977 it has also been the ruling party in Zanzibar, though there its grip on power has been more contested by the Civic United Front (CUF).
From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. Every five years, its national chairman was automatically elected to a five-year term as president; he was confirmed in office via a referendum. At the same time, voters were presented with two CCM candidates for the National Assembly or Bunge. This changed on July 1, 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly.
Originally a champion of African socialism, upholder of the system of collectivized agriculture known as Ujamaa and firmly oriented to the left, the CCM espouses today a more neoliberal approach. It conceives of economic modernization and free market policies as ways to raise the living standards of the citizens of Tanzania, one of the poorest countries in the world. CCM hopes to continue to privatize and modernize in order to ensure:
- Increased productivity which would boost the country's revenue
- Increased employment and improved management
- Acquisition of new and modern technology
- Increased and expanded local and international markets for our products, and;
- Improved and strengthened private sector serving as the engine of the national economy while the government sharpens its focus on provision of social services, infrastructure, security and governance of the state.
Similarly, the CCM's major foreign policy focus is economic diplomacy within the international system, and peaceful coexistence with neighbors.
CCM has won all presidential elections at both union level and in Zanzibar at autonomous level under the multi-party system: 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. It also dominates the legislature.
In the elections for Zanzibar's presidency and House of Representatives, held on 30 October 2005, incumbent president and CCM candidate Amani Abeid Karume won with 53.18% of the vote, while the party won 30 seats out of 50.
In the national elections for Tanzania's presidency and National Assembly, held on 14 December 2005, Foreign Minister and CCM candidate Jakaya Kikwete won with 80.28% of the vote. Out of the 232 seats filled through direct election, the CCM won 206.
On 31 October 2010, Jakaya Kikwete was reelected president with 62.8% of the vote, while CCM obtained 186 out of the 239 directly elected seats.
- National Chairman
|Ali Hassan Mwinyi||1986–1995|
- National Vice Chairman (Mainland)
- National Vice Chairman (Zanzibar)
|Amani Abeid Karume||? – 2012|
|Ali Mohamed Shein||2012–present|
- Secretaries General
- "Kikwete deplores divisive politics". Daily News (Tanzania). 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- O'Gorman, Melanie (26 April 2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: the roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies (Taylor & Francis) 30 (2): 313–333. doi:10.1080/02589001.2012.669566. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Manson, Katrina (30 September 2013). "Three issues loom over Tanzania’s political scene". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Dagne, Ted (31 August 2011). "Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Decisions of the Council" (PDF). Socialist International. February 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2014.