Chama Cha Mapinduzi

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Party of the Revolution
Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Swahili)
ChairmanSamia Suluhu
Secretary-GeneralDaniel Chongolo
SpokespersonPaul Makonda
Vice Chairman for the MainlandAbdulrahman Kinana
Vice Chairman for the IslandsHussein Mwinyi
FounderJulius Nyerere
Aboud Jumbe
Founded5 February 1977 (1977-02-05)
Merger ofTANU and ASP
Think tankUONGOZI Institute
Student wingSeneti ya Vyuo na Vyuo Vikuu Tanzania
Youth wingUmoja wa Vijana wa CCM - UVCCM
Women's wingUmoja wa Wanawake Tanzania - UWT
Parents' wingChama Cha Wazazi Tanzania - CWT
Farmer's wingWakulima
Worker's Union wingWafanyakazi
Membership (2020)25.8 million[1]
International affiliationProgressive Alliance
African affiliationFLMSA
SloganUjamaa na Kujitegemea
CCM Oyee!
365 / 393
Zanzibar HoR
84 / 88
7 / 9
4 / 5
Pan-African Parliament
4 / 5
Election symbol
A hoe and a hammer
Party flag
Party website

The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; lit.'Party of the Revolution' in English) is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania and the second longest-ruling party in Africa, only after the True Whig Party of Liberia.[3][4] It was formed in 1977, following the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), which were the sole operating parties in mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar respectively.

TANU and its successor CCM have ruled Tanzania uninterruptedly since independence. The party has been described as authoritarian.[5] Since the creation of a multi-party system, CCM has won the past six general elections in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. Jakaya Kikwete, its presidential candidate in 2005, won by a landslide, receiving more than 80% of the popular vote and John Magufuli as a candidate in 2020 exceeded to 84% campaign. In the 2010 election, it won 186 of the 239 constituencies, continuing to hold an outright majority in the National Assembly.[6]


The party was created on February 5, 1977, under the leadership of Julius Nyerere, through the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), the ruling party in Tanganyika, and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), the ruling party in Zanzibar.

TANU/CCM has dominated the politics of Tanzania since the independence of Tanganyika in 1961. Due to the merger with the ASP, from 1977 it has also been the ruling party in Zanzibar, though there its grip on power has been more contested by the Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA).

From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. Every five years, its national chairman was automatically elected to a five-year term as president; he was confirmed in office via a referendum. At the same time, voters were presented with two CCM candidates for the National Assembly or Bunge. This changed on July 1, 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly.


Originally a champion of African socialism, upholder of the system of collectivized agriculture known as Ujamaa and firmly oriented to the left, today the CCM espouses a more mixed economic approach. CCM hopes to continue to modernize in order to ensure:

  1. Increased productivity which would boost the country's revenue
  2. Increased employment and improved management
  3. Acquisition of new and modern technology
  4. Increased and expanded local and international markets for our products, and;
  5. Improved and strengthened private sector serving as the engine of the national economy while the government sharpens its focus on provision of social services, infrastructure, security and governance of the state.

Similarly, the CCM's major foreign policy focus is economic diplomacy within the international system, and peaceful coexistence with neighbors.

Electoral performance and support base[edit]

The CCM has a leading role in society, despite having multiparty democracy in Tanzania since 1995, the CCM has kept to power ever since. Empirical analysis has shown that a sense of nostalgia for a party which brought independence, and which has maintained relative peace is a major cause of the CCM's support base; age had no significant determinant on loyalty to the CCM. The party has strong support from subsistence farmers.[7]

The party has won all presidential elections at both the national level and in Zanzibar at the autonomous level under the multi-party system: 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. It also dominates the legislature.

In the elections for Zanzibar's presidency and House of Representatives, held on 30 October 2005, incumbent president and CCM candidate Amani Abeid Karume won with 53% of the vote, while the party won 30 seats out of 50.

In the national elections for Tanzania's presidency and National Assembly, held on 14 December 2005, Foreign Minister and CCM candidate Jakaya Kikwete won with 80.28% of the vote. Out of the 232 seats filled through direct election, the CCM won 206.

On 31 October 2010, Jakaya Kikwete was reelected president with 61% of the vote,[8] while CCM obtained 186 out of the 239 directly elected seats.

On 30 October 2015 John Magufuli of CCM won the election with 58% of the vote. Next elections on 30 October 2020 he was reelected president with 84% of the vote.[9]

CCM was admitted into the Socialist International as a full member at the SI's spring congress on 4–5 February 2013.[10]


Current leaders[edit]

Samia Suluhu Hassan is the current Chairperson of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi following the death of John Pombe Magufuli, the former Chairman and President of United Republic of Tanzania.

National leaders[edit]

  • Chairwoman: Samia Suluhu Hassan
  • Vice Chairman Zanzibar: Hussein Mwinyi
  • Vice Chairman Mainland: Abdulrahman Kinana
  • Secretary General: Daniel Chongolo
  • Deputy Secretary General Zanzibar: Mohammed Mohammed
  • Deputy Secretary General Mainland: Anamringi Macha
  • Secretary for Organisation: Issa Ussi
  • Secretary for Party Ideology and Publicity: Sophia Mjema
  • Secretary for Party Affairs and International Relations: Ambassador Mbarouk Mbarouk
  • Secretary for Economic Affairs and Finance: Dr. Frank George Haule Hawassi
  • Secretary General Wazazi - Gilbert Kalima
  • Secretary General UWT - Jokate Mwegelo
  • Secretary General UVCCM - Kenani Kihongosi

The party has a strong political base in rural Tanzania.
CCM Headquarters in the capital, Dodoma.
A mural of the party's candidates in the southern Tanzanian town of Lindi.
National Chairman
Name Tenure
Julius Nyerere 1977–1985
Ali Hassan Mwinyi 1985–1995
Benjamin Mkapa 1996–2006
Jakaya Kikwete 2006–2016
John Magufuli 2016–2021
Samia Suluhu 2021–present
National Vice Chairman (Mainland)
Name Tenure
John Malecela
Pius Msekwa 2007–2012
Philip Mangula 2012–2022
Abdulrahman Omar Kinana 1st April 2022 – Present
National Vice Chairman (Zanzibar)
Name Tenure
Salmin Amour
Amani Abeid Karume ? – 2012
Ali Mohamed Shein 2012–present
Secretaries General
Name Tenure
Pius Msekwa 1977–1982
Rashidi Kawawa 1982–1990
Horace Kolimba 1990–1995
Lawrence Gama 1995–1997
Philip Mangula 1997–2007
Yusuf Makamba 2007–2011
Wilson Mukama 2011–2012
Abdulrahman Kinana 2012–May 2018
Bashiru Ally 2018 – April 2021
Daniel Chongolo 2021 – present

Electoral history[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

Election Party candidate Votes % Result
1980 Julius Nyerere 5,570,883 95.5% Elected Green tickY
1985 Ali Hassan Mwinyi 4,778,114 95.68% Elected Green tickY
1990 5,198,120 97.78% Elected Green tickY
1995 Benjamin Mkapa 4,026,422 61.82% Elected Green tickY
2000 5,863,201 71.74% Elected Green tickY
2005 Jakaya Kikwete 9,123,952 80.28% Elected Green tickY
2010 5,276,827 62.83% Elected Green tickY
2015 John Magufuli 8,882,935 58.46% Elected Green tickY
2020 12,516,252 84.40% Elected Green tickY

Bunge elections[edit]

Election Party leader Votes % Seats +/– Position Result
1980 Julius Nyerere 5,417,099 100%
264 / 264
Steady Increase 1st Sole legal party
1985 Ali Hassan Mwinyi 4,768,997 100%
274 / 274
Increase 10 Steady 1st Sole legal party
1990 5,198,120 97.78%
264 / 264
Decrease 10 Steady 1st Sole legal party
1995 Benjamin Mkapa 3,814,206 59.22%
214 / 285
Decrease 50 Steady 1st Supermajority government
2000 4,628,127 65.19%
243 / 285
Increase 29 Steady 1st Supermajority government
2005 Jakaya Kikwete 7,579,897 70%
264 / 324
Increase 21 Steady 1st Supermajority government
2010 4,641,830 60.20%
253 / 357
Decrease 11 Steady 1st Supermajority government
2015 John Magufuli 8,021,427 55.04%
260 / 393
Increase 7 Steady 1st Supermajority government
2020 12,516,252 84,40%
350 / 393
Increase 90 Steady 1st Supermajority government


  1. ^ "Kikwete deplores divisive politics". Daily News (Tanzania). 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  2. ^ "How Tanzania Got To This Point". Vice News. 2 November 2020.
  3. ^ O'Gorman, Melanie (26 April 2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: the roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 30 (2): 313–333. CiteSeerX doi:10.1080/02589001.2012.669566. S2CID 17134713.
  4. ^ Manson, Katrina (30 September 2013). "Three issues loom over Tanzania's political scene". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  5. ^ Cheeseman, Nic; Matfess, Hilary; Amani, Alitalali (2021). "Tanzania: The Roots of Repression". Journal of Democracy. 32 (2): 77–89. doi:10.1353/jod.2021.0020. ISSN 1086-3214.
  6. ^ Dagne, Ted (31 August 2011). "Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  7. ^ O'Gorman, Melanie (2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: The roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 30 (2): 313–333. doi:10.1080/02589001.2012.669566. S2CID 17134713.
  8. ^ "Tanzania election: Jakaya Kikwete re-elected president". BBC News. 2010-11-05. Retrieved 2022-10-04.
  9. ^ "Tanzania poll: John Magufuli of CCM defeats Edward Lowassa". BBC News. 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2022-10-04.
  10. ^ "Decisions of the Council" (PDF). Socialist International. February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2014.

External links[edit]