Honda K engine

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This article is about the Honda engine. For the Rover engine series of the same name, see Rover K engine.
A cylinder head from a Honda K20Z3. Components of the i-VTEC system can be seen.

The Honda K series engine is a four-cylinder four-stroke engine introduced in 2001. The K series engines are equipped with DOHC valvetrains and use roller rockers to reduce friction. The engines use a coil-on-plug, distributorless ignition system with a coil for each spark plug. This system forgoes the use of a conventional distributor-based ignition timing system in favor of a computer-controlled system that allows the ECU to control ignition timings based on various sensor inputs. The cylinders have cast iron sleeves similar to the B-series & F-series engines, as opposed to the FRM cylinders found in the H-series and newer F series engines found only in the Honda S2000.

Similar to B series, K-Series has two short blocks with the same design; the only difference between them being the deck height. K20 uses the short block with a deck height of 212mm where K23 and K24 block has a deck height of 231.5mm.[1]

Two versions of the Honda i-VTEC system can be found on a K series engine, and both versions can come with variable timing control (VTC) on the intake cam. The VTEC system on engines like the K20A3 only operate on the intake cam; at low rpm only one intake valve is fully opened, the other opening just slightly to create a swirl effect in the combustion chamber for improved fuel atomization. At high rpm, both intake valves open fully to improve engine breathing. In engines such as the K20A2 found in the Acura RSX Type-S, the VTEC system operates on both the intake and exhaust valves, allowing both to benefit from multiple cam profiles.

K20[edit]

K20A[edit]

Honda K20A
Honda K20A Engine 01.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2001–2011
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.0 L; 121.9 cu in (1,998 cc)
Cylinder bore 86 mm (3.386 in)
Piston stroke 86 mm (3.386 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio See left for specific application.
Combustion
Fuel system Fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Petrol
Cooling system
Output
Power output See left for specific application.
Torque output See left for specific application.
Applications
Engine Application Compression Power Torque Redline Rev limiter i-VTEC
engagement
VTEC Timing
Shift
Intake
Manifold
K20A 2001–2006 Honda Civic Type R (JDM) 11.5:1 212 hp (158 kW) @ 8000 RPM 149 lb·ft (202 N·m) @ 7000 RPM 8400 RPM 6000 RPM PRC
2001–2006 Honda Integra Type R (JDM) 11.5:1 217 hp (162 kW) @ 8000 RPM 152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 7000 RPM 8400 RPM 6000 RPM PRC
2002–2008 Honda Accord Euro R (JDM) 11.5:1 217 hp (162 kW) @ 8000 RPM 152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 6000 RPM 8400 RPM 6000 RPM RBC
2007–2011 Honda Civic Type R (JDM) 11.7.1 221 hp (165 kW) @ 8000 RPM 159 lb·ft (215 N·m) @ 6100 RPM 8600 RPM 5800 RPM RRC
K20A1 2001–2006 Honda Stream (RN3, FWD) 9.7:1 156 hp (116 kW) @ 6500 RPM 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM
2001–2006 Honda Stream (RN4, AWD) 9.8:1 158 hp (118 kW) @ 6500 RPM 140 lb·ft (190 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM
K20A2 2001–2006 Honda Civic Type R (EDM) 11.0:1 200 hp (150 kW) @ 7400 RPM 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 5900 RPM 7900 RPM 8050 RPM 6000 RPM
2002–2004 Acura RSX Type S 11.0:1 200 hp (150 kW) @ 7400 RPM 142 lb·ft (193 N·m) @ 6000 RPM 7900 RPM 8250 RPM 5800 RPM PRB
2002–2004 Honda Integra Type R (AUDM/NZDM) 11.0:1 200 hp (150 kW) @ 7400 RPM 142 lb·ft (193 N·m) @ 6000 RPM 7800 RPM 8100 RPM 5800 RPM
K20A3 2002–2006 Acura RSX 9.8:1 160 hp (120 kW) @ 6500 RPM 141 lb·ft (191 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM 2300 RPM 4700 RPM
2002–2005 Honda Civic Si 9.8:1 160 hp (120 kW) @ 6500 RPM 132 lb·ft (179 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM 2300 RPM 4700 RPM PRB
2002–2005 Honda Civic SiR 9.8:1 160 hp (120 kW) @ 6500 RPM 132 lb·ft (179 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM 2300 RPM 4700 RPM
2002–2005 Honda Civic Type S 9.8:1 160 hp (120 kW) @ 6500 RPM 132 lb·ft (179 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM 2300 RPM 4700 RPM
K20A4 2003–2007 Honda Accord 158 hp (118 kW) @ 6500 RPM 140 lb·ft (190 N·m) @ 4000 RPM
2008–2012 Honda Accord Sport 198 hp (148 kW) @ 6500 RPM 170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 4000 RPM
K20A6 2003–2006 Honda Accord (EDM) 9.8:1 155 hp (116 kW) @ 6500 RPM 140 lb·ft (190 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM 2500 RPM
2003–2006 Honda Accord (ADM) 9.8:1 155 hp (116 kW) @ 6500 RPM 140 lb·ft (190 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM 2500 RPM
Additional Engine Specifics
K20A
Chromoly Flywheel, Higher-Tensile Strength Connecting Rods, High Compression Pistons, Stiffer Intake Valve Springs and Exhaust Valve Springs, Higher-lift Hollow Camshafts with more duration, and 2007-2011 Cylinder Head Intake Port Surface Polishing and Exhaust Surface Port Polishing used in NSX-R.[2] The JDM K20A Type R engine block would be removed from production assembly line by an experienced Honda engine technician to torque the connecting rod bolts to factory specification by hand using micrometer to measure connecting rod bolt stretching. Then the JDM K20A Type R engine block would be returned to the production assembly line to complete the engine building process.

K20A (Low Performance Engine) Japan only[edit]

Similar to K20A3 and K20A1

  • Found in:
    • 2002-2005 Honda Integra-(Type S)
    • 2002-2005 Honda Stream S (RN3) (Front Drive)
    • 2002-2005 Honda Stream S (RN4) (All Wheel Drive)
    • 2005-2010 Honda Edix (Front Drive and All Wheel Drive)
    • 2005-2008 Honda Accord Sedan (Front Drive and All Wheel Drive)
    • 2005-2008 Honda Accord Wagon (Front Drive Only)
    • 2006-2010 Honda Civic Sedan (GL)
      • DOHC i-VTEC
      • Power and Torque can vary by the Compression Ratio, Intake manifold, and Exhaust manifold
      • Power: 155 hp@6500rpm ; 158 hp@6500rpm
      • Torque: 138 lb-ft@4000rpm ; 140 lb-ft@4000rpm
      • Redline 6800rpm
      • Compression: 9.7:1 ; 9.8:1
      • Bore X Stroke: 86mm x 86mm
      • Displacement: 1998cc

K20B[edit]

Honda K20B
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2004–2006
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.0 L; 121.9 cu in (1,998 cc)
Cylinder bore 86 mm (3.386 in)
Piston stroke 86 mm (3.386 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio 10.0:1
Combustion
Fuel system Direct fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Gasoline
Cooling system Water-cooled
Output
Power output 156 hp (116 kW) @ 6300 rpm
Torque output 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 4600 rpm
  • Injection Pressure: 10 megapascals (99 atm)
  • Center Fuel Injection with swirl guide
  • Air-Fuel Ratio:
    • Normal driving cycle: 65:1 (ultra-lean combustion)
    • Acceleration/High load driving cycle: 14.7:1 (Stoichiometric)
  • Deep Piston Cavity formed in top of Pistons
  • Application: 2004–2006 Honda Stream Absolute

K20C[edit]

Honda K20C
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2015-present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.0 L; 121.8 cu in (1,996 cc)
Cylinder bore 86 mm (3.386 in)
Piston stroke 85.9 mm (3.382 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio See left for specific application.
Combustion
Turbocharger 1 (K20C1)
Fuel system Direct fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Gasoline
Cooling system Water-cooled
Output
Power output See left for specific application.
Torque output See left for specific application.
Applications
Engine Application Compression Power Torque Redline Rev limiter i-VTEC
engagement
VTEC Timing
Shift
Intake
Manifold
K20C1 2015–present Honda Civic Type R 9.8:1 306 hp (228 kW) @ 6500 RPM 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 2500 RPM 7000 RPM
K20C2 2016–present Honda Civic LX/EX (USDM) 9.8:1 158 hp (118 kW) @ 6500 RPM 138 lb·ft (187 N·m) @ 4200 RPM 6100 RPM
2016–present United States Formula 4 Championship 9.8:1 158 hp (118 kW) @ 6500 RPM 138 lb·ft (187 N·m) @ 4200 RPM 6100 RPM
Additional Engine Specifics
  • Earth Dreams
  • K20C1: First Honda Type R engine to be built in the USA at the Honda Anna Engine Plant in Anna, Ohio.

K20Z[edit]

Honda K20Z
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2005–2015
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.0 L; 121.9 cu in (1,998 cc)
Cylinder bore 86 mm (3.386 in)
Piston stroke 86 mm (3.386 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio See left for specific application.
Combustion
Fuel system Fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Gasoline
Cooling system Water-cooled
Output
Power output See left for specific application.
Torque output See left for specific application.
Applications
Engine Application Compression Power Torque Redline Rev limiter i-VTEC
engagement
VTEC Timing
Shift
Intake
Manifold
K20Z1 2005–2006 Acura RSX Type-S 11.0:1 210 hp (160 kW) @ 7800 RPM[a] 143 lb·ft (194 N·m) @ 7000 RPM 8100 RPM 8300 RPM 5800 RPM PRB
2005–2006 Honda Integra Type S (AUDM/NZDM) 11.0:1 220 hp (160 kW) @ 7800 RPM 143 lb·ft (194 N·m) @ 7000 RPM 8100 RPM 8300 RPM 5800 RPM
K20Z2 2006–2011 Acura CSX 9.8:1 153 hp (114 kW) @ 6000 RPM 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 6800 RPM
2006–2011 Honda Civic (JDM) 9.8:1 153 hp (114 kW) @ 6000 RPM 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 6800 RPM
2006–2015 Honda Accord (EDM) 9.8:1 153 hp (114 kW) @ 6000 RPM 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 6800 RPM
2006–2010 Honda Civic 2.0 S / S-L (PHDM) 9.8:1 153 hp (114 kW) @ 6000 RPM 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 6800 RPM
K20Z3 2006–2011 Honda Civic Si 11.0:1 197 hp (147 kW) @ 7800 RPM[b] 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 6200 RPM[b] 8000 RPM 8300 RPM 5800 RPM RBC[c]
2007–2010 Acura CSX Type-S 11.0:1 197 hp (147 kW) @ 7800 RPM[b] 139 lb·ft (188 N·m) @ 6200 RPM[b] 8000 RPM 8300 RPM 5800 RPM
K20Z4 2007–2010 Honda Civic Type R (EDM) 11.0:1 201 hp (150 kW) @ 7800 RPM 142 lb·ft (193 N·m) @ 6800 RPM 8000 RPM 8200 RPM 5400 RPM
  1. ^ SAE BHP measurement changes from 2005 to 2006. Thus, reducing the 2006 Acura RSX Type-S rating from 210 hp (160 kW) to 201 hp (150 kW) on paper.
  2. ^ a b c d SAE net Rev 8/04
  3. ^ The RBC is not a variable-length intake.
Additional Engine Specifics
K20Z3 (as fitted to Ariel's Atom 3.5)
It has an aluminum block with an aluminum head. The K20Z3 has traditional performance VTEC cams on the intake and the exhaust cams. Variable valve timing technology is included on the intake but not the exhaust cams. The added valve timing control corresponds to the added "i" in i-VTEC.

K23[edit]

K23A1[edit]

Honda K23A1
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2007–2012
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.3 L; 140.4 cu in (2,300 cc)
Cylinder bore 86 mm (3.386 in)
Piston stroke 99 mm (3.898 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio 8.8:1
Combustion
Turbocharger 1
Fuel system Fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Gasoline
Output
Power output 240 hp (180 kW) @ 6000 RPM
Torque output 260 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 4500 RPM
Applications
Application Redline Rev limiter i-VTEC
engagement
VTEC Timing
Shift
Intake
Manifold
2007–2012 Acura RDX 6800 RPM

K24[edit]

K24A[edit]

Honda K24A
Honda K24A engine 001.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2001–2011
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.4 L; 143.6 cu in (2,354 cc)
Cylinder bore 87 mm (3.425 in)
Piston stroke 99 mm (3.898 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio See left for specific application.
Combustion
Fuel system Fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Gasoline
Cooling system
Output
Power output See left for specific application.
Torque output See left for specific application.
Applications
Engine Application Compression Power Torque Redline Rev limiter i-VTEC
engagement
VTEC Timing
Shift
Intake
Manifold
K24A1 2002–2006 Honda CR-V 9.6:1 160 hp (120 kW) @ 6000 RPM[a] 162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 3600 RPM[b] 6500 RPM RAA
K24A2 2002–2008 Honda Accord Type-S (JDM) 10.5:1 200 hp; 150 kW @ 6800 RPM 171 lb·ft (232 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 7100 RPM[c] 6000 RPM
2003–2008 Honda Odyssey Absolute 10.5:1 200 hp; 150 kW @ 6800 RPM 171 lb·ft (232 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 7100 RPM[c] 6000 RPM
2004–2005 Acura TSX 10.5:1 200 hp; 150 kW @ 6800 RPM 166 lb·ft (225 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 7100 RPM 6000 RPM RBB
2006–2008 Acura TSX[3] 10.5:1 205 hp (153 kW) @ 7000 RPM 170.5 lb·ft (231 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 7100 RPM 6000 RPM RBB
K24A3 2003–2007 Honda Accord (JDM/EDM) 10.5:1 190 hp (140 kW) @ 6800 RPM 164 lb·ft (223 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 7200 RPM 6000 RPM
2003–2007 Honda Accord Euro (AUDM/NZDM) 10.5:1 190 hp (140 kW) @ 6800 RPM 164 lb·ft (223 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 7200 RPM 6000 RPM
K24A4 2003–2005 Honda Accord (USDM) 9.7:1 160 hp (120 kW) @ 5500 RPM 161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 6800 RPM RAA
2003–2006 Honda Element 9.7:1 160 hp (120 kW) @ 5500 RPM 161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 6800 RPM RAA
K24A8 2006–2007 Honda Accord (USDM) 9.7:1 166 hp (124 kW) @ 5800 RPM 160 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6500 RPM 2400 RPM[d] RAA
2007–2011 Honda Element 9.7:1 166 hp (124 kW) @ 5800 RPM 161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6800 RPM 2400 RPM[d] RAA
  1. ^ Per the new SAE regulations, power is 156 hp (116 kW) @ 5900 RPM
  2. ^ Per the new SAE regulations, torque is 160 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 3600 RPM
  3. ^ a b
    Automatic: 7100 RPM
    Sequential Sportshift: 7300 RPM
    Manual: 7600 RPM
  4. ^ a b While in fuel efficiency mode. 4500 RPM in performance mode.
Additional Engine Specifics
K24A2 (2006-2008 Acura TSX)[3]
  • Increased intake flow:
    • Intake valve + 1 mm oversize
    • Intake cam High lift lobe with 0.9 mm more lift and 12 degrees more duration
    • Throttle body increased from 60–64 mm
    • Radius on some intake pipes increased from 70–80 mm
  • Increased exhaust flow
    • Exhaust Head pipe increased from 60–65 mm
    • Higher flow catalytic converter
    • Main (single) exhaust pipe increased from 54–57 mm
    • Rear (twin) pipes increased in diameter from 42.5 to 45 mm
  • Block improvements:
    • Additional air passages in crankcase for reduced pumping losses
  • Other
    • Stronger connecting rods
    • New crankshaft with more counterbalance weight
    • Revised pistons with more valve-piston clearance

K24W (Earth Dreams)[edit]

K24W
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2013–present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.4 L; 143.8 cu in (2,356 cc)
Cylinder bore 87 mm (3.425 in)
Piston stroke 99.1 mm (3.902 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio See left for specific application.
Combustion
Fuel system Fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Gasoline
Cooling system Water-cooled
Output
Power output See left for specific application.
Torque output See left for specific application.
Applications
Engine Application Compression Power Torque Redline Rev limiter i-VTEC
engagement
VTEC Timing
Shift
Intake
Manifold
K24W 2013–present Honda Accord (USDM) 11.1:1 185 hp (138 kW) @ 6400 RPM 181 lb·ft (245 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 6800 RPM
2015–present Honda CR-V (USDM) 11.1:1 185 hp (138 kW) @ 6400 RPM 181 lb·ft (245 N·m) @ 4500 RPM 6800 RPM
K24W4 2013–present Honda Accord (Thailand/Malaysia) 10.1:1 174 hp (130 kW) @ 6200 RPM 166 lb·ft (225 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6600 RPM
2014–present Honda Odyssey (AUDM) 10.1:1 174 hp (130 kW) @ 6200 RPM 166 lb·ft (225 N·m) @ 4000 RPM 6600 RPM
K24W7 2015–present Acura TLX 11.1:1 206 hp (154 kW) @ 6800 RPM 182 lb·ft (247 N·m) @ 3900 RPM 7000 RPM
2016–present Acura ILX[4][5] 11.6:1 201 hp (150 kW) @ 6800 RPM 180 lb·ft (240 N·m) @ 3600 RPM 7000 RPM

K24Y[edit]

K24Y
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2012–present
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.4 L; 143.6 cu in (2,354 cc)
Cylinder bore 87 mm (3.425 in)
Piston stroke 99 mm (3.898 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio See left for specific application.
Combustion
Fuel system Fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Gasoline
Cooling system Water-cooled
Output
Power output See left for specific application.
Torque output See left for specific application.
Applications
Engine Application Compression Power Torque Redline Rev limiter i-VTEC
engagement
VTEC Timing
Shift
Intake
Manifold
K24Y1 2012–present Honda CR-V (Thailand) 10.5:1 170 hp (130 kW) @ 6000 RPM 160 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4300 RPM 6500 RPM
K24Y2 2012–2015 Honda Crosstour 10.0:1 192 hp (143 kW) @ 7000 RPM 162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4400 RPM 7100 RPM

K24Z[edit]

K24Z
Overview
Manufacturer Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Production 2007–2015
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 2.4 L; 143.6 cu in (2,354 cc)
Cylinder bore 87 mm (3.425 in)
Piston stroke 99 mm (3.898 in)
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio See left for specific application.
Combustion
Fuel system Fuel injection
Management ECU
Fuel type Gasoline
Cooling system Water-cooled
Output
Power output See left for specific application.
Torque output See left for specific application.
Applications
Engine Application Compression Power Torque Redline Rev limiter i-VTEC
engagement
VTEC Timing
Shift
Intake
Manifold
K24Z1 2007–2009 Honda CR-V (RE3, RE4) 9.7:1 166 hp (124 kW) @ 5800 RPM 161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 4200 RPM 6500 RPM
K24Z2 2008–2012 Honda Accord LX/LX-P (USDM) 10.5:1 177 hp (132 kW) @ 6500 RPM 165 lb·ft (224 N·m) @ 4300 RPM 6800 RPM
2016 Proton Perdana Proton P4-90B 10.5:1 177 hp (132 kW) @ 6500 RPM 165 lb·ft (224 N·m) @ 4300 RPM 6800 RPM
K24Z3 2008–2012 Honda Accord LX-S/EX/EX-L (USDM) 10.7:1 190 hp (140 kW) @ 7000 RPM 162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4400 RPM 7100 RPM
2009–2014 Acura TSX[6] 11.0:1 201 hp (150 kW) @ 7000 RPM 172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4300 RPM 7100 RPM 5100 RPM
2008–2015 Honda Accord (CP2, CS1) 11.0:1 201 hp (150 kW) @ 7000 RPM 172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4300 RPM 7100 RPM 5100 RPM
K24Z4 2008–2012 Honda CR-V (RE7) 9.7:1 161 hp (120 kW) @ 5800 RPM 161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 4200 RPM 6500 RPM
K24Z5 2010–2015 Honda Spirior 10.5:1 184 hp (137 kW) @ 6500 RPM 164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4300 RPM 6500 RPM
K24Z6 2010–2011 Honda CR-V (USDM) 10.5:1 180 hp (130 kW) @ 6800 RPM 161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 4400 RPM 7100 RPM 7200 RPM
2012–2014 Honda CR-V (USDM) 10.0:1 185 hp (138 kW) @ 7000 RPM 163 lb·ft (221 N·m) @ 4400 RPM 7000 RPM
K24Z7 2012–2015 Honda Civic Si 11.0:1 205 hp (153 kW) @ 7000 RPM 174 lb·ft (236 N·m) @ 4400 RPM 7000 RPM 7200 RPM
2013–2015 Acura ILX 11.0:1 201 hp (150 kW) @ 7000 RPM 170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 4400 RPM 7100 RPM 7200 RPM

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Honda K-Series Engines". JDM Spec Engines. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  2. ^ http://asia.vtec.net/Engines/FD2K20AR/index.html
  3. ^ a b http://www.hondata.com/reflash_tsx_06.html
  4. ^ "Acura Set to Launch More Powerful, Technologically Advanced and Luxuriously Equipped 2016 Acura ILX Sport Sedan" (Press release). Los Angeles, CA: Acura. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  5. ^ "2017 ILX Specifications & Features". Acura. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  6. ^ "2009 Acura TSX - Powertrain" (Press release). Torrance, CA: Acura. 20 April 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 

External links[edit]