List of Linux adopters
Linux adopters are organizations and individuals who have moved from other operating systems to Linux.
- 1 Government
- 1.1 Africa
- 1.2 Asia
- 1.3 Americas
- 1.4 Europe
- 2 Education
- 3 Home
- 4 Businesses and non-profits
- 5 Scientific institutions
- 6 Celebrities
- 7 See also
- 8 References
As local governments come under pressure from institutions such as the World Trade Organization and the International Intellectual Property Alliance, some have turned to Linux and other Free Software as an affordable, legal alternative to both pirated software and expensive proprietary computer products from Microsoft, Apple and other commercial companies. The spread of Linux affords some leverage for these countries when companies from the developed world bid for government contracts (since a low-cost option exists), while furnishing an alternative path to development for countries like India and Pakistan that have many citizens skilled in computer applications but cannot afford technological investment at "First World" prices. The cost factor is not the only one being considered though – many governmental institutions (in public and military sectors) from North America and European Union make the transition to Linux due to its superior stability and openness of the source code which in its turn leverages information security.
- The South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) deployed Multi-station Linux Desktops to address budget and infrastructure constraints in 50 rural sites.
- First National Bank switched more than 12,000 desktop computers to Linux by 2007.
- The People's Republic of China exclusively uses Linux as the operating system for its Loongson processor family, with the aim of technology independence.
- Kylin, used by People's Liberation Army in The People's Republic of China. The first version used FreeBSD, but since release 3.0, it employs Linux.
- State owned Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) is installing Linux in all of its 20,000 retail branches as the basis for its web server and a new terminal platform. (2005)
- North Korea uses a Linux distribution developed by the Korea Computer Center, called Red Star OS, on their computers. Prior to its release in 2008, Red Hat Linux or Windows XP were used.
- In 2003, the Turkish government decided to create its own Linux distribution, Pardus, developed by UEKAE (National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology). The first version, Pardus 1.0, was officially announced on 27 December 2005.
- In late 2010, Vladimir Putin signed a plan to move the Russian Federation government towards free software including Linux in the second quarter of 2012.
- The Government of Kerala, India, announced its official support for free/open-source software in its State IT Policy of 2001, which was formulated after the first-ever free software conference in India, "Freedom First!", held in July 2001 in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, where Richard Stallman inaugurated the Free Software Foundation of India. Since then, Kerala's IT Policy has been significantly influenced by FOSS, with several major initiatives such as IT@School Project, possibly the largest single-purpose deployment of Linux in the world, and leading to the formation of the International Centre for Free and Open Source Software (ICFOSS) in 2009.
- In March 2014, with the end of support for Windows XP, the Government of Tamil Nadu, India has advised all its departments to install BOSS Linux (Bharat Operating System Solutions).
- The Government of Pakistan established a Technology Resource Mobilization Unit in 2002 to enable groups of professionals to exchange views and coordinate activities in their sectors and to educate users about free software alternatives. Linux is an option for poor countries which have little revenue for public investment; Pakistan is using open-source software in public schools and colleges, and hopes to run all government services on Linux eventually.
- In 2010, the Philippines fielded an Ubuntu-powered national voting system.
- In July 2010, Malaysia had switched 703 of the state's 724 agencies to free and open-source software with a Linux-based operating system used. The Chief Secretary to the Government cited, "(the) general acceptance of its promise of better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility and lower cost".
- Students from the University of Information Science in Cuba launched its own distribution of Linux called Nova to promote the replacement of Microsoft Windows on civilian and government computers, a project that is now supported by the Cuban Government. By early 2011 the Universidad de Ciencias Informáticas announced that they would migrate more than 8000 PCs to this new operating system.
- In July 2001, the White House started switching their web servers to an operating system based on Red Hat Linux and using the Apache HTTP Server. The installation was completed in February 2009. In October 2009, the White House servers adopted Drupal, an open-source content management system software distribution.
- The United States Department of Defense uses Linux - "the U.S. Army is the single largest installed base for Red Hat Linux" and the US Navy nuclear submarine fleet runs on Linux, including their sonar systems.
- In June 2012, the US Navy signed a US$27,883,883 contract with Raytheon to install Linux ground control software for its fleet of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) Northrup-Grumman MQ8B Fire Scout drones. The contract involves Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, which has already spent US$5,175,075 in preparation for the Linux systems.
- In April 2006, the US Federal Aviation Administration announced that it had completed a migration to Red Hat Enterprise Linux in one third of the scheduled time and about US$15 million under budget. The switch saved a further US$15 million in datacenter operating costs.
- The US National Nuclear Security Administration operates the world's tenth fastest supercomputer, the IBM Roadrunner, which uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux along with Fedora as its operating systems.
- The city government of Largo, Florida uses Linux and has won international recognition for their implementation, indicating that it provides "extensive savings over more traditional alternatives in city-wide applications."
- Brazil uses PC Conectado, a program utilizing Linux.
- In 2004, Venezuela's government approved the 3390 decree, to give preference to using free software in public administration. One result of this policy is the development of Canaima, a Debian-based Linux distribution.
- Austria's city of Vienna has chosen to start migrating its desktop PCs to Debian-based Wienux. However, the idea was largely abandoned, because the necessary software was incompatible with Linux.
- France's national police force (the National Gendarmerie) started moving their 90,000 desktops from Windows XP to Ubuntu in 2007 over concerns about the additional training costs of moving to Windows Vista, and following the success of OpenOffice.org roll-outs. The migration should be completed by 2015. The force has saved about €50 million on software licensing between 2004 and 2008.
- France's Ministry of Agriculture uses Mandriva Linux.
- The French Parliament switched to using Ubuntu on desktop PCs in 2007. However, in 2012, it was decided to let each Member of Parliament choose between Windows and Linux.
- The city government of Munich, Germany, chose in 2003, to start to migrate its 14,000 desktops to Debian-based LiMux. Even though more than 80 percent of workstations used OpenOffice and 100 percent used Firefox/Thunderbird five years later (November 2008), an adoption rate of Linux itself of only 20 percent (June 2010) was achieved. The effort was later reorganized, focusing on smaller deployments and winning over staff to the value of the program. By the end of 2011 the program had exceeded its goal and changed over 9000 desktops to Linux. The city of Munich reported at the end of 2012 that the migration to Linux was highly successful and has already saved the city over €11 million (US$14 million). Recently the Deputy Mayor Josef Schmid said that the city is putting together an independent expert group to look at moving back to Microsoft due to issues in LiMux, the primary issues have been of compatibility; users in the rest of Germany that use other (Microsoft) software have had trouble with the files generated by Munich's open-source applications. The second is price, with Schmid saying that the city now has the impression that "Linux is very expensive" due to custom programming, The independent group will advise the best course of action, and if that group recommends using Microsoft software, Schmid says that a switch back isn't impossible. The city council said they already saved more than US$10 million, and there is no major issue with the switch to Linux Some observers, such as Silviu Stahie of Softpedia have indicated that the attempted rejection of Linux has been influenced by Microsoft and its supporters, and that this is predominantly a political issue and not a technical one. Microsoft's German headquarters has committed to move to Munich as part of this issue. In February 2017, the city council considered the move from the Linux-based OS to Windows 10 while shortly before Microsoft Germany moved its headquarters to Munich.
- The Federal Employment Office of Germany (Bundesagentur für Arbeit) has migrated 13,000 public workstations from Windows NT to OpenSuse.
- Iceland has announced in March 2012, that it wishes to migrate to open-source software in public institutions. Schools have already migrated from Windows to Ubuntu Linux.
- Republic of Macedonia's Ministry of Education and Science deployed more than 180,000 Ubuntu based classroom desktops, and has encouraged every student in the Republic of Macedonia to use Ubuntu computer workstations.
- The Dutch Police Internet Research and Investigation Network (iRN) has only used free and open-source software based on open standards, publicly developed with the source code available on the Internet for audit, since 2003. They use 2200 Ubuntu workstations.
- In 2014, Russia announced plans to move their Ministry of Health to Linux as a counter to sanctions over the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and a means of hurting US corporate interests, such as Microsoft.
- In 2018, Russia began adopting Astra Linux, an operating system which is certified to handle data classified as "special importance", on their military computer systems.
- Spain was noted as the furthest along the road to Linux adoption in 2003, for example with Linux distribution LinEx
- The regional Andalusian Autonomous Government of Andalucía in Spain developed its own Linux distribution, called Guadalinex in 2004.
- The city government of Barcelona in Spain announced in 2018 that it would migrate all desktop software from proprietary to free/open-source alternatives, and would gradually migrate from proprietary operating systems to Linux.
- Switzerland's Canton of Solothurn decided in 2001 to migrate its computers to Linux, but in 2010 the Swiss authority has made a U-turn by deciding to use Windows 7 for desktop clients.
Linux is often used in technical disciplines at universities and research centres. This is due to several factors, including that Linux is available free of charge and includes a large body of free/open-source software. To some extent, technical competence of computer science and software engineering academics is also a contributor, as is stability, maintainability, and upgradability. IBM ran an advertising campaign entitled "Linux is Education" featuring a young boy who was supposed to be "Linux".
Examples of large scale adoption of Linux in education include the following:
- The OLPC XO-1 (previously called the MIT $100 laptop and The Children's Machine), is an inexpensive laptop running Linux, which will be distributed to millions of children as part of the One Laptop Per Child project, especially in developing countries.
- Germany has announced that 560,000 students in 33 universities will migrate to Linux.
- In 2012, the Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (Leibniz Supercomputing Centre) (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities unveiled the SuperMUC, the world’s fourth most powerful supercomputer. The computer is x86-based and features 155,000 processor cores with a maximum speed of 3 petaflops of processing power and 324 terabytes of RAM. Its operating system is SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
- Schools in Bolzano, Italy, with a student population of 16,000, switched to a custom distribution of Linux, (FUSS Soledad GNU/Linux), in September 2005.
- Republic of Macedonia deployed 5,000 Linux desktops running Ubuntu across all 468 public schools and 182 computer labs (December 2005). Later in 2007, another 180,000 Ubuntu thin client computers were deployed.
- In 2013, Westcliff High School for Girls in the United Kingdom successfully moved from Windows to OpenSUSE.
- Orwell High School, a school with about 1,000 students in Felixstowe, England, has switched to Linux. The school has just received Specialist School for Technology status through a government initiative.
- All primary and secondary public schools in the Swiss Canton of Geneva, have switched to using Ubuntu for the PCs used by teachers and students in 2013-14. The switch has been completed by all of the 170 primary public schools and over 2,000 computers. The migration of the canton's 20 secondary schools is planned for the school year 2014-15
- Brazil has 35 million students in over 50,000 schools using 523,400 computer stations all running Linux.
- 22,000 students in the US state of Indiana had access to Linux Workstations at their high schools in 2006.
- In 2009, Venezuela's Ministry of Education began a project called Canaima-educativo, to provide all students in public schools with "Canaimita" laptop computers with the Canaima Debian-based Linux distribution pre-installed, as well as with open-source educational content.
- The Chinese government is buying 1.5 million Linux Loongson PCs as part of its plans to support its domestic industry. In addition the province of Jiangsu will install as many as 150,000 Linux PCs, using Loongson processors, in rural schools starting in 2009.
- In 2004, Georgia began running all its school computers and LTSP thin clients on Linux, mainly using Kubuntu, Ubuntu and stripped Fedora-based distros.
- The Indian government's tablet computer initiative for student use employs Linux as the operating system as part of its drive to produce a tablet PC for under 1,500 rupees (US$35).
- The Indian state of Tamil Nadu plans to distribute 100,000 Linux laptops to its students.
- Government officials of Kerala, India announced they will use only free software, running on the Linux platform, for computer education, starting with the 2,650 government and government-aided high schools.
- The Indian state of Tamil Nadu has issued a directive to local government departments asking them to switch over to open-source software, in the wake of Microsoft's decision to end support for Windows XP in April 2014.
- The Philippines has deployed 13,000 desktops running on Fedora, the first 10,000 were delivered in December 2007 by Advanced Solutions Inc. Another 10,000 desktops of Edubuntu and Kubuntu are planned.
- Russia announced in October 2007, that all its school computers will run on Linux. This is to avoid cost of licensing currently unlicensed software.
- Sony's PlayStation 3 came with a hard disk (20 GB, 60 GB or 80 GB) and was specially designed to allow easy installation of Linux on the system. However, Linux was prevented from accessing certain functions of the PlayStation such as 3D graphics. Sony also released a Linux kit for its PlayStation 2 console (see Linux for PlayStation 2). PlayStation hardware running Linux has been occasionally used in small scale distributed computing experiments, due to the ease of installation and the relatively low price of a PS3 compared to other hardware choices offering similar performance. As of April 1, 2010, Sony disabled the ability to install Linux "due to security concerns" starting with firmware version 3.21.
- In 2008, many netbook models were shipped with Linux installed, usually with a lightweight distribution, such as Xandros or Linpus, to reduce resource consumption on their limited resources.
- Through 2007 and 2008, Linux distributions with an emphasis on ease of use such as Ubuntu became increasingly popular as home desktop operating systems, with some OEMs, such as Dell, offering models with Ubuntu or other Linux distributions on desktop systems.
- In 2011, Google introduced its Chromebooks, web thin clients based on Linux and supplying just a web browser, file manager and media player. They also have the ability to remote desktop into other computers via the free Chrome Remote Desktop extension. In 2012 the first Chromebox, a desktop equivalent of the Chromebook, was introduced. By 2013 Chromebooks had captured 20-25% of the US market for sub-$300 laptops.
- Android, created by Google in 2007, is the smartphone & tablet operating system which, as of late 2013, runs on 80% of smartphones and 60% of tablets, worldwide; it is pre-installed on devices by brand hardware manufacturers.
- In 2013, Valve Corporation publicly released ports of Steam and the Source engine to Linux, allowing many popular titles by Valve such as Team Fortress 2 and Half-Life 2 to be played on Linux. Later that same year, Valve announced their upcoming Steam Machine consoles, which would by default run SteamOS, an operating system based on the Linux kernel.
- In March 2014, Ubuntu claimed 22,000,000 users.
Businesses and non-profits
Linux is used extensively on servers in businesses, and has been for a long time. Linux is also used in some corporate environments as the desktop platform for their employees, with commercially available solutions including Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, and Ubuntu.
- Free I.T. Athens, founded in 2005 in Athens, Georgia, United States, is a non-profit organization dedicated to rescuing computers from landfills, recycling them or refurbishing them using Linux exclusively.
- Burlington Coat Factory has used Linux exclusively since 1999.
- Ernie Ball, known for its famous Super Slinky guitar strings, has used Linux as its desktop operating system since 2000.
- Novell is undergoing a migration from Windows to Linux. Of its 5500 employees, 50% were successfully migrated as of April 2006. This was expected to rise to 80% by November.
- Wotif, the Australian hotel booking website, migrated from Windows to Linux servers to keep up with the growth of its business.
- Union Bank of California announced in January 2007 that it would standardize its IT infrastructure on Red Hat Enterprise Linux in order to lower costs.
- Peugeot, the European car maker, announced plans to deploy up to 20,000 copies of Novell's Linux desktop, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, and 2,500 copies of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, in 2007.
- Mindbridge, a software company, announced in September 2007 that it had migrated a large number of Windows servers onto a smaller number of Linux servers and a few BSD servers. It claims to have saved "bunches of money."
- Virgin America, the low cost U.S. airline, uses Linux to power its in-flight entertainment system, RED.
- Amazon.com, the US based mail-order retailer, uses Linux "in nearly every corner of its business".
- Google uses a version of Ubuntu internally nicknamed Goobuntu. In August 2017, Google announced that it would be replacing Goobuntu with gLinux, an in-house distro based on the Debian Testing branch.
- IBM does extensive development work for Linux and also uses it on desktops and servers internally. The company also created a TV advertising campaign: IBM supports Linux 100%.
- Wikimedia Foundation moved to running its Wikipedia servers on Ubuntu in late 2008, after having previously used a combination of Red Hat and Fedora.
- DreamWorks Animation adopted the use of Linux since 2001, and uses more than 1,000 Linux desktops and more than 3,000 Linux servers.
- The Chicago Mercantile Exchange employs an all-Linux computing infrastructure and has used it to process over a quadrillion dollars worth of financial transactions
- The Chi-X pan-European equity exchange runs its MarketPrizm trading platform software on Linux.
- The London Stock Exchange uses the Linux-based MillenniumIT Millennium Exchange software for its trading platform and predicts that moving to Linux from Windows will give it an annual cost savings of at least £10 million ($14.7 million) from 2011–12.
- The New York Stock Exchange uses Linux to run its trading applications.
- Mobexpert Group, the leading furniture manufacturer and retailer in Romania, extensively uses Linux, LibreOffice and other Free Software in its data communications and processing systems, including some desktops.
- American electronic music composer Kim Cascone migrated from Apple Mac to Ubuntu for his music studio, performance use and administration in 2009.
- Laughing Boy Records under the direction of owner Geoff Beasley switched from doing audio recording on Windows to Linux in 2004 as a result of Windows spyware problems.
- Nav Canada's new Internet Flight Planning System for roll-out in 2011, is written in Python and runs on Red Hat Linux.
- Electrolux Frigidaire Infinity i-kitchen is a "smart appliance" refrigerator that uses a Linux operating system, running on an embedded 400 MHz Freescale i.MX25 processor with 128 MB of RAM and a 480×800 touch panel.
- DukeJets LLC (USA) and Duke Jets Ltd. (Canada), air charter brokerage companies, switched from Windows to Ubuntu Linux in 2012.
- Banco do Brasil, the biggest bank in Brazil, has moved nearly all desktops to Linux, except some corporate ones and a few that are need to operate some specific hardware. They began migration of their servers to Linux in 2002. Branch servers and ATMs all run Linux. The distribution of choice is OpenSuse 11.2.
- KLM, the Royal Aviation Company of the Netherlands, uses Linux on the OSS-based version of its KLM WebFarm.
- Ocado, the online supermarket, uses Linux in its data centres.
- Kazi Farms Group, a large poultry and food products company in Bangladesh, migrated 1000 computers to Linux. An associated TV channel, Deepto TV, as well as an associated daily newspaper Dhaka Tribune also migrated to Linux.
- Zando Computer, an IT consulting company located in Bucharest, Romania uses Linux for its business needs (server and desktop). The company recommends to its clients and actively deploys Linux, LibreOffice (OpenDocument format solutions) and other categories of Free Software.
- Nvidia, at the 2015 Consumer Electronics Show, company CEO Jen-Hsun Huang made his extensive presentations using Ubuntu Linux.
- Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia ICT report for 2017, showed that 19.8% of the companies in Serbia use Linux as their main operating system (up from 14.5% in 2016). Linux is largely used in Serbian large enterprises (companies that fulfil two out of three conditions: 250+ employees, revenue of 35+ million euros, total assets of 17.5+ million euros), where Linux adoption has reached 40.9%.
- NASA decided to switch the International Space Station laptops running Windows XP to Debian 6.
- Both CERN and Fermilab use Scientific Linux in all their work; this includes running the Large Hadron Collider or the Dark Energy Camera or the 20,000 internal servers of CERN
- WLCG is composed of 576 sites with more than 390,000 processors and 150 Petabytes of Storage and uses Linux on all its nodes.
- Canada's largest super computer, the IBM iDataPlex cluster computer at the University of Toronto uses Linux as its operating system.
- The Internet Archive uses hundreds of x86 servers to catalogue the Internet, all of them running Linux.
- ASV Roboat autonomous robotic sailboat runs on Linux
- Tianhe-I, the worlds fastest super computer as of October 2010, located at the National Centre for Supercomputing in Tianjin, China runs Linux.
- The University of Portsmouth in the United Kingdom has deployed a "cost effective" high performance computer that will be used to analyse data from telescopes around the world, run simulations and test the current theories about the universe. Its operating system is Scientific Linux. Dr David Bacon of the University of Portsmouth said: "Our Institute of Cosmology is in a great position to use this high performance computer to make real breakthroughs in understanding the universe, both by analysing the very latest astronomical observations, and by calculating the consequences of mind-boggling new theories...By selecting Dell’s industry-standard hardware and open-source software we’re able to free up budget that would have normally been spent on costly licences and reinvest it."
- In September 2011, ten autonomous unmanned air vehicles were flown in flocking flight by the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne’s Laboratory of Intelligence Systems in Lausanne, Switzerland. The UAVs each sense each other and control their own flight in relation to each other, each has an independent processor running Linux to accomplish this.
- British actor Stephen Fry, in August 2012 stated that he uses Linux. "Do I use Linux on any of my devices? Yes – I use Ubuntu these-days; it seems the friendliest."
- In 2008, Jamie Hyneman, co-host of the American television series Mythbusters, advocated Linux-based operating systems as a solution to software bloat.
- Science fiction writer Cory Doctorow uses Ubuntu.
- Actor Wil Wheaton sometimes uses Linux distributions, but not as his primary operating system.
- "Georgia Tech Research Institute Will Lead $10 Million Department of Homeland Security Open Cyber Security Initiative". Georgia Tech Research Institute. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- "DHS, Georgia Tech seek to improve security with open-source tools". Government Computer News. 2011-07-01. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- "Georgia Tech Research Institute Leads $10 M Open Source Initiative". Georgia Institute of Technology. 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- Hsu, Jeremy (2011-05-26). "U.S. Considers Open-Source Software for Cybersecurity". MSNBC. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- Wheeler, David A (2013-08-21). "What is open security?" (PDF). Institute for Defense Analyses. Open Security. Retrieved 2013-09-07.[permanent dead link]
- "Open Security Foundation". Open Security Foundation. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
- "SASSA cuts costs and improves service delivery in rural areas with Novell and Userful Multiplier". Omni Technology Solutions. June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- "FNB Shifts to Linux". Retrieved 2018-07-13.
- Halfhill, Tom R. (26 June 2006). "China's Microprocessor Dilemma". Microprocessor Report. The Linley Group. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Kylin Operating System of superior performance developed". english.chinamil.com.cn. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "麒麟Linux安全操作系统3.0版". www.kylin-os.com (in Chinese). 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009.
- Korolov, Maria (September 6, 2005). "Microsoft Fights Piracy In China, Linux Wins". InformationWeek. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "North Korea's 'paranoid' computer operating system revealed". The Guardian. 27 December 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- UEKAE. "Why Pardus?". UEKAE. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- "CNews:Открытое ПО - Open Source". CNews.ru. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "open..." opendotdotdot.blogspot.com. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- ""Role of Open or Free Software", Section 15, page 20, of the State IT Policy (2001) of the Government of Kerala, copy available at the UN Public Administration Network (UNPAN) site" (PDF).
- "Press release from GNU Project, July 2001".
- Kumar, N Ravi (18 March 2014). "TN state departments asked to switch over to open source software". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (May 2010). "Philippines use Ubuntu-based voting machines in recent election". Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- Chinmoy Kanjilal. "Malaysian Government Uses 97% Open Source Software". Techie Buzz. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- Tan Sri Mohd. Sidek b. Hj Hassan. "From Chief Secretary to the Government of Malaysia". OSCC. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- "Frente al bloqueo de Windows, NOVA sí va". Cubadebate. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Cuba launches own Linux variant to counter US - By Esteban Israel, Caribbean Net News (Thursday, February 12, 2009) Archived March 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- somoslibres (February 2011). "Cuba: 8000 computadoras de la Universidad de Ciencias Informáticas migraran a Nova GNU/Linux (Spanish language)". press-latina.cu. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- John Leyden (2001-07-24). "White House Web site moves to Linux". The Register. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- Savio Rodrigues (2009-10-28). "How Whitehouse.gov Will Bring Open Source To The American Spotlight". LinuxProNews.com. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (2009-10-29). "Obama Invites Open Source into the White House". PC World. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- "OS, Web Server and Hosting History for whitehouse.gov". Netcraft. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- John P. Holdren (2010-04-07). "Office of Science & Technology - Open Government Plan". The White House. Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- Justin Ryan (2010-04-22). "Oval Office Goes Open Source". Linux Journal. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- Linux.com (April 2007). "Open Technology within DoD, Intel Systems". Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
- Richmond, Guy (March 2010). "Special 301: FOSS users. Now we're all Communists and Criminals". Retrieved 2010-03-08.
- Thomson, Ian. "US Navy buys Linux to guide drone fleet".
- AlphaTrade Finance Archived January 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- ECT News Staff. "Red Hat: Move to Linux Saved FAA $15 Million". Retrieved 2015-08-09.
- Jeff Squyres. "Open MPI: 10^15 Flops Can't Be Wrong" (PDF). Open MPI. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- "Information technology". February 2011. Archived from the original on 6 March 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Official Decree in Software Libre, a Venezuelan Gov't Official site" (PDF).
- "Latest Topics". ZDNet. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Mobily, Tony (2008-06-09). "Vienna failed to migrate to GNU/Linux: why?". freesoftwaremagazine.com. Archived from the original on 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- European Communities (February 2005). "EUROPA - IDABC - Czech post successfully migrates to Linux". Archived from the original on 21 September 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2005.
- "Latest Topics". ZDNet. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Ryan, Justin (March 2009). "Open Source Leads Gendarme to Arrest Spending". Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- "Gendarmerie saves millions with open desktop and web applications". Open Source Observatory. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
- Paul, Ryan (March 2009). "French police: we saved millions of euros by adopting Ubuntu". Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- French parliament dumping Windows for Linux | Tech News on ZDNet Archived July 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- IDABC (July 2008). "Fr: 'Members of Parliament have easily adapted to Open Source desktop'". Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
- "Les prochains députés devront choisir entre Ubuntu et Windows (French language)". Next INpact. June 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "Latest Topics". ZDNet. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Florian Schießl, deputy project manager (22 April 2008). "Zwei Jahre freie Software in München" (PDF).[dead link](in German)
- "Official LiMux page". Retrieved 20 February 2011.
- Reed, Michael (2 January 2012). "Munich Linux Migration Project LiMux Reports Success". Linux Journal. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Switching to Linux saves Munich over €11 million". News.idg.no. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- Linux-on-the-desktop pioneer Munich now considering a switch back to Windows, Arstechnica - retrieved August 19, 2014
- "Munich Switching to Windows from Linux Is Proof That Microsoft Is Still an Evil Company". News.softpedia.com. Retrieved 2014-08-21.
- Heath, Nick (February 10, 2017). "Linux pioneer Munich poised to ditch open source and return to Windows". Tech Republic. Retrieved February 12, 2017 – via http://www.techrepublic.com/.
- heise online - Federal Employment Office switches to Linux Archived March 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "Linux News: Community: Iceland Has the Hots for FOSS". Linuxinsider.com. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- Canonical Ltd. (November 2007). "Every Student in the Republic of Macedonia to Use Ubuntu-Powered Computer Workstations". Archived from the original on 2009-04-03. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
- Hillenius, Gijs (12 December 2013). "'Open source only' at Dutch police Internet forensics". European Commission. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "Russian Ministry of Health to Replace Microsoft and Oracle Products with Linux and PostgreSQL". News.softpedia.com. Retrieved 2014-08-09.
- Cimpanu, Catalin. "Russian military moves closer to replacing Windows with Astra Linux". ZDNet. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Linux in Spain". lwn.net. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- DistroWatch (June 2009). "Guadalinex". Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- https://www.techrepublic.com/article/adios-microsoft-were-ditching-office-and-outlook-for-open-source-says-barcelona/. Missing or empty
- Müller, Andrea (2010-09-20). "A crash landing for Linux?". www.h-online.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- YouTube. youtube.com. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "German universities migrate to Linux". ComputerWeekly. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Paul, Ryan. "SUSE Linux powers 147,456-core German supercomputer". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
- "Benvenuti in FUSS!". fuss.bz.it. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- The GNOME Journal: Macedonia Deploys 5,000 GNOME Desktops in Public Schools Archived April 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- "Every Student in the Republic of Macedonia to Use Ubuntu-Powered Computer Workstations". Ubuntu. Archived from the original on 2009-04-03. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- Jarvis, Stuart (20 September 2013). "British school switches students' computers to Linux, reducing costs and improving computing knowledge". The European Commission. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- "Linux Case Study : Orwell High School". Archived from the original on 2017-03-01. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
- "Geneva class-rooms switching to free software - Joinup". europa.eu. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "L'informatique pédagogique des écoles primaires passe en mode libre". École numérique - Genève. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "The world's largest virtual desktop project" (PDF).
- Edward F. Moltzen. "Hoosier Daddy? In Indiana Schools, It's Linux". CRN. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "¿Qué es el proyecto Canaima Educativo?".
- China to buy 1.5 mln computers with Loongson CPUs
- Booker, Ellis (May 29, 2013). "3 Reasons Linux Doesn't Star In U.S. Schools". InformationWeek. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- dlf.ge (October 2011). "განცხადება ორეტაპიანი ტენდერის ჩატარების შესახებ". Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- Katz, Leslie (July 2010). "India's $35 tablet--how low can it go?". Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Kingman, Henry (June 2008). "Microsoft tactics push India toward Linux". Retrieved 2008-07-04.[dead link]
- "Kerala logs Microsoft out of schools". rediff.com. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Sam Varghese. "iTWire". itwire.com. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Indian state drops Windows, switches to Linux | Muktware
- Rodney Gedda. "23,000 Linux PCs forge education revolution in Philippines". Computerworld. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "BBC NEWS - Technology - Russian schools move to Linux". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Yellow Dog Linux launches for PS3". Retrieved 2007-08-29.
- "SDB:PS3 - openSUSE". en.opensuse.org. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- "PS3 Firmware (v3.21) Update". Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- The Economist (December 2008). "Small is beautiful". Retrieved 2008-12-27.
- Dell Inc (2008). "Ubuntu Keeps Getting Better". Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-27.
- Williams, Rhiannon (11 July 2013). "Google Chromebook sales soar in face of PC decline". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Android dominates 81 percent of world smartphone market". CNET. November 12, 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "News – Steam for Linux Now Available".
- Makuch, Eddie (25 September 2013). "Valve reveals Steam Machines". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Lee, Dave (23 September 2013). "Valve announces SteamOS as it renews living room push". BBC. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (12 March 2014). "Ubuntu Phones to Cost $200 to $400 — Can they be a Success at this Price?". OMG Ubuntu. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Free Software Philosophy and the Tools We Use". Free I.T. Athens. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Dell, Linux win Burlington Coat computer order". cnn.com. 1999-04-06. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- "Technology News - CNET News - CNET". CNET. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Novell Still Runs Windows - Slashdot". slashdot.org. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Migration news: Windows to Linux, and vice versa: Insight - Software - ZDNet Australia
- "California's Union Bank Migrates to Red Hat Enterprise Linux". 29 January 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "HP TouchPad Needs 6 to 8 Weeks for Additional Shipments". eweek.com. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Linux.com". linux.com. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "An interview with Charles Ogilvie, Virgin America's head of In-Flight Entertainment". crunchgear.com. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
- "Amazon details Linux usage" (Stephen Shankland, CNET News.com. Published: 23 January 2004) Archived March 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- The Register reports: Google at work on Linux
- Slashdot reports: "GoogleOS Scenarios"
- Slashdot reports: "Google Working on Desktop Linux"
- Shuttleworth's Blog post: Absolutely no truth to the rumour
- "No More Ubuntu! Debian is the New Choice For Google's In-house Linux Distribution". It's FOSS. 2018-01-19. Archived from the original on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
- "IBM launches biggest Linux lineup ever". IBM. 1999-03-02. Archived from the original on 1999-11-10.
- IBM (2006). "IBM supports Linux 100%". Retrieved 2009-03-10.
- Paul, Ryan (October 2008). "Wikipedia adopts Ubuntu for its server infrastructure". Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- Rowe, Robin (August 2001). "DreamWorks Feature Linux and Animation". Retrieved 2010-08-30.
- Rowe, Robin (May 2002). "DreamWorks Animation "Shrek the Third": Linux Feeds an Ogre". Retrieved 2011-07-20.
- Rowe, Robin (June 2007). "DreamWorks Animation "Shrek the Third": Linux Feeds an Ogre". Retrieved 2010-08-30.
- Paul, Ryan (April 2009). "Linux Foundation CEO: Linux is "fastest growing platform"". Retrieved 2009-04-09.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (July 2009). "London Stock Exchange to abandon failed Windows platform". Archived from the original on 2009-07-04. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven (October 2009). "London Stock Exchange dumps Windows for Linux". Computer World. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- "The London Stock Exchange moves to Novell Linux". February 14, 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- "..." itmex.ro. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Cascone, Kim (August 2009). "Linux Music Workflow: Switching from Mac OS X to Ubuntu with Kim Cascone". Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Varghese, Sam (February 2010). "From Windows to Linux: a sound decision". Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- Rosen, Adam (November 2010). "Cool News: Now Your Fridge Can Run Linux". Cult of Mac. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
- Probert, Dan (October 2012). "Avianis – AirChatter, AirManager, JetVizor, Avinode, Charter X, WYVERN". Archived from the original on 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2012-10-16.
- "Can the GCC learn from Banco do Brasil? | Linux". AMEinfo.com. 2006-11-02. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "Major Brazilian Bank votes for Big Blue, Linux". The Inquirer. 2002-11-21. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "KLM Royal Dutch Airlines: Accenture helps KLM streamline IT costs and drive efficiency using open-source software solutions" (PDF). Accenture. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-01. Retrieved 2013-05-20.
- "Leading UK Online Grocer Ocado Selects QuickTransit to Accelerate Delivery of Applications to Fresh New Platforms". 28 July 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "End software piracy with Linux". Dhaka Tribune. 2018-05-19. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
- "Zando - GNU/Linux solutions". zando.ro. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Stahie, Silviu (6 January 2015). "NVIDIA CEO Using Ubuntu for Presentations at CES 2015 – Video". Softpedia. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Usage Of Information And Communication Technologies In The Republic Of Serbia, 2017, retrieved 21 March 2019
- Nancy Owano (2013-05-12). "International Space Station making laptop migration from Windows XP to Debian 6". Phys.org. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
- Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (2013-05-06). "To the space station and beyond with Linux". ZDnet. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- Gruener, Wolfgang (November 2010). "570 MP Camera May Unveil The Universe's Big Secret Of Gravity". ConceivablyTech. Archived from the original on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- Richmond, Gary (January 2009). "The Large Hadron Collider switches on. If it's the end of the world, it will be powered by GNU/Linux". Archived from the original on 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- "WLCG technical report" (PDF).
- El Akkad, Omar (June 2009). "Canada's monster computer roars to life". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
- SciNet (June 2009). "SciNet Applications Analyst (SSP3)". Retrieved 2009-06-18.[dead link]
- Internet Archive (July 2009). "Internet Archive - Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- Linux Magazine (January 2010). "Autonomous Linux Sailboat to Research Whales". Retrieved 2010-01-20.
- InnoC.at (2007). "ASV Roboat at a Glance". Retrieved 2010-01-20.
- CBC News (October 2010). "China's supercomputer called world's fastest - Tianhe-1 can make 2,507 trillion calculations per second". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- srlinuxx (May 2010). "Nearly every supercomputer runs Linux". Tux Machines. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- Savvas, Anthony (April 2011). "Universe studying Linux supercomputer powered up". Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- Danielle, Venton (September 2011). "Autonomous Flying Robots Flock Like Birds". Wired. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- Sneddon, Joey (2012-08-27). "Stephen Fry: "I Use Ubuntu"". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved 2012-09-01.
- Hyneman, Jamie (18 February 2008). "MythBusters: 7 Tech Headaches—and How to Fix Them". Popular Mechanics. Hearst. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Thomas, K.; A. Channelle; J. Sicam (2009). Beginning Ubuntu Linux. Apress. p. xxxii. ISBN 978-1-4302-1999-6.
- "Because I can, I installed Ubuntu on my Chromebook using crouton. The desktop…". plus.google.com. Retrieved 2015-11-07.