N,N-Dimethyl-2-methyl-carbamoyloximino-2-(dimethylthio) acetamide; Thioxamyl
|Jmol 3D model||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||219.26 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||Colorless crystalline solid|
|Melting point||100 to 102 °C (212 to 216 °F; 373 to 375 K)
108 to 110 °C (dimorphic)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.
Structure and uses
Oxamyl is a carbamate pesticide. According to the WHO Food and Agriculture Organization, "Oxamyl is a colourless crystalline solid with a melting point of 100-102 °C changing to a dimorphic form with a melting point of 108-110 °C. It has a slightly sulfurous odour. Oxamyl is non-corrosive. It has a specific gravity of 0.97 (25°/4°)."
According to the United Nations Environment Programme, "This product is efficient in controlling most nematode species in addition to a large number of sucking and chewing insects such as aphids and thrips." Oxamyl is extremely toxic to humans whether ingested, inhaled, or contact with the skin. Its overuse can also lead to residue accumulation in food, though its chemical composition—once coming into contact with the soil—rapidly degrades. Signs of Oxamyl poisoning include: Malaise, muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating, Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, Miosis with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech—though symptoms can worsen with severe poisoning. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, "Contact with the skin, inhalation of dust or spray, or swallowing may be fatal."
Because of its toxicity, its use is restricted in the EU/UK with maximum residue limits for apples and oranges being 0.01 mg/kg and this amount is only allowed because this is the limit of detection.
- "DATA SHEETS ON PESTICIDES No. 54 - 1983 - OXAMYL". WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION. 1983. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Environment Programme. Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics. Economics and Trade Unit, United Nations Development Programme, Envirotech Ltd (2005). Effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in Lebanon: with special focus on products where methyl bromide is used. UNEP/Earthprint. p. 22.
- "40 C.F.R.: Appendix A to Part 355—The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities" (PDF) (July 1, 2008 ed.). Government Printing Office. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Oxamyl". PAN Pesticides Database - Chemicals. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- "OXAMYL". Extension Toxicology Network. 1993. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- Oxamyl in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB)