Third Taiwan Strait Crisis
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|Third Taiwan Strait Crisis|
|Part of Chinese Civil War|
Republic of China|
United States (naval support)
|People's Republic of China|
|Commanders and leaders|
ROC Armed Forces|
United States Navy
|People's Liberation Army|
MIM-104 Patriot, MIM-23 Hawk, Northrop F-5, F-CK-1, Lockheed F-104, Knox-class frigate, Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate, etc.
USS Independence (CV-62), USS Nimitz (CVN-68), USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3), USS Bunker Hill (CG-52), etc.
|DF-15, J-7, J-8, etc.|
The Third Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1995–1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was the effect of a series of missile tests conducted by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the waters surrounding Taiwan, including the Taiwan Strait from 21 July 1995 to 23 March 1996. The first set of missiles fired in mid-to-late 1995 were allegedly intended to send a strong signal to the Republic of China government under President Lee Teng-hui, who had been seen as moving its foreign policy away from the One-China policy. The second set of missiles were fired in early 1996, allegedly intending to intimidate the Taiwanese electorate in the run-up to the 1996 presidential election.
Lee's 1995 visit to Cornell
The crisis began when President Lee Teng-hui accepted an invitation from his alma mater, Cornell University to deliver a speech on "Taiwan's Democratization Experience". Seeking to diplomatically isolate the Republic of China, the PRC opposed such visits by ROC (Taiwanese) leaders. A year earlier, in 1994, when President Lee's plane had stopped in Honolulu to refuel after a trip to South America, the U.S. government under President Bill Clinton refused Lee's request for a visa. Lee had been confined to the military airfield where he landed, forcing him to spend a night on his plane. A U.S. State Department official called the situation "embarrassing" and Lee complained that he was being treated as a second-class leader.
After Lee had decided to visit Cornell, U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher assured PRC Foreign Minister Qian Qichen that a visa for Lee would be "inconsistent with [the U.S.'s] unofficial relationship [with Taiwan]." However, the humiliation from Lee's last visit caught the attention of many pro-Taiwan figures in the U.S. and this time, the United States Congress acted on Lee's behalf. In May 1995, a concurrent resolution asking the State Department to allow Lee to visit the U.S. passed the House on 2 May 396 to 0 with 38 not voting, and the Senate on 9 May 97 to 1 with 2 not voting. The State Department relented on 22 May 1995. Lee spent June 9–10, 1995, in the U.S. at a Cornell alumni reunion as the PRC state press branded him a "traitor" attempting to "split China".
PRC military response
The People's Republic of China government under CCP general secretary Jiang Zemin was furious over the U.S.'s policy reversal. On 7 July 1995, PRC responded, the Xinhua News Agency announced missile tests would be conducted by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and argued that this attitude would endanger the peace and safety of the region (Mainlander refers to it as the fourth Taiwan strait crisis). At the same time, the PRC mobilized forces in Fujian. In the later part of July and early August, numerous commentaries were published by Xinhua and the People's Daily condemning Lee and his cross-strait policies.
Another set of missile firings, accompanied by live ammunition exercises, occurred from August 15 to 25, 1995. Naval exercises in August were followed by highly publicized amphibious assault exercises in November.
U.S. military response
The U.S. government responded by staging the biggest display of American military might in Asia since the Vietnam War. In July 1995, USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3) transited the Taiwan Strait, followed by the USS O'Brien (DD-975) and USS McClusky FFG-41 on December 11-12, 1995. Finally on December 19, 1995, the USS Nimitz (CVN-68) and her battle group passed through the straits.
President Clinton ordered additional ships into the region in March 1996. Two aircraft carrier battle groups, Carrier Group Five centered on USS Independence (CV-62) and Carrier Group Seven centered on Nimitz, were present in the region, as well as the amphibious assault ship Belleau Wood. Nimitz and her battle group, along with Belleau Wood, sailed through the Taiwan Strait, while Independence did not. The crisis forced the Chinese leadership to acknowledge its inability to stop U.S. forces from coming to Taiwan's assistance.
Run-up to the 1996 election
Beijing intended to send a message to the Taiwanese electorate that voting for Lee Teng-hui in the 1996 presidential election on March 23 meant war. A third set of PLA tests from March 8 to March 15 (just before the election), sent missiles within 46 to 65 km (25 to 35 nmi) (just inside the ROC's territorial waters) off the ports of Keelung and Kaohsiung. Over 70 percent of commercial shipping passed through the targeted ports, which were disrupted by the proximity of the tests. Flights to Japan and trans-Pacific flights were prolonged by ten minutes because airplanes needed to detour away from the flight path. Ships traveling between Kaohsiung and Hong Kong had to take a two-hour detour.
On 8 March 1996, also a presidential election year in the U.S., the U.S. government under President Clinton announced that it was deploying the USS Independence carrier battle group (CVBG), already stationed in the western Pacific, to international waters near Taiwan. On the following day, the PRC announced live-fire exercises to be conducted near Penghu from March 12–20. On March 11, the U.S. dispatched Carrier Group Seven, centered on USS Nimitz, which steamed at high speed from the Persian Gulf. Tensions rose further on March 15 when Beijing announced a simulated amphibious assault planned for March 18–25.
Sending two carrier battle groups showed not only a symbolic gesture towards the ROC, but a readiness to fight on the part of the U.S. The ROC government and Democratic Progressive Party welcomed America's support, but staunch unificationist presidential candidate Lin Yang-kang and the PRC decried "foreign intervention."
Aware of U.S. Navy carrier battle groups' credible threat to the PLA Navy, the PRC decided to accelerate its military buildup. Soon the People's Republic ordered Sovremenny-class destroyers from Russia, a Cold War-era class designed to counter U.S. Navy carrier battle groups, allegedly in mid-December 1996 during the visit to Moscow by Chinese Premier Li Peng. The PRC subsequently ordered modern attack submarines (Kilo class) and warplanes (76 Su-30MKK and 24 Su-30MK2) to counter the U.S. Navy's carrier groups.
The PRC's attempts at intimidation were counterproductive. Arousing more anger than fear, it boosted Lee by 5% in the polls, earning him a majority as opposed to a mere plurality. The military tests and exercises also strengthened the argument for further U.S. arms sales to the ROC and led to the strengthening of military ties between the U.S. and Japan, increasing the role Japan would play in defending Taiwan.
During the military exercises in March, there were preoccupations in Taiwan that the PRC would occupy some small islands controlled by Taiwan, causing panic among many citizens. Therefore, many flights from Taiwan to the United States and Canada were full.[unreliable source] The most likely target was Wuqiu (Wuchiu), then garrisoned by 500 soldiers. The outlying islands were placed on high alert. The then secretary general of the National Security Council of Taiwan, Ting Mao-shih, flew to New York to meet Samuel Berger, Deputy National Security Advisor of the United States.
U.S. order of battle (March 1996 ~ May 1996)
U.S. 7th Fleet
- Carrier Group 5 - Independence CVBG - (East China Sea)
- USS Independence CV-62 (Forrestal Class Carrier)
- Carrier Air Wing 5 - NF
- VF-154 Black Knights - F-14A Tomcat (TARPS equipped)
- VFA-192 Golden Dragons - F/A-18C Hornet
- VFA-195 Dambusters - F/A-18C Hornet
- VA-115 Eagles - A-6E SWIP Intruder
- VAQ-136 Gauntlets - EA-6B Prowler
- VS-21 Red Tails - S-3B Viking
- VAW-115 Liberty Bells - E-2C Hawkeye
- VQ-5 Sea Shadows Det.A - ES-3A Shadow
- HS-14 Chargers - SH-60F Oceanhawk/HH-60H Rescuehawk
- Carrier Air Wing 5 - NF
- USS Bunker Hill CG-52 (Ticonderoga Class VLS Cruiser) - (Detached from the Battlegroup southeast of the R.O.C.)
- USS Hewitt DD-966 (Spruance Class VLS Destroyer)
- USS O'Brien DD-975 (Spruance Class VLS Destroyer)
- USS McClusky FFG-41 (Oliver H. Perry Class Frigate)* - After May 10, 1996*
- USS Independence CV-62 (Forrestal Class Carrier)
- Carrier Group 7 - Nimitz CVBG - (Taiwan Strait)
- USS Nimitz CVN-68 (Nimitz Class Carrier)
- Carrier Air Wing 9 - NG
- VF-24 Fighting Renegades - F-14A Tomcat
- VF-211 Checkmates - F-14A Tomcat (TARPS equipped)
- VFA-146 Blue Diamonds - F/A-18C (Night Attack) Hornet
- VFA-147 Argonauts - F/A-18C (Night Attack) Hornet
- VA-165 Boomers - A-6E SWIP Intruder
- VAQ-138 Yellow Jackets - EA-6B Prowler
- VS-33 Screwbirds - S-3B Viking
- VAW-112 Golden Hawks - E-2C Hawkeye
- VQ-5 Sea Shadows Det.C - ES-3A Shadow
- HS-8 Eightballers - SH-60F Oceanhawk/HH-60H Rescuehawk
- Carrier Air Wing 9 - NG
- USS Port Royal CG-73 (Ticonderoga Class VLS Cruiser)
- USS Oldendorf DD-972 (Spruance Class VLS Destroyer)
- USS Callaghan DD-994 (Kidd Class Destroyer)
- USS Ford FFG-54 (Oliver H. Perry Class Frigate)
- USS Nimitz CVN-68 (Nimitz Class Carrier)
- Belleau Wood SAG - (Taiwan Strait)
In 1999, Major General Liu Liankun, a top Chinese military logistics officer, and his subordinate Senior Colonel Shao Zhengzhong were arrested, court-martialed and executed for disclosing to Taiwan that the missiles had unarmed warheads despite the Chinese government's claims.
According to Sankei Shimbun series "Secret Records on Lee Teng-hui" dated April 1, 2019, Tseng Yong-hsien, Lee's National Policy Adviser, received a direct message from China official in early July 1995; "Our ballistic missiles will be launched toward Taiwan a couple of weeks later, but you guys don't have to worry." This was communicated to Lee soon after, to prevent escalation. Tseng, as an envoy of Lee, had met President Yang Shangkun in 1992 and had a secret connection with Ye Xuanning, Head of the Liaison Department of the PLA.
- Political status of Taiwan
- Battle of Guningtou
- First Taiwan Strait Crisis
- Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
- Taiwan Relations Act
- List of battles in Kinmen
- Chinese Civil War
- Liu Liankun
- 2022 United States congressional delegation visit to Taiwan
- 2022 Chinese military exercises around Taiwan
- H.Con.Res. 53. Senator Bennett Johnston, Jr. (D-LA) was the lone "nay" voter
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- The Taiwan Strait Crisis of 1996: Strategic Implications for the United States Navy
- 3rd Taiwan Strait Crisis – 1995–96
- America and Taiwan, 1943–2004